A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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ORDER VII.—METAL WORKERS (NOT ELECTRO PLATE OR PRECIOUS METALS)

Sub-order 8.—Other Workers

279.—Other Workers



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accessories worker (sewing machines)
obtains from store a supply of sewing machine accessories, e.g., oil can, screw driver, spanner, extra spools, hemming, tucking, etc., fittings; fits or tries them on machine and if satisfactory, wraps accessories in paper ready for despatch with machine.
anchorer (rolling mill)
see lifter-up (rolling mill).
angle chopper
see cropper, angle.
angle mill worker
general term for any unskilled worker employed in any capacity in rolling mills where angles are rolled, lifting, pushing, dragging, etc.
ashes man, ashes wheeler, ashman
rakes out ashes from fires, e.g., boilers, puddling furnaces, and conveys ashes on wheelbarrow to ashes dump; ashes are sometimes removed by coal wheeler or by coal and ashes wheeler q.v.
assembler
is engaged in various metal trades in fitting together component parts of machines, metal articles, etc., e.g., chains, chassis, cycles, fuses, scales, sewing machines, stationary engines; does not alter or adapt parts by filing, scraping, etc., but merely fits parts in place; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., bottle cap assembler, brake assembler cycle brake assembler, duplicating machine assembler, motor assembler, motor-cycle assembler, sewing machine assembler; cf. cycle assembler (229), assembler (bedstead) (278).
assembler, axle
(i) assembles, or puts together without altering or adjusting, parts of axles for horse-drawn road vehicles;
(ii) fits front and rear axle assemblies on carriages, coaches, etc.
assembler, ball bearings
assembles steel balls into races, and packs assembled bearings into cases.
assembler, bell
see bell maker.
assembler, bottle cap; crown cork assembler
controls levers of machine which fits discs of paper and cork into metal caps; feeds hoppers with caps and paper and cork discs.
assistant at mandrels (iron and steel tubes)
places mandrels in position in roll groove by means of long steel bar during process of tube rolling.
assistant gas man, assistant stove minder
assists stove minder (171) q.v. by operating valves, shovelling flue dust into barrows and doing any odd job.
assistant glazer
see glazer's assistant.
assistant grinder
see grinder's assistant.
attacher (sewing machines)
an assembler q.v. who specialises in attaching one special part to sewing machines in course of building; works at bench, usually with screwdriver, spanner, file, etc.
auto attendant, automatic attendant, automatic machine attendant, automatic machine feeder, automatic machine hand, automatic machine minder, automatic machine operator, automatic machinist
general terms for operatives who feed and operate automatic machines used in various metal trades, e.g., manufacture of cycle parts, motor and cycle accessories, saws, screws, etc.; work consists mainly in watching, cleaning and oiling machine under instructions of tool setter or foreman; stops machine if any fault develops.
automatic screw machine hand, auto screw machine operator, auto screw attendant
feeds and operates machine automatically making screw-s throughout from hexagon bars, or prepared headed blanks.
axle craner
works chains> of hand crane, and places hot forging in position under hammer for working.
axle lagger
sheathes over finished bearing parts of large axles, in process of making or fitting, by nailing round bearings pieces of wood and hoop iron, to prevent damage.
axle pinner
fits and drives lynch pin into slotted hole near end of axle; often done by axle slotter (200) q.v.
babbitter
see metaller.
backer (sawmaking)
(i) see glazer's assistant;
(ii) see grinder's assistant.
backer-up
see turner-up (iron and steel tubes).
back fixer, saw back fixer ; saw backer
forces saw in steel or brass back used to stiffen certain saws; adjusts it and takes out any resultant twist in saw, by countertwisting it between two iron supports on bench.
backhander, angle iron smith's backhander, angle-smith's backhander ; angle iron smith's helper, helper (forging)
assists angle iron smith (190) q.v. by lifting, moving and handling bars of iron or steel on which smith is working; sometimes acts as striker (190) q.v.; cf. angle iron smith's striker (190).
back hole stopper ; back stopper
pushes skelp (bent metal strip) through small door in hack of heating furnace or muffle in preparation for tube welding; closes door with door plate or stopper.
back maker, saw back maker
operates levers to double over steel or brass blank in power-press to form stiffener for certain saws.
back sawer, back sawman, back sawyer
assists sawyer, by holding tail end of bar against guides and following it down to saw, to keep it straight; takes last scrap piece of bar in tongs and throws on scrap heap.
back stopper
see back hole stopper.
bag frame riveter
rivets together, by hand, frames of travelling bags, portmanteaux, etc.; sometimes uses riveting machine.
baghouse man (lead extraction)
attends to cooling apparatus and bag flannel filters used for separation and collection of fume or flue dust from gases leaving furnaces; removes clogged hags from time to time and hangs up fresh ones.
ball boy
puts balls on iron rods used as mandrels for tubes, in tube making, to keep tube perfectly round; dismantles balls from rods and sorts balls away according to sizes.
ball man (blast furnace)
see tipper, slag (blast furnace).
bankman, bar bank man (iron and steel rolling)
general terms for any workers on a hot or cold "bank," i.e., stack of bars before rolling or rails, or other materials after rolling; where only light articles are handled, lifts, stacks, loads, or otherwise moves them, by hand; terms include bar discharger, bar loader; in heavy mills, assists crane driver (950); sometimes specifically designated, e.g., rail bank man.
bankman, bar bank man (puddling) ; bar lifter
lifts, carries, stacks, etc., finished bars of wrought iron, and is responsible for their safe storage; sometimes does work of bar dragger q.v.
bankman hot ; hot bench man, hot piler
a bar bankman (iron and steel rolling) q.v. working on hot bank, stacking hot billets, rails, bars, etc.
bankman, slag
see tipper, slag (blast furnace).
banksman
see tipper slag (blast furnace).
bar bank boy
(i) (iron and steel rolling); greaser; assists bankman q.v. by greasing conveyor slides, etc.;
(ii). (puddling) assists bar bank man q.v. in handling small bars.
bar dragger
(i) (galvanised sheet) bar drawer, dragger-out; charges rough bars into roughing furnace and draws them therefrom with tongs, attends to firing of furnace and assists catcher (178) q.v.;
(ii) (puddling), bar carrier (puddling); drags with tongs or pushes on trolley, wrought iron bars from rolls to bar hank, ox; to rolling mills, and often also weighs them; sometimes done by bar bank man q.v.;
(iii) (tinplate, sheet mills), bar drawer (tinplate); charges furnace with bars; draws them with tongs when heated and passes them to breaking down rolls.
barman (iron and steel tubes) ; billet man, billet wheeler
works on bar bank of iron and steel tube mills, unloading, stacking and issuing supplies, and loading trucks for conveyance into rolling mills.
bar minder (pins)
see machine minder (pins).
barreller, shaking barreller ; barrel shaker (boot and shoe plate, iron and steel hollow-ware), brightener, polisher, scourer, shaker, shaking barrel rumbler, tumbler (boot and shoe plate), rumbler (brass spinning and finishing)
places abrasives, or cleaning material and metal articles requiring cleaning or polishing, in revolving cylinder (shaking barrel); starts and stops cylinder; sometimes also mixes abrasive ingredients.
barrel polishing attendant
assists in pin plating shop, by filling and emptying revolving cylinders in which pins are shaken together with molten tin and flux, to ensure that they are completely tin coated; cf. barreller.
barrel prover ; gun prover, proof man
tests, in gun proof house, soundness of gun barrels, and functioning of action, by firing a cartridge of maximum charge allowed by law; marks guns passing test with punch and hammer.
barrer-up
feeds automatic and semiautomatic machines, used in making bright nuts and bolts, with metal bar; stops machine if not working correctly.
barrow man, barrow runner
see wheeler ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., clay barrowman.
batter, plate
batterer, plate batterer (wire drawing), (Stockport term) see plate repairer.
bayman (steel works)
Lancashire term) sweeps up floor around furnace in steel works and generally keeps it clean.
beamer
winds soft wire for weaving or braiding on beam of old textile loom used for purpose; places coil of soft wire on spindle and fixes beam in chucks of power-driven lathe; fixes wire to beam and starts lathe.
bedman (blast furnace)
prepares, with shovel and rammer, sand beds in which molten metal, for making pig iron, is run; sprays water on metal to finish cooling it in readiness for handling.
behinder (tube and pipe making)
see turner-up (iron and steel tubes).
bell lowerer (blast furnaces)
raises and lowers bell top to blast furnace, by means of a lever, at signals from furnace keeper (171) q.v.
bell maker ; bell assembler
an assembler q.v. engaged in fitting together component parts of cycle.
bellows man
blows bellows on hand forge, used in shipbuilding and marine engineering, by working treadle with foot or by hand lever.
bench hand
see vice hand.
billet man
see barman.
blacker
see japanner (pins).
blacker, machine
sprays Berlin black on to stoves, etc., from paint spraying machine; sets articles in stove to dry.
blaster
see breaker, bear.
blast furnace hand, blast furnace helper ; blast helper, helper, keeper's helper
does unskilled work about blast furnace; wheels charges, breaks pigs, assists in laying out pig bed, during tapping and stopping of furnace; cleans out dust catchers and stoves, wheels away pig iron; attends conveyor which removes slag in ladles; assists furnaceman or keeper (171) q.v. generally.
blende conveyor
shovels blende (zinc sulphide) into barrow; wheels from place to place as required, in zinc extraction works.
blende worker
general term applied to unskilled workers, in zinc extraction works, who handle blende (zinc sulphide); includes blende cleaner, blende conveyor q.v.
blocklayer (cinder tip, blast furnace)
locks wheels of cinder wagons, before they are tipped, at cinder tip of blast furnace; sometimes done by shunter (704) q.v.
block minder (wire works)
attends to and unloads reels or blocks round which wire is wound after passing through galvanising tank or annealing furnace; replaces full reels with empty ones for fresh winding.
blower (bolts, nuts, and rivets)
(i) opens and shuts valves of blowing machine which forces air or blast into coal furnace for heating bolt blanks;
(ii) controls valves of oil pump which sprays oil into oil furnace used for heating bolt blanks.
blower (general engineering, including boiler and tank making)
blows bellows of smith's hearth by working hand or foot lever; controls levers of blowing machine, if such is used, under smith's instructions.
blower (slag and slag wool) ; snouter
regulates slag runs, and turns on and regulates steam jets with which slag is treated in manufacture of slag wool; cleans out slag troughs ready for next "run."
blue billyer ; fettler (puddling)
grinds various forms of iron oxide (purple ore, pottery mine, hammer scale, and tap cinder) in an edge runner or mortar mill; mixes it with water to consistency of mortar, and puts it on floor near furnace for use of furnaceman (171) or puddler (172) q.v. in repairing or re-lining furnace.
blue stoner (watches and clocks)
stains metal surfaces with "blue stone" by dipping parts in a solution of copper sulphate or by rubbing the surfaces with a rag dipped in the solution.
bobbin hooper (textile machinery) ; tube and hoop clencher
feeds wooden bobbins into chute of automatic machine which fixes metal hoops on bobbins; watches machine to ensure smooth running.
bobbin riveter
(i) rivets together component parts of special textile condenser bobbins made from sheet metal;
(ii) rivets ends or flanges to wire shaft of small bobbins used in certain lace machines, and in ordinary sewing machine, cf. brass bobbin maker (224), riveter (brass bobbins) (278).
bobbin stapler
pricks ends of bobbin with hand tool, places staple or loop in position and places under mechanical "bumper" operated by hand lever, to fix loops of metal or shields on levelled flange ends of wooden spool bobbins used in textile trades.
bogey, bogeyer, bogeyman ; bogieman, troller, trolleyer
(i) conveys ingots or plates or sheets from reheating furnaces to rolls, or from rolling mill to shearing machine, on a two-wheeled truck, or "bogey";
(ii) supports end of very large and heavy steel plates on bogey, as they pass through rolls; sometimes specifically designated according to rolling mill, e.g., sheet mill bogeyman, or according to duties, e.g. bogeyer to bank (rolls to stock bank), bogeyer to rolls (rolls to furnace), bogeyer to shears (rolls to shears).
bogie boy
assists bogeyman q.v. and works under his instructions.
bogie man
(i) see bogeyman;
(ii) an oiler q.v. oiling or greasing axles etc. of bogey cars.
bolt boy
assists shell plater's tackle man (223) q.v. by purshing [sic] bolts through holes indicated by tackle man, in fixing plates.
bolter, bolter-up
temporarily fixes plates in position with bolts before riveting; or bolts flanges of pipes together; or generally assembles finished parts of any large article with bolts and nuts.
bolter, wheel
screws up nuts on bolts which hold together centres of wheels of railway stock, with spanner.
bolt machine worker, bolt machinist, bolt maker
feeds iron or steel rod in to semi-automatic machine used in manufacture of bolts; controls motion of machine by levers; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., wagon bolt maker.
bolt serewer
screws threads on bolts or nuts in screwing or tapping machine; clamps work in position and controls by hand levers machine which actuates cutting tool.
bonder (electrical)
assembles and bolts together, armature discs to form electrical armatures and stators.
borer, ingot borer
drills holes in steel ingots on horizontal drilling machine for insertion of mandrel when rolling into tubes.
bosher ; waterbosh man
catches sheets from pickling bath, in galvanised sheet works, and slides them in water-bosh, to wash off acid.
box folder ; edger (tin boxes)
places sheet of tin on bottom bar of press and pulls down lever to cause top bar to descend and fold over edges of tin boxes, canisters, etc., 'before forming; cf. box former (254).
boxman (blast furnace)
see weigher (blast furnace).
brake block maker
puts together sections of metal shoes, carrying brake blocks of motor vehicles, and rivets them by hand with hammer; cf. brake block maker (498) and (608).
brakesman (blast furnace)
applies brakes to bogies, etc., carrying materials along incline from lime kiln to bottom of furnace hoist, slag tip, to and from furnace, etc.
brander (galvanised sheet)
brands galvanised sheets, with brush and stencil, showing maker's name or mark.
brander (sewing machines) ; number stamper
marks wooden part of sewing machine with numbering iron giving number of machine, with hammer and steel punches.
brander (tinplate)
see stamper (tinplate).
branner
a tinman's helper q.v. attending branning machine, which cleans palm oil from tinned plate by means of revolving brushes covered with bran, or with a mixture of lime and sawdust; places sheets by hand between rollers of machine; cf. cleaner and helper; sometimes specifically designated according to whether black or white plates are being cleaned, e.g., black branner, white branner.
brass threader (perambulators)
cuts threads on inside of brass caps attached to ends of wheel axles of perambulators, etc.; secures cap in vice on bench and screws in tapping die and wrench.
breaker, bear ; blaster
one of a contractor's gang who first drill and then break, with dynamite, hard slag which forms at bottom of blast furnace.
breaker, billet
see cutter, billet (rolling mill, puddling).
breaker (blast furnace), metal breaker, pig breaker, pig iron breaker
breaks off "pigs" from "sows" (secondary channels between pigs in bed) by hitting with sledge hammer; breaks sows and runners (main channels from furnace) into convenient pieces while metal is still in bed and hot; sometimes also removes pigs from bed; breaking is usually done by machinery, if done when metal is cold.
breaker, cinder (blast furnace)
(i) breaks up slag, with hammer, on heap, when slag is to be sold as a bye-product;
(ii) shovels slag into hopper of crushing machine.
breaker, dross ; cleaner (pig iron), hooker-up
hooks sling on to sow (iron in secondary channel between pigs) and knocks off sand with hammer, as sow swings on sling and after iron has cooled.
breaker, ironstone
see breaker, mine.
breaker, limestone (blast furnace)
(i) shovels limestone into hopper of machine which breaks up limestone for blast furnace;
(ii) (older method ) breaks limestone by hand with hammer.
breaker, manganese
breaks up manganese with a hammer into pieces cf suitable size for use in manganese steel manufacture.
breaker, mine ; ironstone breaker
breaks ironstone, before it goes to roasting kiln or blasting furnace, with sledge hammer.
breaker, ore; iron ore breaker
see stamper, ore.
breaker (puddling), metal breaker, pig breaker, pig iron breaker
breaks pig iron and scrap iron for puddling furnace with sledge hammer or in machine; work sometimes done by metal wheeler q.v.
breaker (scrap metal), metal breaker, scrap breaker
cuts scrap metal or breaks up old machinery, et-c., with sledge hammer or falling ball, or by means of oxy-acetylene apparatus or hydraulic press; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. boiler breaker, engine breaker, rail breaker.
breaker, scrap breaker (steel manufacture)
smashes scrap steel with power hammer or with sledge hammer, into sizes suitable for charging converters or furnaces.
breaker, skull
breaks up "skull," i.e., shell of cast iron which forms in pig iron ladle as iron cools, by dropping heavy metal ball from a height into ladle; sometimes drills, tamps explosive charge in hole, and blasts away skull.
breaker, slag (steel manufacture)
breaks up slag with sledge hammer and shovels it into hopper of mechanical crusher, which grinds it into fine powder for making up into slag bricks, cement, etc., or for use in making basic steel.
breaker, spiegel
breaks up spiegeleisen into suitable pieces tor use in Bessemer steel process, with sledge hammer.
breaker (type foundry) ; breaker-off, breaker-off boy
breaks off superfluous wedge-shaped piece of metal, which adheres to lower surface of type when type leaves casting machine, by pressing lower surface of type against table; work now done by machine in large works.
breaker-off, breaker-up (brass foundries)
breaks off brass, bronze, etc., casting from the "gates" or connecting pieces, using small wooden mallets; places castings, containing sand cores while still hot, in. cold water which rushes in behind core, forms steam, and ejects sand from casting.
breaker-off, breaking-off boy
see breaker (type foundry)
breech-pin maker
turns in automatic machine or press, pins used in breeches of rifles or sporting guns; cf. drop forger (190).
breeze riddler
riddles or sifts breeze or cinders from furnace ashes for use in smith's shop.
brightener (boot and shoe plate)
see barreller.
brightener (fish hooks)
a barreller q.v. who scours fish hooks in revolving barrels with soap and water.
bruiser ; denter (enamel sign)
takes dents or bruises out of articles to be japanned or enamelled, dented in process of manufacture, by placing dented portion over an iron bar or head, and hammering out dent with a wooden mallet.
brusher (files)
removes, with wire brush, particles of sand which adhere to file after sand blasting.
brusher (iron and steel rolling)
see pryler (sheet rolling mill).
brusher-off (hollow-ware) ; drier (hollow-ware)
rubs metal article with sawdust after pickling; stands it on stove to dry; brushes sawdust off by hand and hands to dipper (234) q.v.
bucker-up
moves long strip of metal along floor to bundling shears of rolling mill, with pair of tongs.
buckle rollerer
fixes roller of sheet metal on harness buckles, by placing half formed roller on cross bar of buckle, inserting under die of fly press and pulling lever; cf. buckle tonguer (278).
buffer maker's assistant
a forge helper q.v. who throws sand or water on hot metal in process of being forged as directed by forge hammerman (190) q.v.
bull dog man
conveys iron which has been hammered into billet from power hammer to rolling mill, by means of travelling sling or bogey; see bogeyman.
bullet maker, bullet machinist
see lead coremaker.
bullet trimming operator
see trimmer, bullet.
bumper (tin boxes, etc.)
packs into bundles, scrap tinplate left from stamping or cutting, by shovelling it into iron box, ramming or bumping it into compact shape with long-handled iron ram; binds with wire; cf. scrap bundler.
bundler
(i) (iron and steel rolling) assembles finished iron and steel bars into bundles, and binds them with wire ready for despatch; in similar manner bundles up hoop iron, tubes, etc.;
(ii) makes up flat plates or sheets into bundles and clips or clamps bundles by bending steel strips over sides, and hammering or clamping them down, or by binding with wire;
(iii) (tinplate) see faggoter;
(iv) (scrap) collects scrap and wires it into bundles or compresses it under hydraulic press for disposal to scrap dealer; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. fishplate bundler, hoop bundler, scrap bundler, sheet bundler, tube bundler.
