A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 4.—Foundry Workers

180.—Moulders (not Blast Furnace)

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aluminium moulder
a moulder (hand or machine) q.v. who makes moulds in sand for casting aluminium, usually in small lots where a machine die is unsuitable,
axle box caster, axle bush caster
a moulder (hand or machine) q.v. who specialises in preparing moulds for casting, and in casting axle boxes, or axle bushes, principally for railway work.
bell caster
see bell founder.
bell founder ; bell caster, bell moulder
superintends mixing and melting of bell metal (hard bronze, an alloy of copper and tin), and makes a loam mould in which he casts a bell in casting pit of bell foundry thus: fixes crook (a double compass of wood whose legs are shaped like cross section of bell) on to pivot of stake firmly fixed in bottom of casting pit; builds up core of inside of bell with mixed sand, clay, bricks, etc., using inner leg of "crook" to obtain correct shape; plasters on moulding sand, grease and tan dust with trowel; lights fire inside this core to dry it thoroughly and then when dried, plasters clay on it with trowel till clay coating is in form of bell itself (outer leg of "crook" acts a« guide in making boll of clay); models by hand and with hand tools, top or "crown" of bell in clay, thus completing clay hell; dries this bell and bakes whole by means of a second fire kindled inside core; when cool, places on clay bell, wax moulds of any ornamentation, scrolls, figures to bo cast on bell; covers surface of clay bell with grease and tan dust by band, and then builds up sand mould outside clay bell ramming sand firmly round bell, places bricks in mould to help it to bind; completes making of outer sand mould, and makes pouring gates, and risers; when dried, raises it off clay bell, which be carefully breaks away from core; lowers mould again into correct position over core; pours molten bell metal from crucible or ladle into mould; leaves mould and casting to cool and -when cold, supervises breaking down of mould and removing of bell for fettling, etc.; term also applied to proprietor of bell foundry.
bell moulder
see bell founder.
bench moulder ; tub moulder (brass)
a hand moulder q.v. who makes small moulds at bench, instead of on floor of foundry; cf. green sand moulder.
brass caster
caster (brass foundry), foreman caster, principal hand, principal tub hand, sand caster; superintends melting of brass, bronze, etc., placing weighed quantity of copper in crucible set in furnace, and adding gradually, weighed quantity of zinc; makes mould and fits in the core ready for casting, duties as for moulder (hand or machine); pours metal into moulds when it has reached correct temperature and superintends removal and cleaning of casting; in some cases, making of mould is done by a second hand or moulder and brass caster merely superintends work of foundry, and attends to actual pouring of metal, cf. caster (184); all work of moulding is done at a moulding tub which resembles a large wooden trough, in consequence a brass caster is known as the "principal tub hand"and his assistants as "tub hands"; sometimes specifically designated according to article cast, e.g. brass letter caster, brass lock caster, brass weight caster.
brass moulder ; caster's helper, second hand, tub moulder
looks after heating of crucibles in furnace in which copper and zinc are melted together; puts cores in core oven to dry; makes moulds (see hand or machine moulder) and fastens in cramps; in other than large works, sometimes does work of brass caster q.v.
bronze article caster, bronze caster
as for brass caster.
caster (brass foundry)
see brass caster.
caster's helper (brass foundry)
see brass moulder.
chair moulder, railway chair moulder ; iron chair maker, rail man (chair foundry), railway chair maker
a moulder (hand or machine) q.v. or a plate moulder q.v. who specialises in casting metal chairs for railways.
connection moulder
a moulder (hand or machine) q.v. who makes moulds for casting pipe connections,
copper roller maker
a moulder (hand or machine) q.v. who attends to melting of copper in crucible in furnace; prepares moulds, and pours molten copper therein to form copper rollers.
core filer
reduces size of core, or finishes it by rubbing it with a wire file; usually done by coremaker q.v.
core maker, core moulder
(i) (hand) makes core which is to be fixed in mould, see moulder, when ready for pouring of molten metal; (simple shaped small cores) rams clay, sand, and clay mixed with horse manure (to provide for compressibility under contraction of casting) into wooden core box, i.e. a moulding box for cores, so that core takes shape of core box; takes core box apart and smooths surface of core where necessary; places core in oven to be thoroughly dried; (complicated shapes) builds up core round cast iron skeleton or framework, winding hay or straw bands (ropes) to form base on which he rams sand, clay and horse manure in core box; removes core and dries in oven; (cores for pipe moulds) builds up core as above on basis of perforated iron bar; smooths surface of core by turning it on lathe and places it in oven to dry; finally passes core to moulder for inclusion in mould;
(ii) (machine) makes cores by any of above hand methods, except that ramming of clay and sand is done by machine press, which holds core box; pulls lever operating mechanical ramming apparatus; in all cases carefully cuts vent holes in core with special tools to liberate any gases generated on pouring; in more complicated cores inserts waxed threads in core, the wax melting in drying oven and being absorbed by sand to leave vent channels; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. , ploughshare coremaker.
