A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 4.—Foundry Workers

183.—Iron and Steel Foundry Labourers

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back tenter
attends to removal of slag at hack of cupola and assists in charging, etc.
see tumbler,
box filler ; filler-in
fills up moulding box with sand by shovelling, after moulder (180) q.v. has placed pattern in box and covered it with special sand that has to be nearest to casting; in small moulds, box filling is done by moulder (180) q.v.
box lifter ; lifter-up
lifts up box containing pattern embedded in sand, after sand in top box (cope) has been rammed, and turns it over so that sand in lower box (drag) can be rammed; this occurs only in hand moulding and in case of smaller moulds; may be done by rammer q.v. or even by moulder (180) q.v.
breaker, iron; pig breaker, breaker man ; breaker-up
breaks up pig iron and scrap iron ready for charging into cupola by cupola charger (279) q.v.; uses sledge hammer if by hand, or places pigs or scrap under power hammer or breaks them with ball breaker.
breaker-off ; knocker-off
a fettler q.v. whose special duty it is to break off "gates," "risers," and "runners" from castings, using hammer and chisel; ("gates," "risers," and "runners" are solid bars of metal which result from solidification of molten metal in pouring holes and ventilation holes, running from casting to top of mould and in connecting holes which are made to permit passage of metal from one mould to another when more than one article is cast in a series of moulds at a time, or when two or more castings are made in one mould).
see breaker, iron.
a fettler q.v. who cleans up a casting by hand, using a wire brush with which to brush off adherent sand,
cake maker
makes sand bricks by ramming sand into square moulds; sends bricks or "cakes" to oven to be dried; ("cakes" are used by moulders to strengthen weak places in large moulds, and to ease off contraction).
caster ; feeder, pouter
pours molten metal, e.g. , iron or steel, from ladle into mould; (small hand ladle ) grips ladle or crucible, in which steel is melted, with tongs or other gripping device and tips it gradually, allowing metal to fall into pouring hole (gate) in top of mould; continues pouring until mould, gates and runners, i.e. , ventilation holes, are filled with metal, so that as metal cools and contracts, excess of metal in gates and runners runs into mould, and keeps it full; (large ladle ) receives ladle of molten metal swung from arm of casting crane, pulls it into position over mould and moves lever of ladle opening pouring hole in its bottom; watches mould to see when gates and runners are filled, and then -turns off flow of metal; instructs casting cranemen (950) q.v. as to where ladle is to be moved for next casting, and continues pouring until ladle is empty; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. , comb caster, cutlery caster, iron cabinet caster, key caster, nail caster, pillar caster, rail caster (bedsteads), tuyere pipe caster,
caster, angle iron ; end runner
a caster q.v. who places end of angle iron bar, i.e. , iron beams of angle section., in special mould and pours or rune molten metal into mould to cast dovetail on end of beam,
caster, French end
a caster q.v. who casts iron corner pieces and angle irons to pillars of bedsteads, see caster, angle iron.
caster, malleable
a caster q.v. who makes castings of malleable iron, i.e. pig iron from which most of carbon has been burnt away,
caster, oddwork
a caster q.v. who, not specialising, casts miscellaneous articles, as required,
catcher, iron catcher
catches molten metal tapped or poured from foundry furnace in large ladle for distribution to smaller ladles or shanks,
chair scrubber
a fettler q.v. who specialises in cleaning up railway chair castings.
a fettler q.v. who cleans up castings by chipping off irregularities by hand, using a hammer and cold steel chisel, or by machine using a pneumatic hammer or chisel; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. iron bedstead chipper, iron hollow-ware chipper, roll chipper.
see fettler ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. castings cleaner, , iron cleaner, metal cleaner, ring cleaner (pistons), steel cleaner (foundry).
smooths over surface of mould with trowel and cleaners, and spreads a thin coating of foundry blacking on mould prior to casting, after mould has been dried.
closer ; mould fitter (iron or steel foundry)
receives dried parts of mould and cores ready for assembling; inserts cores in correct position and places cope, i.e. upper part of mould, on drag, i.e. lower part; fixes on cramps to hold two parts rigidly together during casting which is next operation.
core boy
rams up small simple cores in foundry, and turns core bars by hand for core turner (180) q.v.; assists core maker (180) q.v. generally, keeping him supplied with materials, and carrying or wheeling away cores to core oven.