bundler, underhand
assists bundler (iron and steel rolling) q.v. by holding material and by fetching and carrying.
bundler's assistant (wire works)
assists bundler (wire works) (278) q.v. by holding material, or by fetching and carrying.
bunkerman (blast furnace) ; depot man
tips wagons to discharge coal or iron, into bunkers at ironworks; often done by gantrymen (950) q.v.
burnerman (copper).
shovels copper pyrites into furnace where it is burnt to eliminate sulphur and arsenic; stokes and attends to fire and mixes fuel with pyrites inside furnace, if of such poor quality that it is difficult to maintain heat.
burnisher, barrel
attends revolving drum, containing soap and water, in which certain metal parts of harness furniture, i.e., buckles, etc., are burnished; a comparatively new process; for polishing of chains, small castings, etc., see barreller; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., buckle burnisher.
buttoner-up
see nutter.
bye turn man (steel works)
(i) stands by to take place of any regular labourer who may be absent;
(ii) takes long week-end shift, to enable day and night shift to change over.
calamine conveyor
shovels calamine (carbonate of zinc spar) into barrow and wheels it from place to place as required, in zinc extraction works.
calamine worker
general term applied to unskilled workers in zinc extraction works who handle calamine (carbonate of zinc spar), including calamine conveyor, loader q.v.
capping machinist (syphons)
attends and feeds semi-automatic machine which turns smooth and to correct size cast syphon caps; sets gauge and controls machine by hand lever.
carman
operates lever controlling brake on train of small cars which carries iron ore from crane to stock in ironworks; travels on first car.
carrier, bar
(i) carries or drags on conveyor slides, metal bars about works in iron and steel rolling, puddling and tinplate manufacture;
(ii) see bar dragger (puddling);
(iii) see discharger, bar (tinplate).
carrier, bar (pig iron) ; tool carrier (ironworks)
carries bars, used for tapping furnace, and other tools for furnaceman (171) q.v.
carrier, breeze (metal works)
a wheeler q.v. who shovels coke breeze into barrow and pushes it from place to place as required, e.g., to furnace; tips contents on floor.
carrier, card fillet
piles fillets of card clothing, i.e., long strips of leather, cloth, etc., set with -wire teeth, on to truck and pushes it away to textile machinery works, or to store or loading landing.
carrier, drill
takes blunted drills to tool repair shop to be ground, tempered, etc., and returns with sharpened drills for use in drilling.
carrier (general engineering)
(i) brings raw material and new work to lathe and machines, and removes finished work;
(ii) iron carrier; conveys molten iron from furnace ladle to moulds in small ladle, or "shanks," and sometimes assists in pouring.
carrier, iron
(i) see carrier (general engineering);
(ii) (nails and tacks), carries strips of iron from shears to machines.
carrier (lead ore) ; ore charger
carries lead ore in hand barrow (kind of box) to top of furnace, to dry, or if dry enough, discharges it into a bin or hopper.
carrier, metal; pig bed metal carrier
(i) see lifter, pig;
(ii) see filler, pig.
carrier, sample ; cast lad (steel foundry)
takes test casts ox steel to laboratory for analysis and brings back reports.
carrier, stock metal
lifts and carries about pig iron kept in stock; sometimes also acts as stock metal man q.v.
carrier, tool
(i) carries tools required by workers, from tool stores to workshops;
(ii) (ironworks ) see carrier, bar (pig iron).
carrier-down
conveys (generally on barrow or trolley) finished tinplate sheets from dusting machine to assorting room.
cartridge blocker
fills perforated trays with definite numbers of cartridges toi be examined and counted, after caps have been pressed in.
caster
(i) see sniper;
(ii) (in Cleveland) see casting man; also assists keeper (171) q.v. with repairs near the tap hole only.
cast house assistant furnaceman (pig iron)
loads cupola with coke and iron ; may carry material up staging or work hand-operated lift; shovels material by hand into cupola.
casting man
(i) see labourer, front;
(ii) (in Cleveland) caster; an extra front side labourer, where there are more than three furnaces, who goes from bed to bed during casting, and aide keeper (171) or keeper's helper q.v. and their assistants, with casting operations, under immediate directions of keeper.
cast lad (rolling mill)
chalks numbers on each cast or test piece of steel after each process; keeps a simple record for purposes of laboratory tests.
cast lad (steel foundries)
see carrier, sample.
catcher, bar (iron and steel rolling, tinplate) ; taker-off (tinplate)
catches short lengths of bar as they drop behind shearing machine; in rolling mill, catches falling bars in barrow and wheels away.
cellar lad
cleans up, shifts ashes, pro pares grates, runs errands and assists cellar man q.v. generally in crucible steel manufacture; looks out for crucible lids which have cracked, and makes crucible lids and stands, by hand, by moulding special clay.
cellar man
supplies coke to crucible furnaces, in making crucible steel, cleans fires, and removes ashes; often also regulates supply of air to furnaces; lifts full pots of molten metal from furnaces, places them on floor ready for teemer (278) q.v. and replaces empty pots on furnace; often does work of puller-out (steel manufacture) q.v.
cementer (metal capsules)
places capsule in chuck of lathe, starts lathe by lever and inserts adhesive cement in revolving capsule with a brush.
centre tapper (rolling stock)
measures and marks with calipers, and taps wheel centres with a diamond punch and hammer, to indicate true centre of wheel for subsequent operations of drilling and boring.
chain maker (cycle)
an assembler q.v. who puts together links and studs of cycle chains, using riveting machine operated by foot treadle.
chain puller
pulls forward four short chains hanging from crane over casting pit, and places them in position ready for pitman (278), mould setter (278), or for teemer (278) q.v.
chain worker (cycle), cycle chain worker
general terms for workers operating various machines producing roller driving chains for cycles; includes chain making machinist (254), chain maker (cycle), stud recesser, stretcher, slackener q.v.
charcoal sifter
sifts and prepares charcoal for cementation process in puddling, by throwing with shovel against screen.
char filler (iron mine, iron works)
fills wagons, trucks, etc., with calcined ironstone, using shovel.
charge man (copper smelting) ; feeder (copper smelting)
charges blast furnace, or cupola, by shovelling in copper ore, coke and flux (lime, etc.) under direction of cupola furnaceman (copper smelting) (171) q.v.
charge man (zinc) ; flux dust charger, flux dust discharger
shovels calcined zinc ores or concentrates into retorts for smelting; draws out residues from retorts, and prepares them for re-charging; usually there are four or five charge men to each furnace; in some zinc smelting works, .charging is now done mechanically.
charge mixer (zinc)
weighs charges (blende, calamine, anthracite, salt, etc.) and loads into barrow; pushes barrow to bin of mixing machine and tips in contents; controls levers of machine which thoroughly mixes materials ready for distilling furnaces, and passes charge out on to conveyor.
charge putter-up
piles up near heating furnace puddled bars ready to be rolled into finished bars.
charger, blast furnace charger ; furnace charger, furnace filler, stoker, top filler, top man
works on gantry at top of blast furnace, receives trucks of coke, iron ore and limestone on lift, pushes them to edge of bell top of blast furnace on rails laid for that purpose and tips contents on to bell; lowers bell by moving lever to discharge mixed coke, ore and lime into furnace, and is responsible for keeping bell clear; obsolescent; cf. hoistman (169).
charger, flux dust
see charge man (zinc).
charger, ore
see carrier (lead ore).
charger, second hand
see helper, charger's.
charger, spare (blast furnace)
acts as charger q.v. in absence of regular charger; usually a senior ore filler q.v. and so employed when not acting for charger.
charger, tube; brass tube charger ; runner-in
fills grooves along butt joints of tubes, used for metallic bedsteads, with a mixture of borax and resin, ready for brazing, using a small scoop.
charge taker (iron and steel rolling)
(i) wheels material prepared by charge putter-up (278) q.v. to furnace platform; this is done mechanically in big modern works;
(ii) see weigher, ingot.
charge taker (puddling)
pushes barrow or trolley laden with pig iron, scrap, and coal to puddling furnace; sometimes done by coal wheeler, metal wheeler, or metal breaker q.v. charge taker (steel works); weighs charges on weighing platform before being charged into furnace; counts number of ingots poured from furnace and records weights, etc., in a book which is forwarded to works office; sometimes done by weighman q.v.
checker (cartridges)
see gauger.
checker (cycle making)
see counter (cycles).
checker (tinplate)
see counter (tinplate).
checkweigher, checkweighman (iron and steel rolling)
verifies weights of bars, sheets, plates, etc., produced at various stages of manufacture of galvanised sheet, tinplate or iron and steel rolling, for information of firm, or, where earnings depend on tonnage produced, for protection of workpeople; in this latter case, is paid by the men.
checkweighman (iron foundry) ; scaleman, weight faster
weighs on scales or weighbridge, checks, and records, weights of raw materials entering works, of charges for cupolas, and of finished castings, etc.; a dresser (183) or clerk (939) q.v. frequently does this work.
chiller
see mould cooler.
chipper
chips scales and roughnesses from blooms, billets, rolled iron and steel, sleepers, rolled tyres, metal parts of railway and tramway rolling stock, etc., using either a hand hammer and chisel, or a pneumatic hammer; cf. chipper (183); sometimes specifically designated, e.g. tyre chipper.
chipper, ingot
chips out with hand or pneumatic chisel, cracks or flaws in ingots, before they are rolled or hammered, in manufacture of steel.
chipper, ladle ; ladle cleaner
chips slag from sides and lip of ladle, left after previous charge of molten metal in smelting, with hammer and chisel.
chipper, pot
chips off, with a hammer, the inner lining of fireclay in a ladle, called a skull, after casting; cf. skull breaker.
chipper-in (rolling mill)
a chipper q.v. chipping rough ends on rails with hammer and chisel.
cinderman
(i) see picker, cinder;
(ii) in South Staffordshire, see slagger.
cinder thrower
see tipper, slag (blast furnace).
circle room worker
is employed in carrying, arranging, etc., in shed where finished tinplates are cut to circular shape.
clay boy (iron and steel)
tempers, i.c., mixes up clay and water with hands and brings it in tin pan to ladle dauber q.v.
clay man (copper smelting)
plugs up with clay, tap holes of copper blast furnace, or cupola, and drives iron bar through clay plug, when molten metal, slag, etc., is to be drawn off; usually done by furnacemen or one of the furnace helpers q.v.
cleaner
(general engineering ) general term for any worker engaged in cleaning engines, machines, workshops, etc.; sometimes specifically designated, according to kind of machine, etc., e.g. drill cleaner, hydraulic cleaner, press cleaner, rail drill cleaner, stamp cleaner, stove cleaner blast furnace), tong cleaner (tube drawing); (japanning) cleans dirt from metal with pumice stone and sand paper in preparation for japanning; (tin box making) cleans and wraps up finished tin boxes, canisters, etc.
cleaner, bench
removes scale, shavings, etc., from benches at rolling mill, and sweeps up generally; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., driller's bench cleaner, straightener bench cleaner.
cleaner, blende
see dresser, ore (zinc extraction).
cleaner, brass
(i) cleans brass articles by freeing them from grease, etc., by rubbing or heating, preparatory to finishing and decorative process;
(ii) separates iron and steel from brass scrap by means of magnet, or attends machine which does this work.
cleaner (cycle making), cycle cleaner
cleans machines preparatory to their being wrapped for despatch.
cleaner, flue ; tube cleaner
cleans flues which convey gases from blast furnaces, by pushing flue brush through tubes.
cleaner, frame
dips cycle frame, after polishing, in paraffin or turpentine, and hangs it in a large oven to "sweat" grease from pores of metal, preparatory to enamelling.
cleaner, ladle
see chipper, ladle.
cleaner, mould (steel manufacture)
removes dross and scrap from moulds after use.
cleaner, nickel shed decomposer (Mond process)
strips off nickel, deposited on sides of decomposer, with hammer and chisel; shovels stripped nickel into barrow and wheels it to furnace, for re-melting.
cleaner (pig iron)
(i) see cleaner and greaser;
(ii) see breaker, dross.
cleaner, pit
assists pitman or mould setter (278) q.v.; cleans up and sometimes wheels slag from casting pits in slag works; sometimes done by slagger (278) q.v.
cleaner, road (blast furnace)
a yard labourer who cleans up rubbish or slag which has fallen from trucks or bogies.
cleaner, scale
(i) (iron and steel rolling), see pryler;
(ii) (puddling) removes with pneumatic chipper or with hand tools, various impurities on surface of wrought iron, after hammering and rolling processes.
cleaner, scrap
removes grease, dirt, rust, etc., from scrap metal, by washing it in baths of soda, acid, etc., and finally in clean warm water.
cleaner, cleaner-up (steel manufacture) ; scavenger
rakes and scrapes up slag and steel that spills on floor of steel works, and shovels into barrow.
cleaner, tube
see cleaner, flue.
cleaner (wire, wire netting, wire rope) ; dresser (wire netting, etc.)
dips by means of hand-worked winch, coils of wire in bath of hot water and lime; admits steam through valve to maintain temperature; then removes coils and dips in acid bath; removes and allows to dry in preparation for drawing.
cleaner and greaser ; cleaner (pig iron)
assists blast engineman (950) q.v. by cleaning and helping to grease engines, etc., in iron works.
cleaner and helper (hand) ; polisher (tinplate), rubber (tinplate)
is employed about furnaces and tinhouse of tinplate works; takes greasy tinplate sheet, still hot, from racks, passes it through layer of cleaning material, and cleans and polishes sheet with pad of sheepskin; hand cleaning is still carried on in a few works for production of better quality tin plates, cf. duster; for machine cleaning, see cleaning machine attendant, branner.
cleaner-up (puddling furnace)
see sweeper (blast furnace).
cleaning machine attendant
attends to and feeds machine which pushes tinned plate through cleaning material ("pink meal") with slowly revolving arms; riser work usually done by riser or tinman's helper q.v. where automatic risers are not used.
cleaning rod maker ; ramrod maker
makes rods for cleaning small arms, from cut lengths of steel wire or rod; fits thereto steel bristles, already machine made, forming a brush.
clearer, tuyere bottom
opens dust traps at bottom of tuyeres and clears them out.
climber (steel works)
assists girder and roof erector (226) q.v. by climbing about scaffolding and girders already erected to support and guide to position ends of girders in course of erection; secures and manipulates hoisting tackle; carries and holds tools for erector.
clipper (clog irons)
see cornerer (clog irons).
clipper, clipping press man (iron and steel stamping and drop forging)
places stampings and forgings on bed of power press and controls lever to clip off fins, fashes and other superfluous metal.
coacher and wheeler (rolling mill)
see wheeler-in (rolling mill).
coal and ashes man, coaler (puddling)
general terms applied to men loading and discharging coal and removing ashes, including ashes man, coal discharger (puddling furnace), coal wheeler (puddling furnace) q.v.
coater
coats articles with composition, preparatory to enamelling, japanning or varnishing.
coil bender
see coil maker.
coiler (lead extraction)
coils lead wire, rod, or pipe, on drums by hand.
coiler (wire making)
attends machine which rolls finished wire into coils; replaces full drums by empty ones on spindle.
coiler (wire rod mill)
guides thin metal rod, as it comes from last pair of hot rolls, into power-driven coiling machine, where it is coiled for subsequent easy handling; pulls each coil of rod off machine when coiled.
coiling drum driver (wire rod mill)
attends to and regulates speed of coiling drums, used in wire drawing process, by hand levers; also cleans and oils machinery.
coil maker, coilsmith ; coil bender
makes finished iron and steel tubes into coils, as used in flash boilers, condensers, etc., on lathes with assistance of mandrel; draws heated tube from furnace with tongs; inserts end of tube in hole in mandrel and causes mandrel to revolve on lathe by hand lever.
coke man (copper smelting)
fills Bessemer converter, used to smelt copper, with glowing coke, to heat converter before charge is introduced.
coke man, coker (galvanised sheet)
unloads and wheels coke to galvanising pots or baths; tends fires.
coke man, coker (rolling mill)
breaks up coke in coke breaking machine and wheels it in a barrow to furnace pits.
coke wheeler (chain and anchor forging)
see filler, hearth.
cold bench man
a loader q.v. who pushes rails, bars, etc., on skids to trucks, and loads trucks in iron and steel rolling mill.
cold coacher (iron and steel rolling)
see wheeler, cold roll (iron and steel rolling and tinplate mills).
cold roll attendant (iron and steel rolling or tinplate mills) ; cold roll boy, cold roll catcher, cold roll girl, cold roll tenter (iron and steel rolling)
sits in front of pair of rolls (tandem train of rolls) with pack of steel sheets resting partly on his knees, and partly on a guide fixed between standards, and feeds plates, one by one, to rolls, in quick succession; when employed on single train of rolls, carries plates from back to front of rolls twice, to ensure that plates pass through rolls three times; mechanical conveyors are sometimes used to convey plates from back of one pair of rolls to front of another pair; (steel works) also greases necks of rolls where they tend to get hot.
cold roll behinder, cold roll catcher (galvanised sheet)
a catcher (178) q.v. who receives sheets as they come from cold rolls and either passes them back to rollerman (178) q.v., or. When not to be re-rolled, piles them on floor or on stand.
cold roll boy (iron and steel rolling)
(i) see cold roll attendant;
(ii) see cold roll catcher (iron and steel rolling).
cold roll catcher (iron and steel rolling) ; cold roll boy, cold rolls picker-off, picker-up
collects plates as they are ejected from cold rolls and passes them on to next line or rolls, or places them on "bogies" or trucks for removal.
cold roll catcher, cold roll girl (tinplate)
see cold roll attendant.
cold roll rougher, cold roll tenter (iron and steel rolling)
see cold roll attendant.
cold roll worker
general term for workers in a cold rolling mill, e.y., cold roll attendant, greaser, rougher, wheeler q.v.
collector of parts
collects finished parts of machines, e.g., sewing machines, for transmission to store, or marks quantities of parts for assembler q.v.; work is sometimes done by storekeeper (941) q.v.
colourer (metal capsules), capsule colourer
places capsule in chuck of lathe, starts lathe and applies colour with a brush to outside of revolving capsule.
colourer (steel pens)
colours ground and cut pen nibs by heating them in a rotating cylindrical vessel, placed over a furnace; removes nibs when desired blue tint has been reached.
colourer, tin foil
(i) applies coloured lacquer to tin foil with a brush by hand;
(ii) (machine process) places spool of tin foil on holder of machine and guides end of foil through rollers; keeps lacquer tank filled, controls speed of machine by levers; removes lacquered foil from rewinding spindle.
compo man, composition mixer
see grinder, compo.
concretor's steel man
assists concretor (579) q.v., in fixing into position steel foundation on which concreting is to be done.
contractor (iron stone burning, mine burning)
contracts with iron making firm or with furnace keeper (171) q.v. to produce definite quantity of calcined iron stone for charging into blast furnace; is in charge of kilns in which iron stone is burnt, and of men engaged thereon, i.e., mine filler, hoist man, charger q.v.; assists in charging or firing as required.
cooler (copper rolling)
pulls copper sheet away from roll by hand with tongs, along floor and slides it into tank of cold water; pulls sheet out again and piles on trolley.
copper rivet maker
feeds copper wire or rod to automatic rivet making machine.
core cutting machinist, core cutting operator
see lead coremaker ; cf. bullet machinist.
cornerer (clog irons) ; clipper
feeds clog heel irons into semi-automatic machine which cuts corners off to shape them; each locality has its traditional shape of heel iron.
cornerer (tin boxes, canisters)
see notcher (tin boxes, etc.).
corrugator lad
assists holder-up and corrugator's helper q.v. at corrugating press of galvanised sheet mill, by holding other side of sheet.
counter (cycles) ; checker (cycle making)
checks number of bolts, rivets and similar small cycle parts before distribution for use in cycle building.
counter, piecework counter (shipbuilding)
keeps record of amount of work done on piecework, e.g., rivets put in by riveters, holes drilled or cut by drillers or hole borers, length of seams caulked by caulkers, etc.