core turner
makes metal core bars revolve on strong cast iron trestles while core maker q.v. winds on hay or straw bands, and affixes mixed clay, sand, core, gum, etc., on a circular core.
dry sand moulder
a moulder (hand or machine) q.v., using dry sand with addition of certain amount of old loam, which is dried before use, to make moulds; is usually engaged on production of long large moulds for castings such as pipes, columns, and flywheels.
floor moulder
a hand moulder q.v. who makes moulds on sand floor of foundry; usually done in case of large moulds to avoid unnecessary lifting.
foreman caster
see brass caster.
general term for any worker engaged in casting yellow metals, including brass caster, brass moulder q.v.; usually prefixed by name of metal worked in, e.g. , brass founder, bronze founder.
green sand moulder
a moulder (hand or machine) q.v. who specialises in making moulds for casting those articles which can be best cast in green sand moulds, i.e. , moulds which do not need to be dried in the core oven; cf. bench moulder, floor moulder.
hand moulder
makes moulds in which molten metal is poured to produce castings; shovels sand in lower box (drag) of moulding "flask" till it is full; then places wooden or metal pattern, made by pattern maker (480) q.v. , in centre of box and using mallet, hammers it into sand until approximately one-half is submerged; smooths off rest of sand, ramming it firmly into! position round pattern, removes pattern, sprinkles facing sand, a mixture of fine sand and coal dust, in mould shape produced; hammers pattern again into sand to bind fresh sand added, and then, after removing pattern again, coats whole of sand surface with "blackwash" containing carbon, using hand brush; replaces pattern, places upper box of moulding "flask" on lower one, and fills this with sand, carefully ramming sand firmly, by hand, round pattern; as sand is put in and rammed, also puts in with sand, metal supports which help sand to retain shape when upper box is removed; removes upper box, turns it over, sprinkles finer sand in mould shape made by pattern, presses it again on pattern, and then paints moulded surface with black-wash as was done in case of lower box; replaces upper box on lower and with sharp metal instrument, makes hole down through sand to pattern, and heaps sand round top of hole to form pouring hole for caster (183) q.v.; removes upper ibex, takes 'out pattern, sprinkles a little "parting" sand (burnt sand) on upper surface of lower box, then replaces upper box, clamping it firmly to lower one; sets mould aside ready to be thoroughly dried in oven, after which it is ready for caster; in case of mould in which cores are required, moulder also places "core print" in sand with pattern and on finally removing pattern and core print (wooden pattern of core itself) replaces latter by core.
iron chair maker
see chair moulder.
iron corer
fixes an iron core or chill in mould in place of whole or part of ordinary sand core, so that the surface of casting is cooled rapidly and so hardened.
loam moulder
makes moulds of loam, a mixture of clay, sand and chopped straw, usually without aid of a pattern to be used in casting large, more or less circular objects; builds up foundation on special plate or on floor of casting pit, using loam bricks and loam which is wet and easily worked; levels off foundation, fixes spindle vertically in centre of plate and fixes templates on to spindle by means of which he builds up outer mould, or "cope," with loam bricks and loam, and also builds np core in similar way; "faces" both "cope"' and core with plastic loam and smooths them off with trowels and scrapers to coincide with templates supplied, revolving template on spindle to ensure uniformity in all parts of mould; leaves space inside core for fire to be made (if mould is too large to be dried in core oven), and superintends making of fire; fixes plate on top of mould when finished and clamps upper and lower plates together; in case of core which is loose inside mould, fixes it in position, using template as a guide, and by means of holts and nuts, fastens it to upper and lower plates; when mould is complete, dries it ready for caster.
machine moulder
makes moulds by machine for use in casting articles in metal; work involved depends upon type of machine; (hand moulding machine ) as for plate moulder, except that separation of upper part of "flask" from pattern plate is performed by moving lever; pattern plate is then rapped, and carefully removed, when after coating mould with "blackwash", hand machine moulder clamps parts of flask together and removes them from machine ready for drying in oven; (moulding press ) as for hand moulding machine above, except that ramming is done by moving lever operating press (hand, steam, pneumatic, or hydraulic) which descends on sand and squeezes it into all crevices and interstices of pattern; (moulding machine ) as for plate moulder, except that moulding sand is shovelled into filling frame from which it passes into "boxes" or upper and lower parts of "flasks" by moving a lever; ramming is also done by moving levers, and upper part of "flask" and pattern plate are moved up and down—for removal of plate and coating of mould with blackwash — by mechanical means.