core oven attendant
attends to oven in which he places cores, see core maker (180), and small moulds, see moulder (180), to be dried; removes cores and moulds when dried and passes them to closer q.v.; attends to flues and dampers round oven through which pass waste cupola gases to heat oven.
cutter-off (iron pipes)
a breaker-off q.v. who removes "runners," "gates" and "risers" from iron pipes after casting by means of hand or machine saw.
see fettler ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. axle box dresser, casting dresser, comber dresser (combs for cotton combing machines), dry sand dresser (castings made in dry sand moulds), green sand dresser, iron dresser, iron cistern dresser, loam dresser, metal dresser, pipe dresser, steel dresser.
end runner
see caster, angle iron.
see caster.
fettler (foundry), fettler of castings ; cleaner, dresser, nobbler, rougher, rubber-off, trimmer (iron foundry)
general terms covering all foundry workers engaged in removing adherent sand from castings, and chipping off any irregularities, i.e. fins, gates, etc., in metal surface of easting either by hand or machine; work varies according to kind of sand of which mould is made, efficiency of moulder and caster, and kind of finish that casting must have;
(hand fettling) (i) removes sand from casting by means of wire brush, see brasher, and removes unevenness in metal by means of hammer and chisel or pneumatic chisel, see chipper;
(ii) removes roughness and unevenness from castings by hand filing, see foundry filer (233);
(machine fettling) (i) places small castings in a revolving metal drum; castings roll over one another and brittle projections break off, castings thus smooth each other, see tumbler;
(ii) holds casting up against revolving abrasive wheel or vice versa, cf. grinder (foundry) (237);
(iii) holds nozzle of sand blast against parts of castings to be fettled; this method is used specialty in fettling largo castings which cannot easily be handled, see sand blaster (269); also knocks off "gates," "risers," and "runners" by hand with hammer and chisel, or by means of hand or machine saw and grinds down stumps left on revolving abrasive wheel; removes cores from casting, breaking core and core iron if necessary, taking care not to damage casting; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. axle bearing fettler, iron fettler, plough share fettler; cf. fettler (278).
see box: filler.
a fettler q.v. who completes operation of fettling of castings after first roughness has been removed by chipper, breaker-off, or sand blaster (259) q.v.; may be done by a filer (233) or a grinder (237) q.v.
foundry labourer
general term for any unskilled or semi-skilled man employed in a foundry, including fettler, sand riddler, caster, sand wheeler, etc., q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. roll foundry labourer.
general term for any man who works in a foundry whether skilled or unskilled, including moulder, coremaker (180), furnaceman (182), and foundry labourer q.v.
grinder, sand ; sand roller
shovels sand, either new or from moulds which have been used, into pan of edge .runner mill; sets mill in motion and shovels out ground sand when sufficiently fine.
see breaker-off.
see opener.
ladle man ; metal carrier
brings ladle to cupola tapping hole by pushing it if on wheels, or by guiding it with chains, bars, etc., if swung on crane; removes ladle when metal has been tapped into it, and by moving levers, tips it and pours metal into moulds direct (cf. caster), or may pour it into smaller ladles if two or more casting pits require metal at same time; examines ladle at intervals and, when necessary, does small repairs to lining, or sends it to be relined.
see box lifter.
loam mill man
see pug mill attendant.
metal carrier
(i) see ladle man;
(ii) see shank carrier.
mixer, loam; sand mixer
(i) mixes different sands together, e.g., old sand with fresh, or sand with a little clay or horse manure as a binder, by turning them over with a shovel by hand;
(ii) see pug mill attendant.
moulder's assistant, moulder's labourer
assists moulder (180) q.v. by fetching sand, parting sand, foundry black, moulding boxes, patterns, core-prints, etc.; mixes special sand mixtures for special moulds; may also act as rammer-up or filler-iu q.v., or assist generally under moulder's supervision.
moulder's help
see riddler.
moulder's server (malleable nails)
as for moulder's assistant.
mould fitter (iron or steel foundry)
see closer.
see fettler.