counter, counter-out (tinplate manufacture) ; checker, reckoner
counts and arranges in separate packs the number of tinplates to be packed in each box.
counter's paint boy, piecework counter's paint boy
works with and under direction of rivet counter (256) q.v., and marks, with paint, work recorded by counter.
cover mounter
mounts fittings, i.e. handles, locks, catches, etc., on covers of sewing machines, by screwing up nuts with spanner, boring holes with bradawl and driving screws, etc.
crane boy, crane lad
(i) controls levers of small auxiliary power-driven cranes used for simple lifting in steel works, e.g., lifting scrap, slag, coal buckets;
(ii) (puddling) assists crane oiler q.v. or craneman (950) q.v. by cleaning crane with cotton waste, signalling to craneman, etc.
crewer ; cruer
operates crewer machine that curves the part of tongue which is fixed to spring clips and harness buckles; feeds tongues into notches of revolving disc which brings tongue under automatic hammer.
crop lad
drags hot crop end, i.e., short piece left after measured lengths have been cut from bar, of iron and steel bars away from shears, or hot saw, with tongs.
crop man
see scrap man (iron and steel rolling).
cropper, angle ; angle chopper
places angle-irons, used in making boilers and tanks, against guides on bed of a cropping or chopping machine; cuts off measured lengths by depressing lever of machine.
cropper (bolts, nuts and rivets) ; cutter-off, shearer, shears man
cuts off end of bolt to length, shearing or cropping in machine, before end is pointed; sets gauge to length required and operates machine with foot or hand 'lever.
cropper (files)
see snaper.
cropper, forge
see cropper (iron and steel rolling).
cropper (general engineering)
see shearer.
cropper (iron and steel rolling) ; forge cropper, mill cropper and shearer
a shearer q.v. or a hot sawyer (278) q.v. who cuts off badly shaped ends of finished bars of iron or steel after rolling.
cruer
see crewer.
crusher, blende
controls levers of ball mill for crushing and grinding blende (zinc sulphide) in process of zinc extracting; watches that automatic feed does not get choked and that conveyor is working smoothly.
crusher, calamine
as for crusher, blende.
crusher, crusher man (copper smelting)
shovels copper ore and limestone into hopper of machine which crushes it preparatory to calcining and refining; sometimes crushes slag in same way.
cupola charger (Bessemer steel)
wheels fuel, raw material and scrap from hoist and tips them on to platform, whence they are shovelled into cupola, i.e., furnace in which iron is melted; more usually operates levers of machinery which automatically charges cupolas with materials from hoppers; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., spiegel cupola charger, spiegel charger.
cupola charger, nickel
tips or shovels nickel ore or nickel matte (partially refined ore), coke and limestone into cupola through charging door.
cupola man (steel works)
general term for one who does any unskilled work round cupola, such as loading hoist, charging cupola, tapping .slag, etc.; includes cupola charger, loader, wheeler q.v.
curry comb maker, curry comb riveter
an assembler q.v. who assembles stampings; rivets and fits parts together to form complete curry combs.
curry comb varnisher
varnishes, paints, or japans curry combs by means of hand brush, or by dipping them in varnish or other covering medium; sometimes also stoves them in oven to fix and harden varnish, etc.
curver
passes corrugated sheets backwards and forwards between rollers of machine in which they are curved to a specific radius, according as they are required, for example, for barn or shod roofs, or for other purposes; usually works to given curved template.
curver's assistant
assists curver q.v. in holding up sheets to machine and stacking when bent.
cutter, cutter-off
(i) attends guillotine, power press, power shears, or other machine for cutting metal, e.g., cutlery blades from sheet steel, steel tubes for cycles, bars for use in tinplate trade, etc.; feeds work into machine; sets gauge against which work is pushed or held; operates machine by foot pedal or hand levers; cf. cutting machine worker, shearer;
(ii) (hollow-ware), see shearer;
(iii) (rolling mill), see shearer;
(iv) (tin boxes), see guillotine hand; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., tube cutter (cycles), brass rule cutter, norm cutter (rule), rule cutter, pin cutter (nails), rail cutter, cutter-off (bedsteads), gas tube cutter, cutter-off, steel sheet cutter (pens), tin foil cutter, wire cutter (needles).
cutter, bar
bar and pin cutter (nail and tack making), cold bar cutter (iron and steel rolling); bar shearer (iron and steel rolling, tinplate), bar shearman, cutter-off (puddling); passes metal bars into shearing machine, in which they are cut into short lengths; sets adjustable measuring gauge against which work is held; operation performed in galvanised sheet manufacture, iron and steel rolling, nail and tack making, puddling, tinplate.
cutter, billet ; billet breaker (iron and steel rolling, puddling), cutter (wire netting), cutter-down (rolling mill)
a cutter q.v. who cute billets, in shearing machine, into suitable sizes for re-rolling into bars in iron and steel rolling, for rolling into bars and rode in wire drawing, or in puddling, for convenience in handling, transport, etc.; in rolling mills, work usually done by guillotine engineman q.v.
cutter, link
a shearer q.v. who cuts from rod steel or iron, on shearing or other similar machine, blanks which are to be made into links; in large cable chain works, cutting is done by link bender (190) q.v.
cutter, rivet
a shearer q.v. who cuts hot steel bare into lengths in automatic machine.
cutter, scrap; scrap metal cutter
(i) a shearer q.v. who cuts scrap metal into sizes convenient for bundling;
(ii) (iron and steel rolling) scrappie (Scotland, slang); assists shearer q.v. in cutting up scrap; in tin plate trade, work is usually done by scrap bundler q.v.
cutter, side (tinplate)
a shearer q.v. engaged at double shears, which cut edges off folded sheets in rolling of tin plate.
cutter, split shot
feeds lead shot into hopper of automatic splitting machine; watches machine for proper working.
cutter, tea lead
cuts lead sheet into measured sizes with hand shears for lining tea chests; usually done by packing case liner (264) q.v.
cutter, test
cuts test pieces from iron, steel or other metal, in test room, using either planing machine or saw, both power-driven.
cutter (wire netting, rope, etc.)
see cutter, billet.
cutter-down
see cutter, billet.
cutter girl (screws)
see nicker.
cutter-off (bolts, nuts and rivets)
see cropper (bolts, nuts and rivets).
cutter-off (clog irons)
a shearer q.v. who cuts bar iron to length required for front or heel clog irons.
cutter-off (puddling)
see cutter, bar.
cutter-out, edge tool
a shearer q.v. who feeds and operates shearing machine which cuts out blanks of edge tools, ready for forger (190) q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., hoe cutter-out, scythe cutter-out, spade and shovel cutter-out.
cutter-up, boiler cutter-up
a scrap breaker q.v. who uses hammer and chisel, or in some cases oxyacetylene apparatus to cut or break up old boilers.
cutter-up (files) ; steel manager
a shearer q.v. who cute steel bars into lengths or multiples of file blanks, with power-driven shearing machine.
cutting machine attendant, cutting machine worker (general engineering)
operates a guillotine or a machine which cuts material into lengths by means of cutting tool or hack saw; fixes work in machine; sets gauge against which work is pushed or fixed; manipulates foot treadle or hand levers; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., pin cutting machine attendant.
cycle hand, cycle worker
general terms for unskilled and semi-skilled workers in cycle factories, including assembler, enameller (241), polisher (241) q.v.
damper, bill damper (blast furnace)
puts blue billy, i.e., fine ore, round boll (a kind of funnel covering top of furnace) between charging shifts to prevent escape of gas from furnace; often done by charger or by top sweeper q.v.
denter (enamel sign)
see bruiser.
depot man
see bunkerman.
dipper, bolt ; bolt oiler
dips holts in oil after last finishing operation in bolt making, to prevent rusting; sets them in sieve to drain.
dipper (general engineering)
immerses castings (usually brass) in hot acid solution to remove grease, scale, sand and discolouration, and then swills them in hot water.
dipper (sleeper mill), sleeper mill dipper
immerses sleeper, after it has been pressed and punched, and while still hot, in a mixture of tar oils, as a preservative against rust; work now done large.ly by power-driven endless chain.
dipper (tin boxes, canisters, etc.)
dips side seams and ends of tins in a solution of hydrochloric acid and then in small bath of molten solder; wipes joint clean with piece of tow.
dipper-in (reed making)
dips top and bottom staves of textile reed in tub of molten pitch, after reed leaves reed maker (278) q.v.
dipper in tar, iron hurdle dipper
as for dipper (sleeper mill).
discharger, bar
(i) (iron and steel rolling) bar unloader; a bar bank man q.v. who unloads bars from truck in railway siding; often also loads, see bar loader (iron and steel rolling);
(ii) (tinplate) bar carrier (tinplate); unloads bars from trucks, in railway siding of tinplate works, and carries them to bar shears or from shears to furnace; is attached to bar cutter's gang; cf. bar cutter's helper.
discharger, coal and ashes (copper smelting)
unloads coal, by hand shovel, from trucks or barges in yard of copper extracting and refining works, and loads trucks or barges with ashes, slag, etc.
discharger, coal ; coal unloader
unloads coal with shovel from railway trucks or barges, for use in puddling furnaces or steel works.
discharger, flux dust
see charge man (zinc).
discharger, iron
see iron checker's assistant.
discharger, ore; raw material discharger
unloads, by hand, raw material, i.e., ore, coke, coal, flux, etc., used in lead or copper extraction and refining works.
discharger (tinplate)
see wheeler.
dischargerman (copper works)
empties wagons or does any odd job about copper works.
distillery hand (load manufacture)
assists distiller (171) q.v. in handling alloy of lead, zinc and silver; attends to graphite furnace under direction of distiller, and assists in ladling of residual alloy for casting.
divider, divider of founts
separates type received from casting machine and classifies into founts, ready for use.
dogger, dogger-on ; stacker (blast furnace, puddling furnace)
grasps material with pair of long-armed tongs or dogs suspended from overhead travelling crane; guides dogs into soaking pit, placing ingots there and removing them therefrom; picks up crop ends sheared off blooms in rolling mill; loads ingots, bars, blooms, etc., into furnaces; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., dogger-on ingots.
dogger-up, steel tube drawer's dogger-up ; hook worker (tubes), wagoner
adjusts teeth or hooks of wagon (or dog) to endless chain on draw bench, by which tube is drawn through die; follows wagon as it moves and brings it back to tube drawer (266) q.v., who is in charge of draw bench.
door boy (puddling mill, rolling mill, tube mill or steel works) ; door lifter (puddling tube mills), puller-up (rolling mills), pull-up (steel works, slang)
pulls levers or chains which open and close furnace doors for charging, drawing or inspection of furnaces; works under direction of furnaceman (171) q.v.
door lad (chain making)
draws out from furnace chain links for welder (190) q.v. and stokes forge fire.
doorman (farrier's)
assists farrier (190) q.v. by removing old horse shoes, .trimming hoof; may act as striker; puts frost studs in shoes in winter time.
door man, furnace door man
feeds fire, in forging mill; heats iron, and draws it from fire with tongs, in state fit for welding.
double holder (rolling mill)
assists doubler (178) q.v. by gripping sheet for doubling, with tongs, to hold steady while doubler completes doubling.
double marker (Staffs, term)
assists plate marker q.v., when handling large sheets, and marks with slate or chalk under his direction; helps to support sheets afterwards for shearer q.v.
doubler's holder (galvanised sheets)
as for double holder (rolling mill).
dragger-down
see hooker-out.
dragger-out (sheet mills)
see bar dragger.
drawer, bar (galvanised sheet, tinplate)
see bar dragger.
drawer, bar (iron and steel rolling) ; drawer-out, puller-out (iron and steel rolling), runner-out
a furnaceman's helper q.v. in sheet rolling mill; attends to bar furnace; draws bars from furnace and packs of sheets from sheet furnace to rolls, with tongs.
drawer, door (plate mill)
as for door man.
drawer-down (rolling mill) ; knobbler
pulls down to rolls with tongs, hot billets from soaking pit or furnace.
drawer-out
see drawer, bar (iron and steel rolling).
dresser, bob
cleans and prepares bobs, or polishing pads for use by buffers and polishers (238) q.v.; scrapes off old paste and smears on fresh paste.
dresser, end
see notcher (tubes).
dresser (files)
(i) see layer-on (files);
(ii) see stripper (files).
dresser (metal trades)
(i) see frazer;
(ii) removes roughness from castings, rolled rails, steel plates, etc., by chipping with hammer and chisel (see chipper) or by holding against emery wheel or by grinding with portable wheel; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., centre dresser, rail dresser, tyre dresser, wheel centre dresser, wheel dresser.
dresser, ore (lead extraction)
feeds, by hand shovelling, and attends to plant which crushes and screens lead ore, preparatory to calcining and smelting.
dresser, ore (zinc extraction) ; blende cleaner, blende screener, calamine screener, zinc picker
stands by revolving table at side of travelling belt containing zinc ores (blende or calamine) and picks out waste material.
dresser, tube
(i) dresses, or files, joints of brazed tubes, to remove superfluous solder, before tube is drawn to required size;
(ii) corrects minor defects in tubes, by filing or otherwise, on completion of manufacture; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., brass tube dresser.
dresser (wire netting, rope, etc.)
see cleaner (wire).
dresser and sizer, stamp (tubes)
dresses or cleans bells (after hole in top has been stamped or pressed out) by removing scurf adhering thereto, with a file; measures hole (through which tube passes) with micrometer and hand files to size required.
drier, blende
shovels blende (zinc sulphide ore) on to conveyor and attends to furnace which dries it after dressing, preparatory to crushing and grinding.
drier, calamine
as for drier, blende.
drier (hollow-ware)
see brusher-off (hollow-ware).
drier-down
see taker-down.
drifter
places hollow rollers on projecting pins of cycle chains.
drosser, dross man, dross melter
recovers spelter (zinc) from dross and from zinc oxide by remelting; shovels charge in furnace, and taps off molten metal.
dryer
controls and operates drying stove, or hot blast, at finishing end of galvanising machine in which sheets are dried before they issue on conveyor or are placed in bogies.
dryer, sand
see sand calciner.
duster (tinboxes, canisters etc.)
see wiper, box.
duster, dusting machine attendant (tinplate manufacture) ; sander in tinhouse, wiper
controls levers of machine which automatically dries and cleans tinplate received from water bosh; shovels dusting powder, composed partly of sand, into hopper of machine; may clean and polish tinplate by hand with a sheepskin.
edger (tin boxes)
(i) see box folder;
(ii) see trimmer (tin boxes).
edgeway maker
feeds front clog irons into machine, which automatically shapes them; usually done by turner (clog irons) (278) q.v.
electric tinner
see pin plater.
ender (screws)
see pointer (bolts, screws).
ender-up, ending machinist (bolts)
passes bolts by hand into receiving chuck of an automatic machine which chamfers ends of bolts; controls machine by means of foot or hand levers; cf. chamferer (200).
evener-up (needles)
see hander (needles).
extractor man (iron and steel tubes)
extracts mandrels from sockets of welding machine; usually done by fitter (210) q.v.
eye maker, steel eye maker (pianos) ; looper
makes small eyes, or loops, of steel wire at end of piano strings to hold them on to wrest pins, using pair of pincers and a small machine.
faggoter, faggot maker (metal trades) ; iron binder, bundler (iron and steel rolling, tinplate), piler (puddling), scrap lad (galvanised sheet), scrap piler (rolling, steel manufacture)
is employed in different metal trades, e.g., puddling, rolling, steel manufacture, tinplate and galvanised sheet trades, in making-up shearings and other scrap metal into bundles, piles, or "faggots," which he binds with wire in preparation for the melting down and utilising of such scrap; cf. bundler, sheet.
farrier's mate ; horse shoer's mate
acts as fireman q.v. to .a farrier or horse shoer (190) q.v.; may also act as striker (190) q.v.
fasher (goffed blade)
removes rough edges or surplus metal of stamped or pressed parts of cutlery, either by hand, with file, by holding against revolving emery wheel, or by placing under cutting dies of power press.
feeder, ball mill (copper rolling)
shovels casting shop ashes into bail mill, in process of recovering metal; shovels crushed ashes into barrows or watches smooth working of conveyor.
feeder, bar feeder (bolts, nuts and rivets)
puts bars or short lengths of prepared metal into automatic or semi-automatic machine, which turns or threads them into bolts or nuts.
feeder, coke
shovels coke fuel into blast furnace; work usually done by charger q.v.
feeder (copper smelting)
see charge man (copper smelting).
feeder, drill; rail drill feeder (rail mill)
lifts rail on to table of multiple or ordinary drilling machine and feeds it into machine, ready for bolt holes to be drilled; generally done by rail bank man q.v.
feeder, furnace
see fireman.
feeder (galvanising)
(i) (sheet) putter-in; feeds sheets one by one into rolls of galvanising pot under supervision of dipper (234) q.v.;
(ii) (other metal goods ) carries or pushes goods on truck from water bosh to dipper's table.
feeder (iron and steel tubes)
see guider.
feeder, muffle (iron and steel stamping and drop forging)
as for muffleman (iron foundry).
feeder, nail ; machine feeder (nails), nail machine feeder
assists nail machine minder (278) q.v. by feeding a hand or self fed automatic nail making machine with sheet iron and iron wire; either places strip of metal between jaws of gripping device on long wooden handle, and turns strip over each time cutter descends, so that tapered nails are cut economically, or fits long strip of metal (as wide as length of nail being produced) into self-adjusting barrel; starts machine by hand lever and watches smooth working of barrel as it feeds and reverses strip under cutting knife; refits barrel as strip is cut up; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., hand feeder, self feeder, zinc nail machine feeder.
feeder, nickel shed (Mond process)
shovels or charges calcined nickel ore into reducing towers, where it is reduced by water gas to finely divided nickel.
feeder, rail planer
lifts rails, after rolling, on to table of planing machine, and generally assists rail planer (200) q.v.
feeder straightener (rolling mill)
places and guides iron and steel sheets or plates into straightening machine, or lifts steel rails, etc., on to bed of gag press; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., rail straightener feeder.
feeder, tack ; tacker, tack minder
watches machine which makes tacks automatically and stops it when necessary; replaces empty by full spools of iron wire, cleans and oils working parts of machine.
fettler (metal trades)
see frazer.
fettler (puddling)
see blue billyer.
filler
shovels raw material for metal furnaces, etc., into trucks, tubs, baskets or wheelbarrows for conveyance from wharf, dump crusher, etc., to furnace or kiln, weighing machines or tables, etc.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., barrow filler, bottom filler, box filler, char filler (calcined ironstone), cinder filler, coal filler, coke filler, cradle filler (tinplate), damping filler, fillet filler (card clothing), furnace filler, haematite filler, lime filler, limestone filler, mine filler (ironworks), ore filler, raw material filler skull filler (iron and steel), slag filler, stock filler (pig iron), stone filler (ironworks), top filler.
filler, coke (pig iron) ; coke runner
shovels coke from coke depot into barrows, and wheels in to weighing machines; usually done by coke wheeler (pig iron) q.v.
filler, furnace (blast furnace)
see charger (blast furnace).
filler, hearth ; coke wheeler (chains and anchor forging)
a labourer q.v. in chain making shop, who heats metal in fire to make it malleable, manipulating it with tongs.
filler, pig ; metal carrier, pig bed metal carrier
loads pigs into trucks, for removal from mould, with help of hoist.
filler, rack (tinplate) ; lister
places plates in racks after tinning in hand tinning process; work now done by riser q.v.
filler, spare
acts as ore filler q.v. in absence of regular filler; usually an experienced furnace labourer, lime filler or coke runner q.v. and so employed when not acting as ore filler.
filler, top
see charger (blast furnace).
filterman ; oil separator
runs or pumps oil, used in hardening or tempering shops, from oil baths into filter vat; opens and closes valves by which filtered oil runs in reservoir; cleans out oil baths.
finisher (files)
general term for worker who cleans and brushes file after hardening, including taker-again (232), scourer (259), or oiler q.v.