a specially experienced moulder who prepares core irons, i.e. roughly cast iron framework on which more complicated and large cores are made, and supervises fitting up of boxes.
matrix maker ; mould maker, pattern plate moulder
a highly skilled hand moulder q.v. who makes, for repetition machine moulding, a metal mould which is afterwards machined to accurate dimensions by metal machinist (200) q.v. so that the beet and cleanest castings only may be obtained from it.
moulder ; mould maker
general term covering any type of moulder, e.g. hand moulder, machine moulder, plate moulder, floor moulder, bench moulder, etc.; sometimes specifically designated according to metal to be cast in moulds made, e.g. aluminium moulder, brass moulder, bronze moulder, gun metal moulder; according to type of sand used as moulding medium, e.g. green sand moulder, dry sand moulder, loam moulder, sand moulder; or according to article to be cast in mould made, e.g. chair moulder, hollow-ware moulder, nail moulder, pipe moulder, roll moulder, shell moulder, stump moulder (street pillars).
mould maker
(i) see moulder;
(ii) see matrix maker.
nail moulder
a plate moulder q.v. or a machine moulder q.v. who makes moulds to be used for casting nails.
oddside man
a moulder (hand or machine) q.v. who makes moulds using an oddside mould as a pattern; "oddside" mould is very carefully prepared by a more skilled moulder, for use in repetition work, e.g. gas stove bars; it is a plaster of Paris cast of a number of patterns fixed in correct position in mould.
oddwork moulder
a jobbing or general moulder (hand or machine) q.v. who makes moulds, from any type of pattern in green or dry sand for casting articles for various trades and general purposes.
pattern moulder
a moulder (hand or machine) q.v. who uses a wooden pattern to make moulds in which iron or other metal patterns are to be cast for use by other moulders; (work is necessarily very accurate, as errors in mould would be repeated in every casting taken from subsequent moulds made by master metal pattern).
pattern plate moulder
see matrix maker.
pipe bank moulder ; iron pipe moulder, pipe founder, pipe moulder
a moulder (hand) q.v. who makes moulds for casting pipes on a sand heap (called a bank) using boxes set on an incline and not vertical boxes used by pipe pit moulder q.v.
pipe founder, pipe moulder, iron pipe moulder
(i) see pipe bank moulder;
(ii) see pipe pit moulder,
pipe pit moulder ; iron pipe founder, pipe founder, pipe moulder
a moulder (hand) q.v. who makes moulds for casting big pipes in foundry pit using vertical boxes,
plate moulder
makes mould in sand into which molten metal is to be poured by caster (183) q.v. using metal plate, on to sides of which have been bolted or cast, shapes of two halves of article to be moulded (roughly one-half on each side); shovels sand into wooden or metal box, open top and bottom, resting on sand, until box is filled; places plate flat on box and, using mallet, hammers it down well so that sand takes shape of one side of mould; places another similar box on top, fills it with sand and rams sand down on plate using hand rammer; when sand as been firmly rammed down on upper side of plate, makes hole in sand down to plate using small sharp metal instrument, and heaps sand up round top of hole to form pouring hole for caster; with help of assistants, lifts off top box or flask, gently taps plate and removes it carefully; paints, with hand brush, those parts of mould which will come into contact with hot metal, with a liquid blackwash containing carbon to prevent oxidation of surface of casting and fusion of sand of mould; replaces top box (cope) on lower one (drag) and clamps them together: mould is now ready for caster,
principal hand, principal tub hand
see brass caster.
rail man (chair foundry), railway chair maker
see chair moulder,
sand caster
see brass caster,
second hand (brass foundry)
see brass moulder.
a loam moulder q.v. who sets out and supervises work of other loam moulders.
spray moulder
a moulder (hand or machine) q.v. who, in making a mould for a thin complicated casting, or number of castings (when several moulds are made together), makes a runner and a number of gates for each casting, to ensure that molten metal can run into all parts of mould quickly and that imprisoned air and generated gases are easily able to escape; (when caster pours molten metal into mould, it fills up runners (pouring holes) and gates (ventilation holes), and, as a result, when cooled and sand is removed, cast metal runners and gates form a spray).
tub hand
general term applied to moulders, getters-down (185), etc. q.v.
tub moulder (brass)
(i) see brass moulder;
(ii) see bench moulder.
tuyere maker
a moulder q.v. engaged in making tuyeres for blast furnaces by the usual moulding methods.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.