opener ; knocker-out
removes clamps from moulding "flasks" or boxes, when casting has had time to cool and solidify; lifts off upper part of flask (cope) and removes casting and cores from mould; knocks away bulk of adhering sand and places casting on trolley for conveyance to fettling shop, see fettler; returns two parts of moulding flask, from which he knocks out all sand, and clamps to store ready for further use; with sharp hand tools, breaks away sand from core iron, and withdraws core iron, breaking it if necessary, care being taken to avoid damage to casting.
pipe pit labourer
is employed in casting pit in which pipes are cast, assisting in general capacity in preparing pipe mould for casting, in closing mould, see closer, and setting it upright, ready for pouring of metal, and in opening, see opener, by removing moulding box, sand and core bar; removes core sand from bar and returns bar to store.
see caster.
plunges iron rod into molten metal in pouring hole of mould while it is being poured into iron casting mould to prevent iron becoming spongy and also preventing it settling in concave form at surface of heavy moulds.
pug mill attendant ; loam mill man, loam mixer, sand mixer
shovels sand, clay, straw or horse manure, or in case of sand for core making, sand and flour, resin or special core gum or other binding material, into hopper of pug mill and sets pug mill in motion; mill cuts up and thoroughly mixes ingredients which are forced out of end of mill mixed ready for use by moulder (180) q.v.; in some cases, shovels out mixture through door in bottom of machine.
rammer, rammer-up, box rammer
works in close conjunction with moulder (180) q.v., ramming sand tightly round pattern when placed in bed of sand in lower part of moulding "flask" or "drag"; uses either a small or large hand rammer, a steel plate fixed at right angles to handle or a pneumatic rammer; repeats operation of ramming when pattern is placed in upper part of moulding "flask" or "cope" and then again when flask is turned over by box lifter q.v.; sometimes also drives metal wedges into sand, after ramming, to assist in making mould firmer; work sometimes done by moulder (180) q.v.
see tumbler.
riddler, sand riddler ; moulder's help
riddles, i.e. mixes large heaps of sand; carries moulder's cores; grinds dust which moulder shapes over patterns to prevent adhesion of sand thereto; grinds mixture of sand and coal dust, used to put clean face on casting; after casting, turns over moulds and gets hot castings out of sand with short pliers; waters sand to fit it for re-use, and breaks ridges and scrap from casting to be remelted; performs any other odd jobs for each moulder to whom he is allotted; usually helps from two to five moulders; is engaged in foundries specialising in small castings where moulders' assistants q.v. are not employed.
grades sand to be used in foundries by shovelling it into rocker, or rocking sieve; rocks sieve to facilitate sifting of sand.
see fettler.
see fettler.
see tumbler.
runner maker
makes holes in mould into which molten metal is to be poured, forcing sand aside with sharp metal instrument; work usually done by moulder (180) q.v.
sand preparer
general term applied to worker engaged in preparing sand, for moulder (180) q.v.; includes sand grinder, sand mixer, sand riddler q.v.
sand roller
see grinder, sand.
shank carrier ; metal carrier
carries small ladle, fitted with iron bars for carrying and handling, to cupola or to large foundry ladle for filling with molten metal, and then carries filled ladle to casting pit for use of caster q.v.; carries emptied shank back for refilling.
skims dross or slag from surface of metal in ladle by means of piece of bent iron; also removes ash or dross which runs into pouring "gate" of mould to prevent it being carried into mould.
stove man
places cores and moulds on shelves of stoves, or core ovens, to be dried; attends to dampers which open or shut flues permitting hot gases from cupola to play on oven when it is to be heated; removes dried cores and moulds and sends them on trolleys to casting pits.
trimmer (iron foundry)
see fettler ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. iron trimmer, ploughshare trimmer, shell trimmer.
tumbler ; barreller, rattler, rumbler
places castings inside hollow metal cylinder, closes door and moves lever which causes cylinder to rotate on its axis, thus tumbling castings over one another and over small cast iron "stars" which he puts in to assist process; continues operation till sand and irregularities in castings have been worn down and then empties "rumbler."
wheeler, loam; sand wheeler
unloads sand, loam, etc., from railway wagons, wheels it in barrows or trucks to and from sand grinding, mixing and riddling departments and to moulder when ready for use; may also assist on grinding and riddling machines.
yard labourer
performs manual unskilled work in yard of foundry, e.g. sand wheeling, loading and unloading, stacking, etc.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.