finisher (harness furniture)
assembles and fits together component parts of harness furniture; files parts, if necessary; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., bit finisher, buckle finisher, spur finisher, stirrup finisher.
finisher, rail
a sawyer q.v. who cuts ends of rails square, in machine saw.
finisher (screw)
as for barreller.
finisher (wire netting, rope, etc.)
cleans and polishes wire after it has passed through last reducing die, by drawing wire by hand through emery cloth and black lead; cf. wire finisher (268).
finner, finning hand
see frazer.
fireboy
replenishes furnace fires of steel rolling mill with fuel.
fireman, firer, furnace fireman ; furnace feeder, furnace stoker, stoker
feeds with fuel, by shovelling, etc., furnaces, e.g., steel furnaces, rolling mill furnaces, annealing, galvanising and lead extracting furnaces, and other furnaces employed in various metal trades, as distinct from boiler and locomotive furnaces (cf. firemen (701) and (951)); usually works under direction of furnaceman (171) q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., annealer's fireman, annealing furnace fireman, malleable iron oven fireman, sleeper mill fireman.
fireman (forging)
keeps smithy fire replenished; heats metal on fire; manipulates it with tongs on anvil, under blows of forger (190) q.v. or of farrier (190) q.v., until it assumes shape required; sometimes also does hammering, cf. striker (190).
fireman, oven ; stoker (general ironfoundry)
stokes fires heating ovens in which dry sand moulds and core are baked; cf. muffleman.
fireman (shipbuilding) ; stoker (shipbuilding)
attends to furnaces used by frame turners, plate benders (222) q.v. in shipyard.
firer (puddling)
acts as assistant or underhand to puddler or to ball furnace man (172) q.v. where furnaces are coal fired; also gets furnaces heated at week-end ready for re-start; cf. underhand ball furnaceman.
firer, ball furnace
see furnaceman, underhand ball.
fitter, syphon
fits spring inside syphon cap and puts valve in position, using hand tools ab bench, fitter-up (sheet metal goods); fits rings and bottoms of tin canisters for seamer (254) q.v.
flanger's assistant
assists in unskilled part of work of Hanger (190) q.v., such as holding one end of tube while other end is being expanded.
flattener (clog irons), toe flattener
flattens toe part of front dog irons with drop hammer.
flattener (galvanised sheet), patent flattener
see stretcher.
flattener, flatter (saws)
flattens with small power rolls, fash or sharp edges of teeth after toothing.
floater (blast furnace)
a front side labourer q.v. who goes from one furnace to another to assist at casting time in removing clay and obstructions from furnace mouth by means of iron rods.
floorman ; piler (chain making)
marshals, i.e. arranges on floor, chain as it passes through chain maker's hands; arranges finished parts of chains and generally tidies floor after chain is made.
folder (drums, kegs)
places cut sheet of metal on bottom bar of folding machine and polls level so that top bar turns or folds over end edge of metal; repeats process at other end of sheet so that sheet can be bent round and ends interlocked for seam.
forge woman
uses hand hammer or simple drop forge hammer in formation of small-work or fittings used in manufacture of iron and steel hollow-ware.
forker ; turner-over (iron and steel rolling)
carries steel sheets to shears, and holds them while they are being cut.
foundry router
see pattern seeker.
frazer (metal trades), fraiser, frazing machine worker (bolt and rivet making) ; dresser, fettler, holt stripper, finner, finning hand, stripper
removes fraze, i.e. rough edges, or burrs from castings, bolts, screws, rails, etc., by hand filing, by emery wheel, by machine or by power press; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. bolt frazer.
front sawyer
assists sawyer q.v. by drawing head end of bar through machine saw, in iron and steel rolling mill; removes sawn pieces of steel.
front side hand
puts strip iron or steel in front, or feeding, side of rolls in strip mill.
furnace attendant
see helper, furnace.
furnace charger, basic works
assists melter (first hand) (171) q.v. in charging open hearth furnace with broken pig iron and steel scrap; places pig iron on edge of furnace by hand and pushes it into furnace with iron pole; places steel scrap in furnace by hand shovelling or by lifting, according to nature of scrap.
furnace charger (blast furnace)
see charger (blast furnace).
furnace hand, improving
softening furnace hand, improving furnace helper; assists improving furnaceman (171) q.v. in charging, firing and grating furnace.
furnaceman, underhand ball ; hall furnace firer, hall furnace helper
assists ball furnaceman (172) q.v.; attends to fire and gets metal to right heat for ball furnaceman; cf. firer (puddling).
fuse maker
an assembler q.v. who fits or screws together component parts of fuses.
gagger (puddling)
pulls distance lever, on hammering or punching machine for putting it in and out of gear, under direction of shingler (174).
gagger, rail gagger, gagger-up (rolling mill) ; straightener's helper
assists rail straightener (278) q.v. at a gag press for straightening rails, by operating lever of power press under his directions.
galvaniser's assistant
places articles near galvanising "pot" in readiness for galvaniser (234) q.v.
gauger, operator gauger ; checker (cartridges)
tests accuracy of machine work on cartridge cases by passing cartridge through one or more hand or machine gauges; cf. viewer (148); sometimes specifically designated, e.g., bullet gauger, cartridge clip gauger.
getter-off (puddling furnace)
assists puddler (172) q.v. to remove ball from rabble to iron truck after puddling, by means of dog grips or tongs.
giller (motor radiators)
assembles radiator block by threading brass tubes through holes in iron cross pieces; adjusts the whole, ready for tinning by dipper.
glazer's assistant ; assistant glazer, hacker (saws)
stands behind and receives hand or long saw as it emerges from glazers, in saw making.
glutter's turner-out (rolling stock)
pulls glutted wheel, see glutter (190), with tongs from furnace, and bowls it along, while hot, to press; also does any striking that may be required.
grateman, grater (steel works)
cleans fire grates of gas producers, with rake, hammer and chipping tools.
grease boiler
(i) (in tinhouse) melts down palm oil, ready for tinning pots;
(ii) (in tin sheet mills) melts down waste grease from roll necks of mills and cold rolls, and drains away from dirt and particles of metal so that grease can be used again.
greaser
oils or greases moving parts of machinery, shafting, gearing, etc., and replenishes oil and grease cups, and lubricators.
greaser, cold roll greaser (iron and steel rolling, tinplate)
greases cold rolls, particularly at necks, where they get very hot; in steel sheet works, usually done by cold roll attendant q.v.
greaser (galvanised sheet)
see oiler (general engineering).
greaser (iron and steel rolling)
see bar bank boy.
greaser (tinbox, canister, etc., making)
(i) smears grease over decorated tin plates before they are stamped out;
(ii) see oiler.
grenade machinist
hand feeds and manipulates levers of automatic or semi-automatic machines which shape, polish, drill, etc., grenade castings.
grenade turner
a grenade machinist q.v. working at an automatic machine used for turning and boring hand and rifle grenades, bombs, etc.; work usually done by capstan lathe hand (200) q.v.
grinder, compo; composition grinder ; compo man, composition mixer
feeds and attends pug mill, or other grinding machine, which grinds and mixes refractory materials, i.e., ganister, silica, dolomite, moulder's composition, to form composition or "compo" used for lining furnaces, annealers or moulds; cf. grinder, sand.
grinder, dolomite
as for grinder, compo.
grinder, sand (steel works)
feeds, operates and controls machine which grinds sand after it has been calcined, see sand calciner; usually done by composition grinder q.v.
grinder, sweep
shovels shop sweepings, casting shop ashes, etc., into grinding machine, preparatory to recovering metal therefrom.
grinder's assistant ; assistant grinder, hacker (saws)
stands behind and receives hand and long saws as they emerge from grindstones, in saw making.
gripper (edge tool), edge tool gripper ; edge tool handler, hafter, handler
(i) (knives, etc.) prepares scales or hafts of wood, horn, etc., by sawing slit or otherwise shaping them for edge tool handles or grips, and rivets them to tang;
(ii) (chisels, etc.) bores hole in wooden or horn handle, inserts tang, and fixes it with resin or cement.
gripper's assistant
see matcher-on.
groover (needles)
feeds and operates a kick stamp or milling machine, which makes hollow part on sides of sewing machine needles.
groover (tinbox, canister, etc., making) ; locker
places cut and folded sheet tin on block of grooving machine; operates lever to cause machine to groove edges and join up seam of body.
guider ; feeder (iron and steel tubes), putter-in (iron and steel rolling)
guides blooms and tubes into various rolling mills by means of long steel rods and tongs.
guillotine engineman (rolling mill), guillotine man ; shear driver
controls levers of guillotine shears, now usually motor-driven, which cut up steel sheets.
guillotine hand, guillotine worker guillotiner ; cutter (tin boxes), knife hand
cuts tinplate, sheet brass, etc., to size required by means of guillotine; sets gauge and guides, places work against guides under knife and actuates knife by foot or hand lever; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. lead plate guillotiner.
gun prover
see barrel prover.
hafter
see gripper (edge tool).
hair pin machinist
attends and feeds with spools of wire, automatic bending and finishing machine which makes hair pins from thin steel wire.
hammer boy, hammer lad
pulls lever to operate power hammer, under direction of forge hammer driver (190) q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. axle hammer lad.
hammerman's assistant
assists forge hammer man (190) q.v. by heating metal in fire to forging temperature, withdrawing with tongs and/or crane, handing special tools, moving forging about, etc.
hander (needles) ; even er-up
sorts, according to length, needles that have been mixed up together in processes of scouring and glazing; arranges heap of finished needles in rows; holds one end of needles with palm of left hand; presses piece of rag, held on forefinger of right hand, on other end of needles, and withdraws all needles having points projecting into rag; alternatively arranges needles in rows on glass slide and, using a square section ruler, pushes longer needles over edge into receiving trays.
handler (agricultural tools)
shaves down handles with spokeshave to fit tool, bores hole in wood and rivets fast with hand hammer; fits tang of tool into wooden handle and hammers home; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. bill hook handler, sickle handler.
handler (edge tool), edge tool handler
see gripper (edge tool).
handler (saws), saw handler
punches holes in saw, corresponding with holes in handle, with hand fly press, and secures handle to blade with screws.
hand machinist
operates small hand power machine sometimes used for cutting or stamping metal.
hand reamer
uses a hand reamer to clean out bores, holes, etc., from castings or other parts of sewing machines; work generally done by fitter (210), by turner (200), or by assembler q.v.
hanker, Bessemer tip
tips wagons on slag heap; levels off heap with shovel.
hankerer (rolling mill)
see lifter-up (rolling mill).
hardener's assistant (cutler) ; puller-out, rubber
assists hardener (220) q.v. by removing cutlery, e.g. bayonet blades, from quenching bath of oil; rubs blades in sawdust to remove adhering oil.
hayband maker ; stretcher (hayband making)
cuts wire to convenient lengths for making haybands with hand pliers or in machine cutter; straightens or stretches it between fixed vices.
header, cold
see rivet machine minder.
header, needle header
passes needles by hand into automatic machine which grinds smooth any roughness round head after stamping process.
heater's assistant
assists heater (171) q.v., in wire making, by charging furnace with billets, and keeping it at correct temperature, where this is not done by heater.
heaver-out, heaver-over (puddling furnaces)
assists puddler (172) q.v. by drawing out from puddling furnace, with tongs, a ball of iron twisted on a metal bar by puddler.
heaver-out, wheel
assists tyre furnaceman (278) q.v. by withdrawing heated tyre from furnace with long iron bar and tongs.
heaver-over (galvanised sheet)
assists inspector (278) q.v. in examination of heavy sheets, after they have been galvanised, by turning and lifting' them.
helper, annealer's
feeds and cleans out fire and assists annealer (220) q.v. in charging annealing furnace; in tinplate and galvanised sheet manufacture, also places sand round pots and boxes used to protect plates in annealing, and puts clay on top for same purpose.
helper, assorter's
assists assorter or inspector (278) q.v. in examination of heavy sheets, after galvanising, by turning and lifting them about.
helper, ball furnace
see furnaceman, underhand ball.
helper, bar cutter's (galvanised sheet)
assists bar cutter q.v. in attending or feeding, shearing machine; fetches bars, removes cut lengths, etc.; see unloader, bar, or wheeler, bar.
helper, blacksmith's
assists blacksmith (190) q.v. by performing manual labouring work, holding up, carrying, stoking fire, working bellows, etc.; sometimes also acts as blacksmith's striker (190) q.v.
helper, blast helper
see blast furnace hand.
helper (boiler yard)
assists boiler maker (222) q.v. generally; brings boiler plates to maker, by carrying or pushing on truck; removes finished boilers on truck or by means of chains and tackle of overhead crane; wheels up in barrow fuel for rivet heater's forge, etc.
helper, charger's (iron, steel, copper, nickel) ; second hand charger
a wheeler q.v. wheeling ores in barrows from dump to furnace; generally assists charger or charge putter-up q.v.
helper, clay mixer's
assists clay mixer (104) q.v.; shovels materials into machine and discharges finished clay, in zinc extracting works.
helper corrugator's ; taker-out
stands behind corrugating machine, and receives sheets as they come from machine; piles them by side of machine, in readiness for removal to warehouse.
helper, forge
does general labouring work in forge, as for blacksmith's helper; is often a spare hand worker, able to take place of any regular man who is absent, e.g., hammerman's assistant, slinger q.v.
helper (forging), angle iron smith's helper
see backhander.
helper, furnace; furnaceman's helper ; furnace attendant, stagger's helper (ironworks)
assists furnaceman (171) q.v., in charging, firing, discharging, etc., furnace; is employed on blast furnaces (see blast furnace hand), in copper extracting, lead extracting, steel manufacture, tube and pipe making, and in zinc extracting; cf. charge man (zinc).
helper, keeper's
see blast furnace hand.
helper, ladle (steel manufacture)
(i) helps ladle man q.v. to move ladle about works by means of overhead crane;
(ii) tempers and carries clay for ladle dauber q.v.
helper, pickler's
(i) aids pickier (250) q.v. generally and takes charge of pickling operations during pickler's absence;
(ii) pickling girl'; an unskilled labourer who assists pickier by loading and unloading sheets from cradles.
helper, pit; pitman's helper
helps pitman or mould setter (278) q.v. to secure cap or iron plate on top of mould, to spray cap with water to hasten cooling, and to adjust crane chains for lifting ingot, etc.
helper, potman's (nickel cupola)
assists nickel cupola potman (278) q.v. in moving pot or ladle, usually on an overhead runaway, and empties filled moulds in readiness for fresh supply.
helper (rolling mill), heater's helper
assists heater or furnaceman (171) q.v. by firing and regulating re-heating furnaces; in sheet mills, this is done by bar drawer q.v.
helper, slagger's
(i) assists slagger (278) q.v. in tapping and removing slag from furnace or pits, as case may be, of blast furnaces, puddling furnaces, or steel works; cleans-up and sometimes removes slag and cinders from pits, etc.;
(ii) (in ironworks), see helper, furnace.
helper, straightener's
see gagger (rolling mill).
helper (tinplate)
(i) (in mills) assists furnaceman (171) q.v. in firing and regulating furnaces and in heating plates; also assists roller (178), doubler (178), in rotation of duties according to shift; usually specifically designated according to responsibility, e.g., first helper, second helper, third helper;
(ii) (in tinhouse) see helper, tinman's.
helper, tinman's ; helper (tinplate), putcher
general term for workers assisting tinman (263) q.v. and includes branner, cleaning machine attendant, water boy, and cleaner and helper (hand) q.v.
helper, vertical plate furnace
assists vertical man (190) q.v. with crane by which plates are placed in and removed from vertical furnace; also tends furnace fire.
hinge builder
assembles two wings of hinge, inserts pin and places hinge in band-manipulated clamping machine to fix pin.
hinge varnisher
varnishes hinges, either by applying varnish with a brush, by dipping in a vat, or by lacquering while hot.
holder-up (i) (galvanised sheet )
places blank sheets of galvanised iron or steel on table of corrugating press; adjusts each sheet so that it is corrugated properly, and holds up sheet until corrugation is complete;
(ii) (shackles) assists forger (190) q.v., forging heavy chains, by holding links or shackles firmly, with tongs;
(iii) (rolling mill machine shop, etc.) assists skilled machinist by holding up heavy rails, plates, etc., to drilling machine., planing machine, punching machine, etc.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., holder at drill, holder-up at planes, holder-up at punch, holder-up at shears.
holer ; nut driller
operates machine which drills or punches holes in nut blanks; work now generally done by nut cutter (190) q.v.
hommicer (tyre mill)
(Crewe term) assists furnaceman (171) q.v. manipulating tyres with tongs; tends furnace fire.
hooker (wire rod mill), rod hooker, wire rod mill hooker
keeps loops of wire rod, which drop into a pit between sets of rolls, straight and running freely, by means of long steel rods hooked at ends.
hooker-on
see pig hanger-on.
hooker-out (wire works) ; dragger-down, tonger
draws out heated billets from furnace, in wire works, and passes them to wire rod roller (178) q.v. for rolling into rod, for wire drawing.
hooker-up
see breaker, dross.
hooking boy
see pulling-up boy.
hook worker (tubes)
(i) removes tubes of heavy calibre from rolls, after welding, with a hook;
(ii) see dogger-up.
hoop ironman
sorts, straightens, punches and rivets old hoop iron for re-use.
horne worker
helps forgeman (190) q.v. to manipulate heavy forgings, in forging chains and anchors, with levers, tongs and overhead chain tackle.
horse shoer's mate
see farrier's mate.
hot bench man
see bank man, hot.
hot metal guard
holds a plate or guard, when crucible and cast steel is being teemed, or poured, to prevent heat and sparks from molten metal injuring workers engaged in teeming or casting operations.
hub maker, cycle hub maker ; spindler
assembles at bench component parts of hubs or of free wheels, i.e., spindle, hub, ball bearings, cone, filing them where necessary to make them fit; tightens up cone with spanner.
inflator maker
assembles and fits together component parts of cycle and motor tyre inflators.
ingot man
is in charge of stock of steel ingots; weighs and checks them; paints identification marks on them, and gets them ready for heating in preparation for rolling.
ingot setter
sets or stacks steel ingots in readiness for next operation, e.g. reheating, or for transit.
inspector (chains)
tests measurements of cycle chain links against standard gauge, and measurements of holes in links, against standard rod; usually done by operators at successive stages of cycle chain making.
iron binder
see faggoter.
iron checker's assistant, iron fighter ; iron discharger, iron shifter, iron sorter (Clyde), iron stower
assists iron checker (939) q.v. in receiving and moving material about in yard.
iron shifter, iron stower
see iron checker's assistant.
japanner (pins) ; blacker
immerses pins in pans of black enamel; drains off surplus enamel, shakes pins about to induce even coating, and dries them in stoves.
jumper, jumper-over (rolling mill)
is one of gang of four men, in rolling mill, who catch hot rail in tongs and who together jump over rail, as it lies on floor, to turn it over into required position.
kettleman (blast furnace)
(Sheffield) charges kettle, used in steel melting, Bessemer process, with coke and ingredients for making-up steel, using shovel.
kicker, stamp kicker
operates old type of drop stamp with a foot stirrup, and assists drop stamper (190) q.v. generally; cf. stamper's mate.
kiln scarrer
see scarman.
knife hand
see guillotine hand.
knobbler (rolling mill)
see drawer-down.
labourer, general labourer
performs unskilled manual work. e.g. cleans workshops and machines, wheels materials, ore, coke, etc., to furnaces, removes ashes from furnace to ashes dump, lifts, carries or otherwise handles heavy metal, i.e., pig lead, bars, castings, etc.; brings up raw material and carries away finished work from machines; does odd jobs about works; often specifically designated according to duties, e.g., back side labourer, front side labourer, etc., q.v. or according to industry e.g., blast furnace labourer, boiler yard labourer, bronze labourer, machine labourer, machine shop labourer, mill labourer, mint labourer, nickel labourer, rolling mill labourer scrap works labourer, strip mill labourer, wheel labourer, wire mill labourer, zinc labourer, or according to worker assisted, e.g., billet cutter's labourer, brass finisher's labourer, brass fitter's labourer, chemical plumber's labourer, constructional steel worker's labourer, pewterer's labourer, wheel maker's labourer.
