A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Workers in Wood

498.—Other Skilled Workers

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arrow maker
pares one end of arrow length of specially seasoned red deal rod; puts on and rivets pointed metal sheath; makes three slots at other end of arrow and glues in three pieces of feather; makes nick in feathered end to receive how string; smooths and polishes, all by hand, with woodworking tools.
back fixer, back maker (pianos and organs)
glues together bracings and general structure of back to take sound board and iron frame.
baker's peel maker
makes baker's peel, a kind of wooden shovel, with wedge-shaped blade, for shovelling dough into oven; cuts blade with band saw, or shapes it by hand; makes handle on lathe or trapping machine, and fits handle and blade together.
bamboo furniture frame maker, bamboo furniture maker ; fitter-up of bamboo furniture
assembles parts of bamboo furniture, prepared by bamboo machinist (481) q.v., by hand, using woodworking tools, and boring, filing, screwing, glueing or nailing as required.
beader (carriages and coaches), body header
fixes on beading (wood or metal) to cover joints, or for decoration in coach building.
beam maker (pianos), beam man
makes beam on which butt and jack sections are screwed by action assembler (642) q.v. in making piano actions, by sawing, recessing, planing, etc.
beetle cutter, beetle maker ; bleacher's stamp maker
cuts, from hard wood by hand, and shapes heads of wooden mallets (beetles) used in finishing textiles.
bellows maker
cuts out and sews or rivets leather parts; files metal parts if required; cuts wooden parts to correct size and shape and fits parts together to make complete bellows; works by hand, with hand tools.
bellows maker (harmonium)
cuts wood to required size and planes it; glues and screws wooden parts together and attaches leather to frame; screws brass hinges in place; varnishes and fixes bellows to harmonium case.
bellyer, belly maker, belly man (pianos) ; sound board adjuster, sound board hand, sound board maker
cuts, planes and glues together thin boards to form sound board (belly), and fits with great accuracy, sound board, bridges, fillets and back bars (or ribs) of piano.
bender, bent timber maker, bent timber man, bent wood maker (coach), bent wood worker
see timber bender.
binder's board maker
makes boards for use of book binders; as for drawing board maker.
bleacher's stamp maker
see beetle cutter.
block floor layer
lays floors in patterns, with blocks of standard dimensions, generally held in position with mastic preparation.
block maker (wall paper)
builds up and glues together several layers of wood, forming wooden blocks used in wallpaper printing.
block maker (wood)
cuts out frame i.e. side pieces, and fillets, i.e. connecting pieces, for ships' blocks from pieces of wood, by hand, using hand tools; receives wheel or sheave (usually ready made of iron or lignum vitae), and assembles whole-frame, fillets, and wheel or sheave, with bolts and screws.
blower-off ; cask tester
tests repaired casks by admitting steam or hot water through bung hole, inserting temporary bung, and reports any escape of steam or leakage to trimmer (477) q.v., who marks defective staves, etc., for repair by cooper (477) q.v.; sometimes varnishes and paints top and bottom chimes or rims and bung.
bobbin board maker ; creel board maker
takes bobbin board or creel board, prepared by joiner (474) q.v., and drills holes in it, by machine, to hold bobbins or pirns in textile winding and spinning machinery; presses a pot step, i.e., earthenware lining, into each hole drilled to minimise friction.
bobbin end presser, wood bobbin end presser, wood bobbin end stamper ; glued end presser (bobbins)
re-receives bobbins, ends of which have been turned and bevelled, i.e. reduced to smaller diameter than that of rest of bobbin, and presses on to these bevelled ends, in a clamping machine, wooden flanges, having a centre hole, called glued ends; in small shops, makes his own glued ends; for this purpose he takes circular pieces of wood, with centre hole, already prepared; glues one side of piece; puts two pieces together in pairs, with glued surfaces touching; threads pairs along an iron bolt, fixed in position; when bolt is full, screws pairs tightly together by turning a nut at end of bolt, and leaves them until glue has set; then unscrews pairs of glued ends, removes them from bolt, and uses them as described above.
bobbin tester
places wooden bobbins, one at a time, on mandrel or spindle of a lathe, which i's set in motion, and, as they rotate rapidly, tests them by observation and with a slide, or more usually by hand, to ensure that they run true, and are in no way faulty; cf. bobbin slow tester.
boot last maker ; last maker
(i) shapes blocks of wood, with last-maker's knife, finishes with sandpaper, and attaches metal plate to bottom;
(ii) general term for worker engaged in any of the processes of boot last making where (as is usual) work is subdivided, including concaver (486), finisher (498), plater (264), spring fastener (498), toe and heeler (498), turner (486) q.v.
boot tree maker
cuts block of wood to the shape of a boot, with saw, and shapes it with hand knife, spokeshave or chisel; then finishes with sandpaper; also shapes wedge which is inserted between front and back parts of tree to strain leather.
bottomer (chairs—not cane), chair bottomer
adjusts bottoms of chair legs to prevent rocking, by sawing or rasping to one level; sometimes done by cabinet maker (473) q.v.; cf. bottomer (cane) (472).
bottom leveller
see rougher.
bowl maker (textile machinery)
cuts off bark from fallen trunk of tree by hand, using an adze; roughly cuts trunk into cylindrical form, using axe and adze, ready for bowl turner (486) q.v.