labourer, back side
a blast furnace hand q.v. working on charging side of furnace only.
labourer, calciner (zinc)
shovels zinc ores into oven or calciner, and performs other unskilled manual work in process of calcining.
labourer, front; front side labourer ; casting man
a blast furnace hand q.v. employed on casting side of pig iron furnace and on pig casting beds.
labourer, sailor gang; sailor labourer ; sailorman (metal trades)
a labourer q.v., with seafaring experience, employed as a slinger (989) q.v. and in splicing ropes, etc.
labourer, sand blast
assists sand blaster (259) q.v. by bringing castings to be cleaned and by removing clean castings and keeping sand blast machine supplied with finely ground sand.
labourer, steel press
assists hot straightener (190) q.v. to manipulate hot steel rails under straightening rolls or press; sweeps up floor and does various odd jobs.
labourer, tinner's
assists tinner (263) q.v. by putting articles in, and taking them out of vats.
labourer, zinc ; coal and ashes wheeler (zinc extraction)
a labourer q.v. in zinc smelting works; performs odd manual work, e.g. wheeling coal, ashes, ore, etc.
ladle dauber, hot metal ladle dauber (steel manufacture)
patches hot ladles, into which molten metal from furnaces is run, by throwing damp clay on defective spots, and tamping it into place; or repairs ladles by applying a wash of ganister; patching is sometimes done by ladle liner (278) q.v., especially in small works.
ladle man (blast furnace), direct ladleman
assists teemer (278) q.v. and reports on quality of metal, in works where molten metal is conveyed direct to steel melting furnaces.
ladle man (copper smelting)
assists ladler (278) q.v., in manipulation and moving of ladles by travelling hoist or by wheeling on bogies.
ladle man (steel manufacture)
brings ladle (large clay and firebrick-lined steel vessel) into position by operating powerful overhead cranes, so as to receive molten steel from tilted Bessemer converter, or from open hearth furnace; when filled, moves ladle along to casting pit where steel is run out by teemer (278) q.v.
ladler (lead extraction)
conveys or pours molten lead, by means of hand ladle, or ladle supported by overhead crane.
lappet maker (textile machinery)
drills holes, at regular intervals in metal disc, to take lappet needles; whole forms part of lappet loom on which an extra (whip) warp embroidery thread is inserted in pattern.
layer-on ; dresser (files)
covers file with charcoal, or with sharps (wheat middlings) and salt, before hardening, to protect teeth in lead bath; passes file to hardener and generally assists him.
lead coremaker
(i) bullet maker, bullet machinist, core cutting machinist, core cutting operator; feeds and operates machine which cuts lead core of bullets from rod lead; fixes coil or drum of rod lead on spindle and passes end of rod into machine; reports any faulty work to foreman;
(ii) casts cores in dies, as for lead caster (188).
lead press man
see potman, lead press.
lead worker (cartridges)
general term for workers handling lead in cartridge and small arms factory, including lead squirter (278), lead coremaker and valveman q.v. lever boy, leverer, lever man (rolling mill, steel foundry); operates levers attached to hydraulic or other machinery, used for movement of cars, bogies, wagons, lifts, elevators, etc.
lifter, bar
see bank man (puddling).
lifter, carriage ; lifter (railway coach)
prepares railway carriages for lifting by crane or derricks and sets springs and axle boxes into position thereunder, ready for fitter (210) q.v.
lifter, door (puddling mills, tube mills)
see door boy.
lifter, ingot
operates machine or crane which lifts and removes ingots from casting pits or moulds, or from cars where car casting process is adopted; may also be an ingot stripper, see stripper.
lifter (iron and steel tube rolling)
lifts tube as it is ejected from rolls and places it on truck for conveyance to another part of works, or assists in lifting tubes on to bench, preparatory to rolling.
lifter, pig; pig iron lifter, pig lifter-out (blast furnace) ; metal carrier, pig bed metal carrier
lifts pigs of iron out of pig bed; sometimes also carries them to trucks; cf. filler, pig.
lifter, pig (steel works)
attends to hoist for lifting pig iron on to cupola charging platform.
lifter (railway coach)
see lifter, carriage.
lifter, scrap (steel works)
operates and controls hoist or crane which lifts scrap to scrap platform.
lifter, wagon
as for lifter, carriage.
lifter-up, rod mill
lifts rods with tongs from groove to groove in rolls, or over top of rolls of wire rod mill.
lifter-up (rolling mill)
(i) anchorer, hankerer; grips bar with cross tongs swung from overhead rail by chains and pushes it towards a set of rolls for rolling;
(ii) controls valves and levers of hydraulic lifting-up table at back of rolls, under direction of rollerman (178) q.v.
liftman
operates lifts for elevating material to furnace platform or stage.
limer
assists filler q.v. in filling barrows with limestone and ore in ironworks.
lister
see filler, rack (tinplate).
live roller and skid lad
see roller gear boy.
loader
(i) (blast furnace, iron and steel works), loads iron, scrap, etc., from stock into trucks or barrows, to be sent to steel converters or furnaces of steel works; receives loaded barrows of iron ore from ore fillers q.v. and places them on table of hoist, whence they are conveyed by steam or water power, to charger q.v. at top of blast furnace; fills barrows with slag ejected from furnace; sometimes done by slagger (278) q.v. .; loads blooms on trucks for conveyance from hammer to shears, etc., sometimes specifically designated, e.g. bloom loader, bridge loader, cage loader, hoist loader, ironstone loader, lift loader, metal loader, mine loader, slag loader;
(ii) (rolling mill), loads wagons, lorries, railway trucks, etc., with finished bars, plates, rails, sheets, cased metal goods; .etc., or with scrap metal for transport; when loading heavy articles such as galvanised sheets, uses small crane; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. bar loader, bar mill loader, plate and scrap loader, rail loader;
(iii) (other metal trades) places cut lengths of metal on trucks for movement about works, or on stand near furnace ready for heating, or loads cases of finished goods into wagons, etc.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. wheel loader.
loader, swift (wire works) ; bobbin winder, swift minder, winder, wire spooler
(i) attaches end of finished wire to large set bobbins or swifts; starts winding machine by lever and removes full swift when wound;
(ii) loads coils of wire on machine swifts as required for machine weaving or stranding.
loader and unloader
combines work of loader and unloader q.v.
locker
see groover (tinbox, canister, etc., making).
looper (hayband making), hayband looper
inserts ends of lengths of wire cut by hayband maker q.v., into machine which makes a loop on end.
looper (pianos)
see eye maker (pianos).
lubricator (gun making)
see oiler of arms.
lumper
see yard man, metal.
machine attendant, machine hand, machine minder, machine tender, machinist
general terms for any operative feeding and attending automatic or semi-automatic machines; does not set up machines, but under supervision of machine tool setter (211) q.v. or foreman, feeds blanks into machine, keeps feed hopper full, pushes sheet, bar, strip metal or wire against guides, etc.; cleans machine with oil waste; watches for proper working, reports faults to setter or foreman.
machine boy
assists at tinning machine in tinplate works; attends to fires, greases machine and does any odd jobs.
machine chipper man, machine clipper man
operates portable machine tool for removing rough edges from castings, or for trimming steel plates, etc., when in position; cf. chipper (183) frazer, and clipper.
machine minder, machine tender (pins) ; bar minder, pin cutting machine attendant, pin machinist
watches pin making machine in operation, cleans it, and stops it if producing faulty work.
machinery dismantler
dismantles, takes down, or breaks-up old machinery which is to be scrapped, using spanners, heavy hammers, or oxy-acetylene burners; usually employed by a machinery scrap dealer.
magneter
shovels swarf, metal turnings, etc., into hopper head of magnetic separator machine; collects ferrous metal from plates of revolving drum and non-ferrous from pan.
malleable iron oven packer
places castings in annealing oven so that as many as possible can be annealed at same time.
mark boy, plater's mark boy
see marker, plater's.
marker (clog irons)
a cutter q.v. who cuts strips of iron into required length for pair of front clog irons, and who also indents a mark across to denote middle.
marker, cutlery
punches with a die and mallet, or operates a machine stamp, to mark knife of fork blades, shoulders of pocket knives, etc., with maker's name, or with such words as "stainless," "cast steel," etc., in cases where setter (190) q.v. does not mark cutlery.
marker (galvanised sheets)
marks finished galvanised sheets with stencil of firm's name, etc.; sometimes done by packer (949) q.v.
marker (needles fish hooks, etc.)
stamps maker's name on fish hooks, j large needles, etc., using hand or power press and stamping dies.
marker, plater's ; mark boy, marker boy, plater's mark boy, template boy
assists plater (222) q.v. to mark with chalk or slate, lines or rings where plate is to be sheared, or punched for rivet holes; uses template to fix shape, and position of holes.
marker (rolling mill)
(i) paints heat numbers, weights, etc., on blooms, billets, or slabs;
(ii) in sheet mills, is second assistant to shearer q.v.; marks packs of sheets with a template, for size.
marker (saws)
numbers, or otherwise marks, saws with power press, hand press, or with hand mark and hammer.
marker (scales, weighing machines)
see notcher.
marker, spring
marks axle springs with chalk for drilling or slotting; stamps them, when finished, with distinguishing marks, by means of hammer and stamps.
marker (tinplate), plate marker, plate mill marker
marks iron and steel plates with chalk, using template, to indicate where ends and sides are to be sheared, and lengths to which they are to be cut.
marker boy (shipbuilding)
see marker, plater's.
marker-off (tubes)
(i) measures, examines, compares with plan or sketch, and marks-off with chalk, tubes which are made to special design or sketch;
(ii) measures, examines, and marks-off defects in tubes, for correction or rejection.
matcher (tinplate)
matches plates from roughing or breaking down rolls for size, gauge, etc., ready for finishing rolls; usually done by breaker-down (178) q.v.
matcher-on ; gripper's assistant
bores and countersinks cutlery handles in lathe and fits grips thereto.
matrix blacker (foundry)
brushes surfaces of moulds, before casting, with a coating of black lead (plumbago or graphite) to prevent casting adhering to mould.
metaller, white metaller ; babbitter, bearing runner (locos.)
maintains proper heat under white metal pots and pours or runs white metal into bearings and bushes of locomotives, rolling stock axles, motor cars and similar road vehicles.
middler (rolling mill) ; plateman
works at middle set of rolls, where there are three or more sets in a train of rolls in sheet mills; catches hot sheet in tongs from furnaceman, knocks it on floor to remove scale, and passes it through rolls to rollerman (178) q.v.
mill cropper and shearer
see cropper (iron and steel rolling).
mill hand (galvanised sheet)
general term in galvanising works for men assisting at rolls in corrugating steel sheets or rolling-off excess of zinc from dipped sheets; includes holder up, taker out q.v.
mill man (rolling mills)
a labourer q.v. engaged in or about a mill, on work such as cleaning-up, carrying material, etc.
mixer man
see tar mixer.
monkey man, monkey runner (rolling mill)
operates overhead runaway to convey hot billets from furnace to squeezer or rolls.
mould cooler (steel works) ; chiller
sprays moulds with water after use, to cool them, and sometimes whilst in use in order to hasten cooling of steel ingot.
moulder casting pit (iron works)
shapes moulds in sand, in casting pit, with assistance of patterns, shovel and ramming tool, ready for teeming of molten iron from ladle.
moulder, pig bed moulder
prepares pig bed in sand with wooden moulds, shovel, rake and rammer; cuts channels in sand, connecting pig moulds; guides flow of metal, when furnace is tapped by opening new channels with spade as required; work often done by furnace keeper (171) or slagger's helper q.v.
moulder, spare hand
a blast furnace hand q.v. who acts as pig bed moulder, when necessary through sickness of regular worker or other causes.
mould grouter
fills up bad places in moulds with a paste of refractory materials; also brushes inside of mould with wash of plumbago and water or tar or other composition, to prevent sticking.
muffleman (iron foundry) ; ovenman, oven packer
feeds and tends fire of muffle furnace; usually also charges or packs ore, metal, etc., in furnace.
nailer-on (wire mattress)
see tacker-on (wire mattress).
needier (temple)
assists temple maker (210) q.v. and keeps him supplied ! with steel pins or needles.
needle winder (wire weaving)
fixes coil of wire on spindle of winding machine, feeds end of wire into needle (combined bobbin and shuttle), used in wire weaving loom, and starts machine; snips wire with pliers when needle is full.
nibber, nibber-in (buckles) ; pronger
fits metal strip containing prongs on to middle bar of brace buckle; hammers fast by hand or places in automatic machine which fastens the prongs to bar.
nickel plater (safety pins)
a pin plater q.v. specialising in safety pins; cf. nickel plater (282).
nickel rondelle maker (nickel extraction)
mixes nickel oxide with a binding material and roughly shapes small circular blocks by hand; places block or rondelle in hand or power press, moves lever to press block, and removes rondelle.
nickel rondelle maker's assistant
carries rondelles on trays to drying stove and generally assists nickel rondelle maker q.v. to mix oxide, clean machine, etc.
nickel shed return conveyor (Mond process)
wheels trucks of undecomposed nickel matte and strippings from decomposers to cupola and melting furnaces for further treatment.
nicker (screws) ; cutter girl
places screw in slot or holder of machine, pulls down revolving cutting wheel on to head of screw by lever; regulates supply of lubricating solution.
nippler (vehicles)
see wire bender (vehicles) ; cf. nippler (278).
notcher (scales) ; marker
measures and marks, by use of calipers and scribing tool, divisions on steelyard of weighing machine; cuts lines on front and notches on top of steelyard with fine files in vice on bench.
notcher (tin boxes), body notcher, box notcher ; cornerer
places sheet metal for tin boxes, canisters, etc., against guides in cutting machine, which cuts out corners or notches; controls machine by lever; for specially shaped boxes, may cut out corners with hand shears.
notcher (tubes) ; end dresser
(Scotland), twists the overlap of hot metal with pincers at ends of lap-welded tubes so that lap at end is crisscross.
notcher, notching machine worker (rolling mill)
pulls lever which causes work to be lifted up and carried forward to power-driven revolving cutter, which cuts a notch or slot; sometimes places work in grip or holder of machine, see putter-on.
number snatcher
see number taker.
number stamper
see brander (sewing machines).
number taker (iron and steel works) ; number snatcher
records and checks steel ingots from open hearth and ither [sic] furnaces in large works; cf. number taker (706).
nut driller
see holer.
nutter, nutter-up ; buttoner-up
screws finished nut on end of holt, when nut and bolt are supplied as one product.
oiler
as for greaser.
oiler, bolt
see dipper, holt.
oiler (files)
oils files, after hardening of file and softening of tang, by dipping them in oil to prevent rusting whilst in store; often done by brusher (files) or finisher (files) q.v.
oiler (general engineering) ; greaser
fills oil or lubricating cups of machinery with oil from oil can under direction of engineer or machine driver; cleans and oils or greases working parts with oily waste; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. bogie (bogey) oiler, car oiler, shear oiler; (iron and steel rolling) oils bearing of, and cleans with oily waste, various driving engines and gear for driving mills and handling metal in rolling mill; sometimes also oils, greases and cleans mills; usually specifically designated according to duties, e.g., cogging mill oiler, finishing mill oiler, gear oiler, mill engine oiler, roller gear and crane oiler.
oiler (saws) ; wiper (saws)
oils finished saw and wipes off excess oil before packing.
oiler (shipbuilding, etc.)
as for oiler and beltman.
oiler (tubes, iron and steel) ; soaper
oils cold steel tubes preparatory to cold drawing, and oils finished tubes for their preservation.
oiler and beltman
an oiler or greaser q.v. employed in shipbuilding, who also repairs driving belts.
oiler and greaser
an oiler (iron and steel rolling) q.v. who also greases rolls, especially at neck.
oiler of arms (gunsmith's) ; lubricator
lubricates movable parts of small arms, and covers metal surfaces with oil, as a protection against rust.
oil extractor
places oily waste in hydro extractor or centrifugal machine; starts and stops machine, removes clean waste and empties oil container, into which oil has been expressed.
oil padder, patent oil padder
rivets into frame of patent oiler, a thick cotton pad which sucks up and applies oil to axles of engines, oil separator, see filterman.
Oliver assistant, Oliver hammer assistant
works treadle which operates Oliver hammer, whilst Oliver smith (190) q.v. manipulates hot metal under blows of hammer; also brings material, and takes away finished work.
onsetter (blast furnace) ; setter-on
a loader q.v. who pushes trucks, etc. on to hoists and lifts around blast furnaces.
opener, opener-out, plate opener (tinplate, galvanised sheet manufacture)
opens, or separates, with a knife or cleaver, after shearing, sheets which have stuck together in rolling process.
operative (Royal Mint)
passes, by I hand, metal blanks into a coin producing machine; controls power by hand levers.
ovenman (hollow-ware)
see scaler (hollow-ware).
ovenman, oven packer (ironfoundry)
see muffleman.
pager ; type pager-up
lifts type from sticks with a paging-up iron as it is received from type finisher and makes it up into rectangular packages, i.e. pages, containing definite number and assortment of letters, etc., dependent upon size of type and of page.
paperer
see sticker (pins).
parer (card setting), card parer
operates a cutting machine which trims cloth edges of fillets of card clothing, strips of leather, cloth, etc., set with wire teeth.
parer (saws)
places marked steel sheets in a shearing machine, or against circular saw, to cut or pare it to shape of saw blank.
parer, wheel
trims wheel with hand hammer and chisel, to balance it about its centre of rotation.
passer-out
checks, counts, examines and passes or rejects newly made tin boxes or tin boxes which have been repaired by straightener (tin boxes) q.v.
passer to bench (iron and steel rolling)
carries bars, strip, etc., from shearing machine to bundling bench.
pattern seeker ; foundry router
looks out patterns in store required for use in foundry, and stores them when not in use.
pegman (rolling mill)
adjusts peg or block of steel to stop power hammer of forge from striking too heavy a blow; work usually done by shingler (174) or forger's helper (190) q.v.
picker, picker-out ; sorter, thrower-out, viewer
sorts over small finished articles, e.g. bolts, nuts and rivets, screws, nails, tacks, printing type, etc., and throws out defective ones; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., nut picker.
picker, bat (blast furnace)
sorts good from useless silica bricks or bat.
picker, cinder (cobalt); cobalt cinder picker ; cinderman
picks out grades of cobalt glass formed when cobalt ore is roasted and residue fused with quartz and potash.
picker, scrap picker
sorts over scrap metal and separates it into different grades, metals, sizes, etc., as required.
picker, zinc
see dresser, ore (zinc extraction).
picker-off, cold rolls
(i) (iron and steel rolling ) see cold roll catcher;
(ii) (tin sheet mills) picks up sheets as they emerge from rolls and piles them on trolley.
picker-up (galvanised sheets), cold roll picker-up
picks-up sheets from floor or stand, in galvanised sheet works, and conveys them in trolley to pickier (250) q.v. or to warehouse as required.
picker-up (iron and steel rolling)
(i) see cold roll catcher;
(ii) an annealing man (220) q.v. or a labourer, who collects sheets from mill floor.
pickling girl
see helper, pickler's.
piercer
pushes solid steel bloom slung in chains up to rolls containing piercing tool which pierces hole through it, whilst hot, in production of seamless steel tubes; cf. piercer (266).
pig hanger-on ; hooker-on
slings pigs for attachment to hook of overhead crane for removal from blast furnaces; sometimes done by breaker (blast furnace) q.v.
pig heaver, pig iron heaver
see tipper (pig iron).
piler, billet
keeps iron yard in order, in wire netting, rope, etc., works and piles pig iron or steel billets into stacks.
piler (blast furnace) ; stacker (furnace)
a pig lifter (blast furnace) q.v. who lifts pigs and piles them ready for slinger (989) q.v.
piler (chain making)
see floorman.
piler, hot
see bank man, hot.
piler (puddling furnace)
(i) stacker (puddling furnace); stacks finished wrought iron bars ready for heating and rolling; work usually done by bar weigher or bar carrier q.v.;
(ii) see faggoter.
piler, scrap (iron and steel rolling, steelworks)
see faggoter.
piler (steel furnace)
unloads from truck, carries and stacks piles of scrap for charging steel furnaces.
pincher
moves cars or bogies in steel works, by applying crowbar, called a pinch bar, to wheels.
pin knobber
attends treadle-driven machine which puts heads on shank of pins; obsolescent.
pin knocker-out (Bessemer)
knocks out with sledge pin (part of converter stopper) used to form tuyere (or blast) holes in bottom of basic steel Bessemer converters (pin bottom type); cf. stopper man.
pin machinist
see machine minder (pins).
pin maker (guns)
drop-forges in press, or turns in automatic machine, pins used in building small arms.
pin placer (bolt, nut and rivet making) ; stacker
a loader q.v. who piles cut lengths of iron and steel on stand near furnace ready for heater (171) q.v.
pin plater ; electric tinner
makes up solution, according to formula, in vat; loads vat with pins to be plated, using hand fork or bowl; switches on electric current and leaves for given time; removes pins to drain.
pin sheeter
see sticker (pins).
pipe bender's assistant
acts as mate or labourer to pipe bender (278) q.v. on pipe bending machine.
pipe man (coke ovens), stand pipe man
opens valve, shuts down pipe cover and so connects pipe with collecting main; also cleans out carbon from sides of pipe with long metal bar.
pipe press man ; rollman
passes cut plate between power-driven triple rolls; manipulates lever control to increase pressure of top roll on plate; removes curved plate to furnace and again passes through rolls to complete curving into pipe.
pit hand (tubes)
see weller.
placer (rolling mill)
lifts and places rolled bars in any position required, with assistance of overhead tackle, rollers and crow bar.
plate and roller lad
see roller gear boy.
plateholder
(i) arranges and sets plates upon which moulds rest in steel casting pits;
(ii) places stopper plates in position for stoppering tops of moulds after metal has been run into them; usually done by pitman's helper q.v.
plateman (rolling mill)
see middler.
plate repairer ; batterer, plate batter (Stockport), plate batterer
places bent drawing plates under automatic hammer, through which wire is drawn, and restores to shape by moving plate under blows of hammer (battering); sometimes done by wire drawer (268) q.v.
platform boy
marks moulds used in steel casting, with chalk, to show length of ingot, and cleans scrap from moulds; usually done by pitman (278) or mould setter (278) q.v. under direction of teenier (278) q.v.
plugger (gas fittings, etc.)
sprinkles emery powder and water on plug and socket of water, steam or gas taps, valves, etc.; turn or grinds plug in socket to grind down irregularities until plug fits tightly to render it water or gas tight.
plugger (stove grates)
fills blow in surfaces of cast stove grates, by welding with oxy-acetylene apparatus.
pointer (bolts, screws) ; ender
feeds and attends automatic machine which puts points on bolt or screw blank; pointing sometimes done automatically in screwing or worming machine; cf. wormer (290), chamferer (200).
pointer (clog irons)
hammers both ends of metal strip, after it has been drawn, to form points of clog iron.
pointer (wire works), rod pointer ; tonguer
prepares rods for wire drawer (268) q.v. by hammering out point on anvil by hand.
polisher
(i) (boot and shoe plate, steel pen) see barreller;
(ii) (tinplate) see cleaner and helper (hand).
pom-pom worker
a chipper q.v., using a pneumatic hammer.
potman, lead press ; lead press man
assists lead press driver (278) q.v., by tending fire under lead melting pot; keeps lead-coating machine supplied with metal at proper temperature.
potman (steel)
prepares pots or crucibles for casting; turns out steel ingots when cool and removes slag and dross from crucibles with hammer and chisel.
potter (lead extraction) ; slagman
receives slag as it flows from blast furnace or cupola into cast iron pot, supported on wheels; wheels pot into yard to cool.
preparer (roller chains)
threads links on studs for assembler to rivet.
preparer, mould
washes, scrapes, and tars or swabs moulds to prevent steel ingots from sticking; often done by mould grouter, mould man (278), pitman (278), or mould setter (278) q.v.
presser
places blanks of light nuts in piercing machine and operates machine to punch or press out holes; usually done hot, cf. nut cutter, machine nut maker (190).
press tenter (rolling mill)
a cleaner q.v. working around power presses in rolling mill.
pronger (buckles)
see nibber (buckles).
proofer (safes) ; safe staffer
packs spaces between walls of safe with sand, asbestos, slag wool and other material, to make it fireproof.
proof man (guns)
see barrel prover.
pryler, pryller (sheet rolling mill) ; brusher (iron and steel rolling), scale cleaner, scaler, sheet mill sweeper, sweeper, sweeper-up, tableman
sweeps scale from bars and sheets with a besom; may also double over rolled sheet, in readiness for its being re-heated and re-rolled into thinner gauges; sometimes done by doubler (178) q.v.
puller, stamper's
stamp puller.
puller-up (steam locomotives)
see stamper's helper.
puller-down (galvanised sheet)
takes steel sheet from pot, after galvanising, by hand with tongs or by crane.
puller-off (galvanised sheet)
pulls with tongs galvanised sheets from rolls in which excess of- zinc is squeezed-off.
puller-out (cutlery)
see hardener's assistant.
puller-out (iron and steel rolling)
see drawer, bar.
puller-out (puddling)
removes ball of puddled iron, weighing about 80 lbs., from puddling furnace, by means of tongs; places ball on iron barrow, and wheels it to shingler (174) q.v. puller-out (steel manufacture); pulls crucibles, with their molten contents, from melting hole of crucible steel furnace, and places them on furnace floor ready to be removed by taker-off q.v.; returns empty crucibles into furnace ready for next melting; sometimes responsible for firing of furnaces and for regulating temperature; often does work of cellarman q.v.
puller-up, fuse
assists fuser (241) q.v. in putting metal goods, after they have been enamelled, in a muffle furnace.
puller-up (rolling mills)
see door boy.
pulling-up boy (wire works) ; hooking boy
pulls up and arranges loops of wire on rolling mill floor and so keeps them from spreading about after rolling process.
pull-up (slang)
see door boy.
pull-up boy (anchor chain making)
pulls-up lengths of chain in course of forging and keeps chain maker (190) or welder (190) q.v. supplied with material; keeps floor clear by pulling away finished chain.
punch attendant
see punch tenter.
puncher, punching machine worker (forging, ship building)
moves lever under direction of puncher (278) q.v. of hydraulic press or power punching machine which punches holes in hot or cold ingots, ship's plates, steel bars, steel plates, girders, boot and shoe plates, clog irons, angle irons, saw blades, etc.; may assist in placing work on bed of machine by lifting with or without crane; often specifically designated, e.g., angle iron puncher, ingot puncher, rail puncher, sleeper mill puncher, steel bar puncher, etc.; in forging , usually also does work of shearer q.v.; (miscellaneous metal trades) places work on bed of machine against gauge, and operates machine by moving hand lever or foot treadle to punch holes for bolts, rivets, screws, etc.; may set gauge or fit new punches; usually done by puncher (278) q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., bobbin puncher, lath puncher, clog iron puncher, shoe tip puncher.
puncher, machine knife ; section puncher
marks-out and slots, or pierces holes in agricultural machine knives or sections, by machine or hand press; usually done by section cutter-out (254) q.v.
puncher, section (tools)
see puncher, machine knife.
puncher and shearer (rolling stock, boiler-making, shipbuilding)
attends machine which punches holes in metal plates and also shears them to size and shape required; in shipbuilding, usually done by plater (222) q.v.; cf. puncher, punching machine worker.
punching machine attendant (forging)
cleans, oils and greases punching machine; also changes punches and dies when necessary, similarly attends to shearing machine and adjusts shear blades thereon, where combined punching and shearing machines are used.
punch tenter ; punch attendant
cleans, oils, and greases punching machines, in iron and steel rolling mill.
pusher (wire rod)
draws billet from furnace with tongs and pushes or passes it into first pair of rod rolls.
putcher (tinplate)
see helper, tinman's.
putter-in (bolts, nuts, rivets)
as for heater's assistant.
putter-in (galvanised sheet)
see feeder (galvanised sheet).
putter-in (iron and steel rolling)
see guider.
putter-on (notching machine)
places metal to be notched or slotted on holder or grip of machine, with or without help of crane or chains.
putter-together (axles)
an assembler q.v. who assembles, or puts together, parts of axles for horse-drawn vehicles.
pyrometer attendant (foundry)
checks temperature maintained in cupola of ironfoundry, by watching readings of the pyrometer, an instrument which measures high temperatures; records temperatures in book; cf. temperature taker (steel works).
rack driver (fishplate mill)
see roller gear boy.
racker
places decorated and varnished tinplates into drying racks as they come from litho and varnishing machines.
rail patcher (iron and steel rolling)
a frazer q.v. who removes from rails, blemishes and rough edges left by rolls.
raiser
(i) (tin plate) see riser;
(ii) (copper rolling) see riser, mill.
ramrod maker
see cleaning rod maker.
rattler (rivets)
as for barreller.
raw material trammer (copper)
pushes trucks laden with raw materials, ore, coke, coal, flux, etc., about a copper extraction and refining works.
receiver man (blast furnace)
(Welsh term) drives loco which propels receiver, or receiving ladle, into which molten metal is run from Bessemer furnace, to ingot bed.
reckoner (tinplate)
see counter (tinplate).
reducer
reduces wire, intended for sewing machine needles, boot needles, or crochet hooks, on small automatic lathe or swaging machine; places needle in chuck of lathe or holder of swaging machine and brings tool to bear by lever.
reducing furnace hand
assists reducer (171) q.v. in firing and cleaning furnaces, moulds and floors of lead extraction works.
repairer (tin boxes)
see straightener (tin boxes).
re-shearer
a shearer q.v. who reshears defective sheared galvanised sheets to smaller sizes or for scrap.
re-shearer's assistant
helps reshearer q.v. to carry and adjust large sheets at re-shearing machines.
re-shearer's boy
assists at re-shearing machine when extra large galvanised sheets are being cut; or acts as re-shearer's assistant q.v.
rest driver
controls motion of a rest, a type of conveyor on which rails rest in a rail mill; operates levers under direction of rail roller (178) q.v.
rim worker, wheel rim worker
general terms covering workers drilling and preparing wheels for perambulators, etc., and including wheel rim bender (278), wheel rim driller (200), wheel rim roller (178), wheel rim welder (249) q.v.
ring maker (lag making)
feeds wire from a spool into a ring making machine which automatically cuts wire section and bends it into a ring, called a lag ring, used in connection with dobby looms; controls machine by hand levers.
riser ; raiser
stands at grease pot end of tinning machine, receiving plates, as -they emerge coated with tin, and transfers to racks, or, more usually, to branning machine direct; modern practice is to use a machine called a "patent riser" or "auto-riser," by which sheets are brought up automatically from tinning bath and passed to branning machine.
riser, mill (copper rolling) ; raiser
stands behind mill or rolls and returns sheets over rolls to rollerman (178) q.v.; uses tongs, if sheet is hot; if cold, uses leather gloves; sometimes done by behinder (178) q.v.
rivet machine minder, rivet machine tender rivet maker
(i) (cold method) cold header; operates automatic machine which makes rivets for belting or for thin sheet metal work from coil wire: fixes coil of wire on swift er coil holder and feeds end of wire into machine: controls levers and watches for any faulty work;
(ii) (hot method) makes rivets for use in shipbuilding, boilermaking, and general engineering from rod or bar metal on semi-automatic machine; feeds hot metal rod, bar or strip from furnace, using tongs, into receiving end of machine; applies power by hand levers.
rivet recesser
see stud recesser.
rocker (roller engraving)
places hardened steel mill engraved with raised design in contact with copper roller to be engraved in special machine; turns wheel of machine, so that as mill and roller rock or bump backwards and forwards, the two are brought closer and closer together, thus forcing mill deeper into copper to obtain better impression.
rod winder (wire works)
a swift loader q.v. who winds rod, or thick wire, into a coil on power-driven swift.
roller (drums, kegs)
passes sheets of metal (edges already folded over by folder) between revolving steel rollers, which roll sheets into cylindrical form; interlocks folds made by folder q.v.
roller gear boy ; live roller and skid lad. plate and roller lad, rack driver, skid, bog, skid and live roller lad
(i) works handle, at signal from roller turner (169) q.v., which controls gearing of series of rollers, on which white hot metal is conveyed to and from mill; by means of rod, clears obstructions on skidways;
(ii) roller lad; in iron and steel rolling mill where rollers are not mechanically driven, places loose rollers in favourable positions to receive bar from rolls for next pass.
roller lad
(i) attends on roller (178) q.v., as messenger;
(ii) see roller gear boy.
roller-over (brass)
(i) covers iron rod or tube with a coating of brass sheet, by a rolling process; passes iron rod, core or tube, together with brass strip, between power-driven triple rolls; increases pressure of top roll by hand screw till strip is completely turned around core or tube; usually done by roller (178) q.v.;
(ii) feeds and operates roll to which he passes brass strip for bending to semi-circular or angular section beading.
rollman (pipe)
see pipe press man.
rotary cutting machine hand
feeds and operates rotary machine which cuts tin plates into strips and also trims-off rough edges.
rough machine man
general term for men operating machines performing first or rough machining operations.
rubber
(i) nibs off, or removes, scale with wire brush, emery cloth, etc., from steel articles after hardening in oil bath;
(ii) (cutlery) see hardener's assistant:
(iii) (sawmaking ) does final polishing of saws with fine emery powder to remove scratches and process marks;
(iv) (sewing machines) see stoner;
(v) (typefounding) 'smooths cast type on a stone or by means of filing; obsolescent;
(vi) (tinplate ) see cleaner and helper (hand).
rubber-up (reed making)
rubs surface of pitch smooth on staves of reed that have been dipped by dipper-in q.v. and allowed to dry and harden.
rubbish emptier (steel works)
collects refuse, wheels it away and empties it on rubbish heap.
rucker (blast furnace), ironstone rucker
breaks up with a sledge hammer, ironstone into small pieces and rakes into a heap or ruck.
rumbler (brass spinning and finishing), shaking barrel rumbler (boot and shoe plates)
see barreller.
runner, bar
see runner, stem (tubes).
runner, bearing
see metaller.
runner, bogie
pushes up bogie or truck at furnace of rolling mill, to receive pieces of hot metal billets, and wheels them to first rolls.
runner, coke
(i) see filler, coke;
(ii) (pig iron) a wheeler q.v. who conveys coke in harrows from hoppers to furnace table.
runner, pile (rolling mill)
conveys hot piles, fagots or bundles of pieces of wrought iron, from furnace to rolls, usually on overhead runaway from which they are usually slung in a cradle.
runner, pot (steel works) ; taker-off
raises crucibles from furnace floor by levering up on wheeled tongs and wheels or runs them to teemer (278) q.v.; wheels back to furnace empty crucibles; often done by puller-out q.v.
runner (screws), nicker and turner's runner, screwer's runner, former's runner
assists nicker and turner's fitter (211), screwer's fitter (211) or worming fitter (211) q.v., by fetching and carrying materials, tools, etc.
runner, stem runner (tubes, iron and steel) ; bar runner
keeps mandrel, over which tubes are drawn, in position against rolls, by hammering on end or stem during welding process; withdraws stem from tube after operation is completed, and runs back with it ready for use in another tube.
runner, tool
fetches and carries tools between tool shop or store and machines as instructed by foreman or tool setter (211) q.v.
runner, wagon (blast furnace)
pushes, or runs, wagons, small cars, or bogies of material about works.
runner-down (rolling mill) ; trailer-down
conveys hot muck bar from heating furnace to rolls, by means of tongs suspended from an overhead trolley by a chain.
runner-in
see charger, tube.
runner maker (steel manufacture)
makes and sets channel, launder or runner, through which molten metal runs from furnace to moulds or ladles; lines a metal trough with bricks and ganister, lights fire under trough to dry ganister and sets trough in place; usually done by melter (second hand) (171) q.v.
runner, runner man (steel works)
operates overhead trolley, which carries iron ladle from mixer to converter vessels in Bessemer process, and also dumps iron into vessels with hydraulic machine; when metal is not directly poured into converter vessel, adjusts position of moveable clay-lined runner, or channel, for pouring into vessel from side.
runner-out (iron and steel rolling)
(i) (in sheet mill ) see drawer, bar;
(ii) conveys finished strip on to mill floor.
runner-round, runner-through (wire rod mill)
picks up with tongs end of hot rod coming from finishing rolls, puts it through guard, and hooks it over stud on coiling reel.
sailorman (metal trades)
see labourer, sailor gang.
sand calciner, sand furnaceman (steel works) ; sand dryer
calcines, or bakes in furnace, sand used for making hearth of a Siemens Martin or other open hearth furnace.
sander in tinhouse (tinplate manufacture)
see duster (tinplate).
saw backer
see back fixer.
saw bench hand
a sawyer q.v. who cuts-up bars of lead with circular saw into suitable form, or cleans-up edges by trimming casting webs from bars or other lead castings.
saw driver, saw engineman, sawman (iron and steel rolling)
saws bars and sections of steel to required lengths and widths on power-driven circular saw; sets guage [sic] and adjusts metal to be cut on bed of machine; controls machine by means of levers.
saw girl
as for nicker.
sawman, sawyer, sawing machine worker, sawyer machinist
saws metal, in form of bar, tube, strip, etc., into lengths, using a machine saw; sets gauges, places or clamps work on bed of machine, and pushes work against saw or controls automatic feed to saw by lever or wheel; controls power levers of machine, when not done by saw driver q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. brass rule sawyer, copper tube sawyer, iron sawyer, steel sawyer, tube sawman, tube sawyer.
sawyer, cold
a sawyer q.v. who cuts steel rails, billets, etc., when cold; cf. hot sawman (278).
scale clearer (iron and steel rolling) ; scaleman
a labourer who removes scale from floor of rolling mill; places it in skips, trucks, or barrows, and sometimes wheels it away, see scale wheeler.
scaleman (iron and steel rolling)
may be either scale clearer or scale wheeler q.v., or combine duties of both.
scaleman (ironfoundry)
see check-weighman (ironfoundry).
scaler, copper sheet
see scraper (copper rolling).
scaler, enamelled sign
places iron sheets before enamelling , in furnace; when heated, removes them with tongs, and scrapes off loosened scale.
scaler (hollow-ware) ; ovenman (hollow-ware)
removes scale, rust, dirt, etc., from sheet metal articles, by placing them in a furnace, and brushing off loosened scale, on removal.
scaler (iron and steel rolling)
see pryler.
scaler (steel manufacture)
trims scale and slag, formed at mouth of converters or ladles, either by hand with hammer and chisel, or by hydraulic chipping machine.
scarman, scarrer ; kiln scarrer
removes scars or lumps of fused clinker from sides of calcining kilns in ironworks with rake, hammer and chisel.
scavenger
see cleaner (steel manufacture).
scourer (boot and shoe plates)
see barreller.
scourer (press goods)
rubs over tinned or galvanised surfaces with sawdust, immediately after tinning or galvanising; obsolescent.
scourer (steel pens)
as for barreller.
scraper (copper rolling) ; copper sheet scaler
scrapes off, by means of a steel tool, any adhering oxide not removed by heating copper sheet and subsequent cooling in water; also removes any surface cracks by scraping through until clean metal is reached.
scrap gatherer (shipbuilding, etc.) ; scrap wheeler
collects scrap steel lying about shops and yard and wheels it to scrap heap, scrap gatherer (tin boxes, etc.); collects scrap tinplate as it falls from various cutting machines, and takes it to bundler q.v.
scrap lad (galvanised sheet)
see faggoter.
scrap man (iron and steel rolling) ; cropman, scrap remover
collects scrap iron and steel about hot saws and shears; loads it into trucks or harrows, and sometimes wheels it away to scrap heap.
scrap man, scrapper (blast furnace)
a wheeler q.v. who pushes trucks laden with iron and steel scrap to blast furnaces to be remelted.
scrapper (steel manufacture)
shovels steel scrap into mouth of Bessemer converter at signal from blower (170) q.v. to reduce temperature of molten steel.
scrappie (slang, Scotland)
see cutter, scrap.
scrap remover
see scrap man (iron and steel rolling).
screener, blende, calamine screener
see dresser, ore (zinc extraction).
screen tenter
looks after and feeds machinery which screens or sifts slag, in slag and slag wool works.
scythe wrapper-up
sits on backs of, and controls with knee, three or four scythes, and wraps them in brown paper, straw, and straw rope, in readiness for despatch.
selvedge twister
attends automatic machine which twists wire to form selvedge of wire netting.
setter-on
see onsetter (blast furnace).
setter, setting-up boy (typefounding)
places type received from casting machine face side up in long lines on bench ready for dresser (278) q.v.
shaker, barrel shaker (iron and steel hollow-ware, boot shoe plates)
see barreller ; in nail and screw making, uses sawdust as cleaning medium; sometimes specifically designated, according to method of making screws, e.g. forged shaker, turned shaker, wormed shaker.
shear driver
see guillotine engineman.
shearer, shear hand, shearman, shearsman, shearing machine attendant, shearing machine worker, shearing machinist ; cropper cutter (hollow-ware, rolling mill)
cuts bar metal to length, or sheet metal to length, shape or size, trims ragged ends, etc., by power or hand shearing or cropping machine; sets gauge or fixes template on work to guide cutting edge, or moves lever to bring work under cutting edge so that cleavage takes place along chalked line; in shipbuilding , usually done by puncher and shearer q.v.; often further designated, e.g. sleeper mill shearer, bloom shearer, circle copper shearer, fish plate shearer, forge shearer, hoe shearer, iron shearer, scrap shearer, short link shearer (chains).
shearer, bar; bar shearman (iron and steel rolling, tinplate)
see cutter, bar.
shearer (boiler and tank making)
a puncher and shearer q.v. working on plates for boilers and tanks.
shearer, shearsman (bolts, nuts and rivets)
see cropper (bolts, nuts and rivets).
shearer's assistant, shearer's helper ; holder-up at shears
helps shearer q.v. by placing iron and steel sheets on shear table, removing them when sheared, and removing also scrap metal from shears; cf. double marker.
shearer's marker
marks galvanised sheets to size with chalk and assists shearer q.v. generally.
shears worker, hydraulic
a shearer q.v. attending hydraulic shearing machine.
sheerleg attendant
lifts by means of sheerlegs (a two-legged derrick), heavy fittings, such as engine parts, boilers, funnels, armour plating, etc., from jetty to ship, in shipbuilding and marine engineering; adjusts sheerlegs with blocks and fall; controls winding engine by levers.
sheeter's mate
performs general unskilled duties for sheeter and erector (corrugated roofing) (226) q.v.
sheet mill worker
general term for any person employed in an iron and steel sheet rolling mill, e.g., bar dragger, cold roll catcher, sheet bundler, shearer, wheeler.
sheet turner (galvanised sheet)
see turner-over (galvanised sheet).
sherardizer
places metal articles already cleaned and dipped in acid hath, to be sherardized (coated), in airtight retort and surrounds them with blue powder (zinc dust); watches temperature of retort during process of heating to 500-600 F.; removes from retort and sets aside to cool.
shifter (iron and steel rolling)
(i) one of a gang of men assisting grinder or driller (200) q.v. in shifting rails and putting them into position for drilling or grinding; according to experience and skill is known as first shifter or second shifter;
(ii) is engaged in general lifting and carrying of ingots, bars, scrap, etc., about iron and steel works.
shifter boy
as for shifter.
shipper (tinplate)
a loader q.v. who moves cases of finished tinplate by means of small crane or hoist and stacks in trucks, etc., for transport from works.
shooter
fires a gun, charged with gun powder, in bottom of hot blast stove, to dislodge flue dust adhering to brickwork; rakes out dust and shovels into barrow for conveyance to tip; in small works, work is done by gasman (953) q.v.
shop tender, shop tenderer (small arms)
a labourer who assists in factory wherever required; cleans and looks after work-shop; keeps keys and attends to lights.
sickle wrapper-up
as for scythe wrapper-up.
sinter operator (blast furnace)
feeds small or powdered iron ore to kiln or furnace, with a flux, and fuel, and controls furnace, thus causing ore dust to fuse together; rakes out fused ore into barrows, etc.
sizer (brass bobbins)
sorts brass bobbins into sizes, for packing and despatch.
skid boy, skid and live roller lad
see roller gear boy.
skimmer (blast furnace)
holds with tongs, or fixes, piece of pure sheet iron over molten iron as it flows along channel to divert slag from pig bed into side channel.
skimmer (needles)
feeds needle wires by hand between guide wheel and emery wheel of a machine which removes scale from middle of wires, preparatory to eye-making.
slackener
tests cycle chains by baud to see if link joints are pliant; loosens stiff studs or rivets, by tapping them with a hammer on steel block.
slag contractor
contracts to remove slag from furnaces or ladles; is in charge of men who tap slag from blast furnace or steel furnace, collect slag in ladle, remove ladle to slag heap and tip it; usually disposes of slag to artificial manure manufacturers; contractor does work of slagger (278) q.v.
slagger (puddling furnace) ; cinder man (S. Staffs.)
loads slag into barrows and also wheels it to dump; see also slag loader, slag wheeler; cf. slagger (278).
slag man
any worker drawing-out. filling or wheeling slag, at blast furnace; cf. slagger (278).
slagman (lead extraction)
see potter (lead extraction).
slitter (wire works)
feeds sheets or strips of metal into slitting machine, which cuts them into narrow ribbons for use, e.g., as band or edging to wire nets.
smeddy
see smith's shop assistant.
smith's assistant
(i) see smith's shop assistant;
(ii) in small arms factory. assists smith (190) q.v. by holding forging on anvil or under drop hammer; heats forging in furnace; cf. heater (171) and smith's striker (190).
smith's fireman
feeds, attends, and blows blacksmith's fire.
smith's scale attendant
removes scale from anvil and forging during forging process, by scraping or brushing, to keep it clean for forger (190) q.v.; also removes collections of scale from floor round anvil.
smith's shop assistant. smithy, smithy labourer ; smeddy, smith's assistant
does all lifting, carrying, cleaning-up and general labouring work necessary in blacksmith's forge.
snaper (files) ; cropper
a shearer q.v. who crops or shears end of files on power-shearing machine, and squares ends by grinding on emery wheel.
sniper ; caster, teaser, teazer
leads molten iron into various channels of pig beds; opens out or blocks channels in sand with a special tool or snipe; assists furnace keeper q.v. with repairs to moulds and does general labouring work round Mast furnace; usually done by filler, furnace helper, or labourer q.v.
snouter
see blower (slag and slag wool).
soaper
see oiler (tubes, iron and steel).
sorter (bolts, nuts and rivets, screws, nails and tacks)
see picker.
sorter (boot and shoe plates)
sorts boot and shoe protectors after casting, rejecting defective castings and foreign bodies.
sorter, metal sorter (general engineering)
(i) see sorter, scrap;
(ii) operates machine which separates iron or steel filings, turnings, etc. by means of rotating or travelling magneto;
(iii) separates copper from zinc, lead and other metals by hand picking.
sorter, iron (Clyde district)
see iron checker's assistant.
sorter (needles)
feeds hopper of, and operates machine which automatically sorts needles by length; cf. sorter (needles) (278).
sorter, scrap sorter
generally sorts and grades scrap metal, sometimes breaks-up and sorts scrap metal for smelting down; sometimes breaks it up with hammer and shears; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. tea lead sorter, tin sorter, tin foil sorter, waste sorter (tin boxes).
sorter, shale (blast furnace)
sorts shale into various qualities; usually done by filler q.v.
sorter (steel manufacture)
(i) sorts-out various qualities of scrap steel or other material, for melting furnaces;
(ii)feeds iron ore into washer, at bottom of which is running water, which separates constituents according to specific gravity;
(iii) (in cementation process) sorts-out converted, or blistered, bars, and returns those not satisfactory, for further treatment.
sorter and wirer (clog iron)
a wirer q.v. who also sorts finished clog irons into sizes.
spannerman (iron and steel works)
walks round various departments tightening-up nuts, etc.
spindler
see hub maker.
spitter (needles) ; threader
threads by hand, double needles, after eyeing, in groups of several hundreds, on two wires passed through needle eyes, ready for filer (233) or grinder (237) q.v.
splatcher (copper rolling)
lays several sheets of rolled copper on floor and hits them with a splatcher, a kind of mallet, to flatten them and remove wrinkles.
split pin maker
attends and feeds automatic machine which makes and finishes split pins, from wire coil: fixes coil of wire on holder, controls levers and reports faulty work to machine setter (211) q.v.
split ring maker
as for split pin maker.
spout man
lines and repairs with special clay, hot metal spouts, or pouring channels, of furnaces, in steel works; usually done by melter (second hand) (171) q.v. .; if spout has to be brick lined, is usually done by bricklayer (565) q.v.
spring buckler
see spring hooper.
spring coiler
a spring maker q.v. who uses a jigging machine, on which small coil springs are made; when spring is coiled on mandrel to required length, cuts wire with pliers.
springer
fits springs in doors of stoves, grates, and ranges.
spring hooper ; spring buckler
fixes metal band or buckle round leaves of a laminated spring to keep them together; inserts screws or bolts and tightens up with screw driver or spanner.
spring maker
fixes drum of wire to holder of machine and feeds end of wire between rollers which twist wire into coil springs for use in furniture and upholstery making: as spring is automatically cut off. slips coil from rollers by operating foot lever.
spring unhooper
see stripper, spring.
stacker (blast furnace)
(i) see piler (blast furnace);
(ii) see dogger.
stacker (bolts, nuts and rivets')
see pin placer.
stacker, pig iron stacker
a metal yardman q.v. who is in charge of piles of pig iron in foundry yard; moves and stacks them as necessary.
stacker (iron and steel rolling)
makes stacks of finished bars, sheets, plates, etc., for storage purposes in stock yard or elsewhere; often does work of loader, q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. fishplate stacker, rail stacker.
stacker (puddling furnace)
(i) see piler (puddling furnace);
(ii) see dogger.
stamper (galvanised sheet)
operates small press which stamps plates with customer's private brand or mark.
stamper, ore ; iron ore breaker, ore breaker
attends to mill in which blocks of iron ore are crushed; controls levers and watches smooth working of conveyor belts.
stamper, rail
operates small press which stamps finished rails with customer's or roller's mark or name; sometimes stamps by hand with hammer and dies.
stamper (tinplate) ; brander (tinplate)
uses paint, brush and stencils to mark wooden boxes with maker's brand, and with size and quality of tinplates.
stamper's helper, stamper's mate ; puller-up, stamper's puller, stamp puller
assists stamper (254) q.v. by pulling or kicking lever or strap which causes stamp to fall: carries metal to be stamped and does any other unskilled work.
staple maker
operates by means of levers, and attends to machine which cuts, bends, and finishes wire staples; fixes coil of wire on holder and reports faulty work to machine setter (211) q.v.
stayer (boiler)
screws long thread stay bolts into boiler stays by means of low gear machine controlled by hand lever; if necessary, caulks end of bolts with hand or pneumatic hammer and chisel; cf. stayer (278).
steam crane boy
operates hand and foot levers to control simpler and smaller cranes used in steel works for lifting iron, steel, scrap, etc., in yard; feeds and stokes furnace.
steam hammer boy
moves lever to cause steam hammer to drop, on instructions of smith (190) q.v.
steel bender (concrete shipbuilding)
bends steel rods and girders in hand operated or power press, into required shape, to form framework for concrete.
steel manager
see cutter-up (files).
sticker (needles, pins) ; paperer, pin sheeter
(i) feeds pins or needles into hopper head of machine; passes strip of paper into machine and works foot lever to cause row of pins or needles to stick into paper;
(ii) sticks needles or safety pins on card, by hand.
stirrup jagger
roughs (jags) inside bottom of stirrup with hammer and punch.
stitcher (wire works)
joins together sections of woven wire cloth, or netting, by hand, sewing with wire and needle, or by stitching in a wire sewing machine.
stocker, iron; pig iron stocker, pig stocker ; stock metal man
a metal carrier or pig lifter q.v. who places pig iron in stock and removes it when required for loading into wagons; generally also keeps account of iron entered or removed.
stockman (pig iron)
general term for any man employed in pig iron stock yard; includes stock metal carrier, pig lifter, pig loader, pig tipper.
stock metal man
see stocker, iron.
stoker (blast furnace)
see charger (blast furnace).
stoker, furnace stoker
see fireman.
stoker for annealing ovens (rolling stock)
a fireman q.v. who feeds and keeps clean, fires under annealing ovens, in annealing of metal used in making rolling stock.
stoker (general ironfoundry)
see firemen, oven.
stoker (shipbuilding)
see fireman (shipbuilding).
stoner ; rubber (sewing machines)
rubs down metal parts of sewing machines, after japanning, with fine pumice stone and water.
stop boy (rolling mill)
sets stop or gauge and pulls lever which operates shears, under direction of shearer q.v., in a continuous rolling mill, to shear or cut blooms or rods to required lengths.
stopper man, stopper setter
removes old fireclay stoppers from ladles, and inspects and places into position new ones, in steel works; makes new stoppers or repairs old ones by shaping lumps of fire-clay by hand about steel core, so that when lowered into pouring hole of ladle, flow of metal is stopped; cf. stopper maker (103).
straightener (aeroplane stays), wire straightener
straightens coil wires, used for stays in aircraft manufacture, by passing between rollers of straightening machine.
straightener, cold
see straightener (iron and steel rolling mill).
straightener (general engineering)
straightens iron or steel bars, rods, angles, channels, etc., by passing them through a pair of slightly conical rollers.
straightener (iron and steel rolling mills)
(i) taps rods and bars of small section, while still hot, after delivery from rolling mill, with wooden mallet, to straighten them;
(ii) straightens rods of round section, with tongs while hot, as they are being reeled on drum by machine:
(iii) cold straightener; makes round sections dead-straight, in cold, state, in a bright-drawn steel rod works, by twisting motion in and through a machine;
(iv) straightens shafting, in cold state, by a rotary or twisting motion in and through a machine.
straightener (stove castings)
heats slightly bent stove castings in oven; fixes by hand in vice and attaches heavy weight to bend metal to required extent.
straightener (in boxes) ; repairer (tin boxes)
places damaged, i.e., bent, tin boxes on mandrel and hammers them with wooden mallet to take out dents, etc.
straightener (wire works)
straightens rods, or strip metal, either with hand hammer, or by passing them through a train of mechanical rollers.
straightener, wire (pins)
helps pin maker (278) q.v. by putting coil of wire on swift or spindle of machine and guiding end of wire through steel pegs up to feed of pin making machine, straightening it by moving pegs as coil unwinds.
straightener at machine (drawn rods)
straightens drawn steel or brass rods by passing them through mechanical rolls.
stretcher, stretcher flattener ; flattener, patent flatterer
places sheet to be flattened before galvanising, in machine; turns lever to clamp sheet at both ends and applies hydraulic power to stretch it.
stretcher (cycle chains)
puts cycle chain on hooks and moves lever to stretch it; taps it with a mallet against a block of wood to bring links into alignment.
stretcher (hayband making)
see hayband maker.
striking board man
assists loam moulder (180) q.v., in making large casting moulds by use of striking board, or template; sets guides and/ or spindles under direction of moulder; draws striking board laterally along guide way or rotates it about spindle to form inner or outer surfaces of mould.
stripper (bolts, etc.), bolt stripper
see frazer.
stripper, brake
strips brake gear from rolling stock before repair or renewal, by undoing bolts and nuts with band tools; usually done by brake fitter (210) q.v.
stripper (copper)
separates laminated slabs or ingots of copper into thin plates, after they have been withdrawn from casting moulds.
stripper (files) ; dresser (files)
strips, i.e. levels or smooths surface of file blank, in readiness for cutting, by filing (hand or machine) or by scraping.
stripper, ironwork
dismantles and breaks out structural iron or steel work, from old buildings, and other works of construction.
stripper, spring ; spring unhooper
operates hydraulic' machine, by which bands or buckles round leaves of steam locomotive springs sent in for repair, are removed.
stripper (steel manufacture), ingot stripper
strips ingots from moulds, i.e. operates and controls, by means of levers in cab of overhead crane, apparatus for removing steel ingots from moulds in which they have been cast.
stud maker (pianos)
feeds metal rod into automatic machine. which makes studs used to guide piano strings on frame; watches machine for faulty work and stops it, if necessary.
stud recesser ; rivet recesser
puts small studs, used in cycle chain making, in a hopper of automatic machine to be recessed; watches machine and stops it if not working properly.
stuffender (steel forging)
at cementation furnace, lays charcoal in large fireclay boxes, places layer of iron bars thereon, another layer of charcoal on bars, and so on until box is filled or stuffed, ready for process; usually done by furnaceman (171) q.v.
stuffer, safe
see proofer (safes).
stuffer (tubes)
fills tubes with sand, to prevent their collapsing or flattening in process of bending, when hot; rams sand tight with ramming iron.
stumper
releases or fixes into position, mandrel on tube welding machine; sometimes done by back hole stopper q.v.
sudsman (tube drawing)
fills tanks with soapy water and maintains supply of lubricant to drawing plates on tube drawing bench.
sweeper, sweeper lad (blast furnace) ; cleaner-up (puddling furnace)
sweeps up with besom, cinders, coke, flue dust, ore, sand, slag, etc., from around furnaces, iron runways, dust boxes, stoves, etc., or top of gantry, also removes coke fallen from barrows; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. ore sweeper, bottom sweeper, top sweeper; work sometimes done by ore filler or charger q.v.
sweeper, sweeper-up, sheet mill sweeper (iron and steel rolling)
see pryler (iron and steel rolling).
sweeper, ship (shipyard)
sweeps and cleans up vessels in later stages of construction or repair, in shipyard.
swift minder (wire works)
see loader, swift.
swiller (metallic bedsteads)
washes brass portions of metal bedsteads in hot water, after they have been dinned in acid bath.
swiller (tinplate) ; washer, white washer
washes tinplates in water, after pickling; obsolescent; pickling machine now does this work.
table driver (rolling mill) ; transporter driver
controls levers of movable table which transfers steel billets from one set of rolls to another, at steel works.
tableman (iron and steel rolling)
see pryler.
tacker, tack minder
see feeder, tack.
tacker-on (wire mattress) ; nailer-on
fastens wire mattresses to wooden frames by nailing on with staples.
taker-down ; drier-down
removes galvanised sheets from cooling racks, for sorting and despatch.
taker-off (galvanised sheets)
removes galvanised sheets from warehouse trucks after inspection.
taker-off (steel manufacture)
see runner, pot.
taker-off (tinplate)
see catcher, bar.
taker-off (wire rod mill)
(i) takes off hot coils of wire rod from last rolls, and stacks them to cool;
(ii) removes bundles of wire rod from hooks of cooling conveyor, and places them on trucks, using a long hook, suspended from a chain.
taker-out
see helper, corrugator's.
tallier (wire works)
keeps stock and labels goods at various stages of manufacture, from rod to finished wire, with particulars of cast, number or quality, to prevent mixing of different qualities.
tanger, saw tanger
places saw blade against gauge in semi-automatic machine, which marks and punches tang hole in blade and rivets on tang.
tank excavator (copper extraction)
(i) excavates residue from tank after copper has been dissolved out from roasted copper ore by agitation with sulphuric acid ; copper solution is run off and residue stirred up with water before removal of insoluble portion;
(ii) shovels out copper "mud" from bottom of tank in which copper sulphate solution has been stirred up with pig iron, scrap iron, iron borings, etc., in production of deposited copper, after iron solution has been run off.
tar mixer ; mixer man
attends machine which mixes tar with slag, in slag and slag wool making.
teaser, teazer
see sniper.
temperature taker (steel works)
reads and records temperatures of furnaces in steel works, by means of a pyrometer; cf. pyrometer attendant (foundry).
template boy
see marker, plater's.
test boy (rolling mill)
stamps or stencils, by hand, date, weight and length on finished bars of wrought iron.
tester, can; petrol can tester
as for tester (tin boxes, etc.).
tester's mate (motor cars, etc.)
assists car tester (278) q.v. in testing chassis, etc.; attends trials and assists in making minor adjustments.
tester (tin boxes, etc.)
tests finished tin boxes, canisters, etc., by air pressure, in water, or by means of a vacuum, to ensure that they are air tight; sometimes also wipes and scours.
test marker (steel works)
marks cast ingots of steel, when cold, with brush and paint or chalk, to show quality of steel according to test.
threader
see spitter (needles).
thread roller (screws)
feeds with screw blanks, hopper head of screw thread rolling machine; empties tray of finished screws from time to time, and reports any faulty work to machine setter (211) q.v.
thrower-out
see picker.
thrower-up (galvanised sheet)
passes steel sheets from pickling shed up to platform for galvanising, using tongs.
tilter ; tipper (steel manufacture)
operates levers which tilt Bessemer converter or tilting furnace, under direction of blower (170) or melter (171) q.v.; cf. tilter (174) and (190).
tinhouse man
general term covering workpeople employed in tinhouse, e.g. tinman (263), riser, helper, waterboy, branner, duster, carrier-down, and wheeler q.v.
tipman, slag tipman
see tipper, slag (blast furnace).
tipper, cinder (blast furnace)
see tipper, slag.
tipper (clog irons), heel tipper
tends a machine which hammers front of heel iron, forming a small flat tip at each side, to grip front of clog heel when attached.
tipper, coke
empties coke trucks into bunkers of stock, for use in pig iron manufacture.
tipper (foundries)
as for tilter (steel works).
tipper, metal (steel manufacture)
operates crane or machine which tips up molten metal from blast furnaces into mixer.
tipper (pig iron) ; metal wheeler, pig heaver, pig iron heaver, pig iron wheeler, pig wheeler
(i) (puddling) conveys pig iron and scrap, as required, in barrows and mixes different qualities; usually also unloads pig iron and scrap in yard, and breaks it with sledge hammer or in machine;
(ii) (ironworks ) tips wagon at spoil bank or slag tip; usually done by yard labourer, slag contractor or general locomotive man (701) q.v.; often further designated, e.g. metal tipper, pig iron tipper, wagon tipper.
tipper, scrap (rolling mill)
unloads scrap from trucks into stock for rolling mill; is often a scrap wheeler q.v.
tipper, slag (blast furnace) ; ballman, banksman, cinder thrower, cinder tipper, slag bank man, slag tipman, tipman
tips ladles of cold or molten slag at slag tip or down chute into barges; often done by general locomotive man (701) q.v.
tipper, slag (steel manufacture)
operates and controls crane or bogie, handling or conveying slag and cinder to dump.
tipper (steel manufacture)
see tilter.
tonger (wire)
see hooker-out.
tonguer
see pointer (wire works).
tool grinder's assistant
assists tool grinder (237) q.v. by doing first grinding of tool on grinding wheel; usually also does work of tool carrier and tool runner q.v.
top man (blast furnace)
see charger (blast furnace).
trailer, bar
drags bars over rollers with tongs from cold bank to bar straightener and thence to finishing bench.
trailer, iron
drags rolled puddled bars to cold bank over rollers with hand tongs.
trailer, trailer-out (rolling mill)
removes finished steel bars from rolling mill to dump; grips them with a pair of hooks, and drags them along floor.
trailer-down (rolling mill)
see runner-down.
transferer, transfer fixer
imprints trade marks, gilding, or other ornamental designs on japanned portions of beadsteads [sic], sewing machines, etc., or on engines, cars, cycles, etc., before enamelling, by means of transfers; damps transfer and applies it to work by hand with a pad; cf. ornamenter (278).
transporter driver (rolling mill)
see table driver (rolling mill).
trimmer
files and trims up stamped, cast or forged metal parts, e.g. of cycles, small arms, using hammer and chisel, file, glazing tool, emery wheel or fine machine saw.
trimmer, bullet ; bullet trimming operator
feeds bullet blanks into hopper of trimming machine, which cuts or trims them to correct length and shape; controls machine by means of levers.
trimmer, cold
a trimmer q.v. cutting superfluous fin from forgings, etc., when cold.
trimmer, engine
a trimmer q.v. using a power-driven machine press or saw.
trimmer, hot ; warm trimmer
a trimmer q.v. trimming forgings while still hot, by placing them, with tongs, in machine press; operates foot treadle to cause cutting plate to descend and trim forgings.
trimmer, lead plate
trims excess of lead from accumulator plates, after they have been cast, sawn and cut to size, using a shave-hook.
trimmer (tin boxes, etc.) ; edger (tin boxes)
cuts away rough edges of tin boxes, canisters, etc., on semi- or fully-automatic machine, after they have been stamped out; places tin box on steel holder in machine and moves levers to bring a cutter to bear on each tin.
trimmer (cased tubes)
trims or cuts off odd pieces of tube or of casing after they have been drawn on draw bench, with hack saw or circular saw; cf. tube sawyer.
trimmer, warm
see trimmer, hot.
troller, trolleyer
see bogeyman.
trolley man (tinplate)
see wheeler.
truckman
a pig loader q.v. who sees that trucks are brought exactly under chute, at pig breaking machine; or sees that railway trucks are properly loaded with pig iron from pig beds.
trumpet man
(i) makes runner, or channel shaped like a trumpet, down which molten steel flows to ingot moulds, in multiple casting; sets up steel sheets for bottom and sides, and lines (runner with refractory bricks and special clay; sometimes also prepares base plates, upon which moulds are placed for multiple casting; sometimes done by runner man q.v.;
(ii) (Bessemer process) stands by blower (170) q.v. and calls out his instructions to men working under him through a megaphone.
tube and hoop clencher (textile machinery)
see bobbin hooper.
tumbler (boot and shoe plates)
see barreller.
tupper, tupper at stripper and winch
by means of tackle, swings back tup, or tupper, a heavy piece of iron suspended from a chain, and releases it, so that tup is brought down with great force on end of sticker (steel ingot which has got stuck); ingot is thus knocked from its moulds; sometimes done by stripper or pitman (278) q.v.
turner-out (brass bobbins)
(i) reams-out, i.e. enlarges, centre or spindle holes in solid brass bobbins, by turning a hand reaming tool or by reaming out in a lathe;
(ii) reams out centre holes in metal shields for wooden bobbins by similar methods.
turner-over (galvanised sheet) ; sheet turner
turns over alternate sheets and arranges them for pickier (250) q.v., in such manner that concave or convex surfaces of two sheets face each other, and are thus kept apart, so as to allow acid to get between them in pickling.
turner-over (iron and steel rolling)
(i) turns over bars, rods, etc., from one pass to another in rolls to be rerolled; usually is employed at strip or guide mill rolls;
(ii) operates lifting gear in plate mills, to turn over plate for inspection of under side before shearing;
(iii) see forker.
turner-up (iron and steel rolling)
(i) (in bar mills) turns up or turns over heavy bars with long steel rod or lever, during course of rolling;
(ii) (in tube mills) backer-up, behinder; works at back of lap or butt welding furnaces, assisting charger (278) q.v. to adjust strips or skelps to proper position in furnace;
(iii) draws strip or hoop, when hot, with tongs, through die, which turns up edges of strip to form rough tube or skelp.
turner-up man
(i) turns up spout or launder by means of long bar after metal has filled ladle, and allows remaining slag in steel furnace or converter to run into slag pot; usually done by melter (second or third hand) (171) q.v. at open-hearth furnaces, or pulpit man (173) q.v., at Bessemer plant;
(ii) (in Bessemer process) is in charge of apparatus for turning vessel up into position after blast has been turned on.
turning-girl
as for nicker.
twist drill parter-off
cuts bar steel into lengths for making twist drills, by means of semi-automatic lathe; turns wheel to bring parting or cutting tool to bear.
type pager-up
see pager.
tyre bowler
rolls iron or steel tyres from one part of rolling mill to another, as required.
umbrella lock bitter
places lock bit in position at rib and stretcher joint of umbrella frame, inserts pin and rivets it fast by hand hammer.
unloader
discharges coal, ore, pig iron, timber, sand, etc. from railway trucks in yard of works, or from bogies, or ships or barges at canal or dock; carries material by hand, in baskets on shoulder, or empties out with shovel, fork, etc.; may also in rolling mills unload bars, rails, etc. in metal or stock yard as received on bogies from rolls, etc.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. bar unloader, coal unloader, iron unloader, ore unloader, pig iron unloader, rail unloader, spiegel unloader, unloader of raw material (steel work); work sometimes done by filler, wheeler; cf. discharger, tipper.
unloader, rack (tinplate)
removes plates, still hot, from (racks to be cleaned; work usually done by riser or by tinman's helper q.v.
valveman (cartridges)
moves levers at signal from lead squirter (278) q.v. to actuate squirting press, which extrudes a continuous rod of lead.
vice hand, viceman ; bench hand
finishes in vice, with file and other hand tools, parts of brass goods, machine and engine parts, small forgings, or forged ironwork for coaches, carts, etc.
vice hand, axle box
a vice hand q.v. who files and chips, by hand, axle box castings, which are held in a vice, to remove rough edges and projections before the casting is machined.
viceman, body
a vice hand q.v. who works at bench or vice, filing, chipping and generally finishing and fitting up, rough forged metal parts for bodies of carts, carriages, etc.
viewer (bolts, nails, etc.)
see picker.
viewer, barrel
tests gun barrels for correct bore, rifling or set with a gauge and by visual examination; discards those that are faulty.
wagoner
see dogger-up.
washer, black (tinplate) ; waterbosh man
places plates, brought on barrows from pickling shop, in holder of washing machine; removes plates when washed.
washer, brass
shovels ashes and scrap from brass foundry into washing machine, which separates pure brass scrap from ashes and dirt.
washer, breeze; glede washer (Stourbridge district)
takes ashes and cinders from furnace screens and washes them in large tub of water; collects light substance which floats on top for use as fuel in forges of nail and chain makers.
washer (tea lead)
a tea lead sorter q.v. who washes dirt from scrap tea lead to reduce scum when lead is remelted for further use, e.g. in lead pipe making.
washer (tinplate), white washer
see swiller ; cf. washman (tinplate).
washman (tinplate)
(hand tinning) brushes off surplus tin on plates placed in stand from tin pot by tinman (263) q.v., and dips them one by one into wash pot to remove marks left by brush; cf. washer (tinplate).
waterbosh man
(i) see washer, black;
(ii) see bosher.
water boy, water dog
assists tinman (263) q.v. at water bosh (bath) by helping to remove sheets, etc., brings in coal or fires; clears up ashes.
waterer
sprinkles water on pig bed to keep it moist in preparation for moulding; also cools pig iron after tarring by directing water on it from a hose; usually done by furnace keeper (171) q.v. or one of his assistants.
water turner-on (at rolls)
turns on water taps as required to cool iron and steel rolls; usually done by roller (178) q.v.
weigher ; general weighman (puddling), weighing machine man, weighman
(i) weighs, checks and records weights of raw material, e.g., coal, ore, limestone, sheets, plates, etc.;
(ii)weighs finished products of works;
(iii) weighs and checks amount of material used in manufacture, e.g., bar zinc used in making galvanised sheets;
(iv) weighs and records work turned out at intermediate stages of manufacture for purpose of calculating piecework pay; cf. check-weighman; often specifically designated, e.g., bar weigher, blackplate weigher, coke weigher, furnace weigher, metal weigher, mineral weigher, nickel weigher, ore weigher, pig iron weigher, pig weigher (puddling furnace), rail weigher, sheet mill weigher.
weigher, bar
(i) (puddling) weighs bars of malleable wrought iron and sometimes acts as bar carrier q.v.;
(ii) (sheet mills ) weighs iron and steel bars, and makes up into suitable lots, in readiness for final rolling; in Wolverhampton, work done by cutter-down or shearer q.v.
weigher (blast furnace) ; boxman
a weigher q.v. who has charge of men moving stock; weighs and records material charged into blast furnace and is responsible that proper amount, as directed, is charged; often further designated, e.g., charge weigher, furnace weigher, mine weigher, pig weigher.
weigher, engine
controls levers of turn-table and weigh machine in locomotive building works.
weigher, ingot (iron and steel rolling) ; charge taker (iron and steel rolling)
a weigher q.v. who weighs steel ingots as admitted to mill.
weigher, pig (blast furnaces)
weighs pigs of iron, sometimes breaking off dross before weighing, see breaker, dross.
weigher-off (wire works)
weighs gross and net weight of spooled barb wire.
weigher-out
takes finished nails from machines to warehouse.
weigher-up (screws)
weighs screw blanks for record and wages purposes.
weighing machine man, weighman
see weigher.
weighman, general
(i) (puddling) see weigher; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., barrow weighman, furnace weighman, hoist weighman, iron ore weighman;
(ii) (shipbuilding and marine engineering) weighs and records weights of materials delivered into works or placed on ships in construction or under repair; is often also a gateman (962) q.v.
weight juster
see check-weighman (iron foundry).
weller (tubes) ; pit hand (Scotland)
assists welder (266) q.v. in pushing tubes out of furnace.
wheeler ; barrow man, barrow runner, discharger (tinplate), trolley man (tinplate)
wheels, or pushes or drags, material, fuel, stores, etc., in barrows, trucks, etc., about works, e.g. from storage dumps to blast furnace, from furnace to cinder dump, from coke hoppers to furnace table, from sand dump to puddling furnaces, from furnace, pit, or cupola to slag tip or dump; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., ashes wheeler, black-plate wheeler, blast furnace wheeler, charge wheeler, cinder wheeler, coal wheeler, coke wheeler, crop wheeler, (from shears), fettling wheeler (puddling furnace), metal wheeler, mine wheeler, ore wheeler, pig wheeler, pig iron wheeler, rail wheeler, sand wheeler', scrap wheeler, slag wheeler, nickel cupola slag wheeler, stone wheeler (ironstone), spiegel wheeler, tap wheeler (furnace cinder), work wheeler.
wheeler, bar
(i) (galvanised sheet) a bar cutter's helper q.v. who wheels or trollies cut bars to furnace;
(ii) (iron and steel rolling, tinplate) propels trucks laden with bars from stack or railway siding to shears or from shears to furnace; obsolescent.
wheeler, billet
(i) (tubes) see barman;
(ii) (wire netting, etc.) wheels in truck or barrow as required, billets used in making wire netting, wire rope, etc.
wheeler, clay
transports to furnace, in barrows, clay used in sealing tap hole of blast furnace; in Scotland, usually done by assistant furnace keeper (171) q.v.
wheeler, coal
conveys coal in barrows from coal dump to puddling or tinplate furnaces; also often performs duties of ashes man, coal discharger or coal filler q.v.
wheeler, coal and ashes
(i) (copper extraction) wheels barrows or trucks of coal to furnaces and takes away ashes;
(ii) (zinc extraction) see labourer, zinc.
wheeler, cold roll (iron and steel rolling, tinplate) ; cold coacher (iron and steel rolling)
wheels trucks of rolled plates from cold rolls to annealing furnaces; usually done by machinery in modern rolling mills; in tinplate trade , generally done by annealer's helper q.v.
wheeler, dish cover
holds up to wheeling machine, dish covers after stamping, to remove blemishes.
wheeler, engine (locomotives)
one of a gang who fits and bolts wheels on to axles, under direction of fitter (210) q.v.; places wheels and axle on rails under engine suspended by crane; assists in lowering engine on to wheels; fastens axles to engine by bolts and nuts through metal plate.
wheeler, scale
(i) (iron and steel rolling) scaleman; pushes truck or barrow laden with scale, from benches where it is removed from iron or steel ingots; cf. scale clearer:
(ii) (puddling) conveys scale from vicinity of hammers in barrows, see scale cleaner (puddling); usually done by coal wheeler q.v.
wheeler wet
wheels tinplates on barrow from white pickling machine, and deposits them in tinman's water "bosh" (bath).
wheeler and piler
a wheeler q.v. in iron and steel rolling mill, who also stacks and piles rails, plates, etc.
wheeler-in (rolling mill) ; coacher and wheeler (rolling mill)
wheels material, prepared by charge putter-up (278) q.v., to furnace platform in steel works; done by machinery in big modern works.
wheeler-in (tinplate)
a wheeler q.v. transporting cut bars from siding to furnace, or tinplates from mills to tinhouse, from tinhouse to assorting rooms, etc.
wheel packer
packs pieces of iron between spokes, before process of "bossing."
wheel pairer
matches or pairs wheels, to ensure that each pair of wheels on same axle are of same diameter.
whitener
coats brass pins with tin by boiling them in steam kettles with tin and oxalic acid; dries pins in heated revolving drum; obsolescent, cf. pin plater. winder, bobbin winder, see loader, swift.
wiper, box ; duster (tin box), wiper- off
wipes grease from tin boxes, canisters, etc., during and after process of manufacture; also wipes off water after water tests.
wiper (cutlery), whetter's wiper
cleans and dries, and afterwards oils, if necessary, finished cutlery, ready for wrapping-up in paper.
wiper (saws)
see oiler (saws).
wiper (tinplate)
see dusting machine attendant.
wiper-off
see wiper, box.
wire bender (aeroplanes)
bends wire as required for insertion in aeroplane fittings, using vice at bench with pliers.
wire bender (vehicles) ; nippier
cuts, adjusts, shapes, or threads wire spokes of motor car, etc., wheels, prior to fitting spokes into rims or hubs.
wire card maker
operates machine which weaves wire on to felt, linen, etc., base, to be cut up into wire cards for scouring castings, etc.; fixes spool of wire on swift of machine and feeds in cloth from roll; watches machine for faulty work.
wire clip maker
attends automatic machine which cuts-up and shapes fine steel wire into paper clips; places spool of wire on holder, feeds end into machine and watches for faulty work.
wire giver-out
issues wire to card setter (226) q.v.
wireman
cuts and bends steel wire or rod and makes it up into various shapes for re-inforcing articles made of re-inforced concrete; uses vice at bench, pliers and hammer; binds joints with thin wire.
wirer (for pickling, tinning)
strings small articles, to be pickled or tinned, on wire for convenience in handling.
wirer (rivets)
fixes drum of wire at side of machine, feeds end into stamping die which shapes or forms wire rivets; watches machine for correct working.
wirer, box wirer (tin boxes, canisters)
fixes wire through hinges of tin boxes, canisters, etc., and flattens hinges in a press.
wire spooler
see loader, swift.
worker-round
a casual labourer employed in an iron and steel rolling mill; does any unskilled manual work in mill.
yardman
is engaged in general labouring work in yard of metal or engineering works; looks after disposition of stacks of metal, fuel, scrap, etc.
yardman, iron (safes)
does heavy manual work in yard of safemaking works, e.g., unloading metal sheets and loading finished safes.
yardman, metal ; lumper, pig iron unloader
is in charge of metal yard or place where pig iron and scrap are kept; sometimes also performs heavy manual labouring duties in metal yard, i.e., unloading raw iron from railway trucks, stacking finished bars, loading bars into trucks, etc.
yardsman (blast furnace)
regulates traffic inside works, directs shunting, etc.; sometimes also acts as number taker q.v.
zinc recovery hand
melts and casts into ingots, zinc recovered from distilling retorts; cf. distiller (171) q.v.

Back to List of Occupational Codes


From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.