bow maker (archery) ; bowyer
(i) pares length (6 to 7 feet) of seasoned yew wood, with special spokeshave. from middle to each end; sandpapers wood and makes notch at each end. for bow string; covers hand grip of bow with plush, leather, etc.;
(ii) makes bow by taking two lengths of yew, half bow length, joins them by "duck joint" of small pieces of wood at centre and then proceeds as above; smooths and polishes.
bow maker (violins), violin bow maker
forms backs of violin bows from pieces of wood, by hand, using hand tools, and assembles other components, including hair, to make complete bows.
see bow maker (archery).
boxwood worker
turns pieces of boxwood on a lathe, planes and cuts them as required, by hand, with woodworking tools, to make tool handles, chess men, scales, rulers, etc.
briar filer, briar frazer
receives bowl, after it has been cut by bowl cutter (481) q.v., and turned, so far as turning is possible, by wood turner (486) q.v., and holds it against cutters of a power-driven wheel, to fraze or smooth it; files neck of pipe and knots, by hand, with a file.
brush wood finisher
shapes wooden stocks of brushes, by hand, with spokeshave and bench knife.
bush hand
bores or drills hole in top of cask with hand auger; paints bush or nozzle, and screws it tightly into bored hole with a two-handled bushing tool; sometimes also repairs bushes, nozzles; cf. nozzle repairer.
butter box maker
a scale board box maker q.v. making scaleboard boxes for butter.
butter cutter maker
shapes, with hand and band saws, flat wooden cutters or patterns for dividing butter; planes and sandpapers.
butter marking plate maker, butter mould maker, butter print maker
turns, on lathe, block, for marking butter with a pattern, which is afterwards carved by hand, cf. carver (485).
camp equipment maker
assembles folding wooden framework of articles of camp equipment (bedsteads, chairs, washstands, etc.) and attaches canvas fittings thereto.
camp stool maker
assembles folding wooden framework of camp stool and nails on, with brass-headed nails, piece of canvas or carpet, to form seat.
cask tester
see blower-off.
cattle crib maker
cuts pieces of wood, usually elm, to required dimensions and fastens them together to make racks, mangers or feeding troughs for cattle.
chair shaper ; shaper
fashions frames of chairs to desired shape, by hand, with spokeshave and rasp.
chequerer (small arms)
cuts a crisscross or chequered pattern on wooden fore-ends and butts of guns and rifles by hand, using a small steel-toothed tool.
cigar box maker
general term for worker engaged in one of the processes of making cigar boxes, where (as is usually the case) work is sub-divided; may be either
(i) a sawyer (481) q.v. cutting timber into thin boards with circular saw;
(ii) a wood working machinist (486) q.v. planing boards on planing machine;
(iii) a man cutting them into small pieces, as required;
(iv) a man (or a woman) nailing together these pieces; or
(v) a woman lining box so made, with paper, using brush and paste, see cigar box liner (559).
cleaver (cricket bats)
fixes in vice, roughly shaped blocks of seasoned willow wood and draw's two-handled knife over surface, paring off wood, to shape blade of cricket bat.
clog block maker
splits small logs of alder wood into rough blocks for use of clog sole cutter q.v., using an axe or mallet and a splitting tool.
clog sole maker
general term for any worker operating woodworking machines for making clog soles, including band sawyer (481), bottom leveller, rounder shanker, hollerer, gripper and sandpaperer q.v.
coat hanger maker (wood)
general term for any person engaged in making coat hangers, i.e. either cutting wood to shape with a band saw, or assembling parts, or varnishing completed article with a brush.
creel board maker
see bobbin board maker (wood).
cricket bat handle maker
assembles strips of cane and thin strips of rubber; planes cane, by hand, to correct dimensions and glues whole together; turns handle on lathe and cuts splice end.
cricket bat maker
cuts wood roughly to shape and size of blade of cricket bat; turns it to shape on a lathe, gives final shape to blade by hand paring to ensure correct balance, and presses it in a hand or power press; assembles cane sections, rubber slips, etc., and glues them together; turns them on lathe and cuts to shape of handle; splices and glues handle to blade; sandpapers and finishes surface; binds handle with waxed hemp on a foot or power lathe.
cue maker, billiard cue maker
receives handle or butt and cue, which has been roughly shaped and tapered by wood turner (486) q.v., and a splice cut therein by sawyer (481) q.v., and glues cue to butt; glues together sections on butt; cuts off ends to correct length, hand-planes whole, and sometimes sandpapers it and glues on leather tip, but this is more usually done by finisher (499) q.v.
currier's beam maker
takes large piece of sawn tree trunk, and shapes it with adze, plane and sandpaper to make currier's beam, i.e. wooden block over which hide or skin is laid for dressing.
derrick maker
see mast maker, wooden.
dolly maker
see maiden maker.
drawing board maker
saws, planes, grooves and tenons pieces of wood; inserts stiffening pieces, and finishes to make drawing boards.
dresser-off (saw-mills)
roughly squares circular logs, by hand, with an adze.
ebony handle maker
as for handle maker (wood).
ender-up (textile machinery)
finishes off lags and pegs (used as risers or sinkers in weaving looms), by sand papering and varnishing.
engraver's block maker (wood)
makes wood engraver's blocks, usually from box-wood, by accurately cutting with fine machine saw, oblongs of standard sizes from sections across box trees; makes compound, i.e. large blocks, by slotting, drilling and bolting together small blocks.
fancy box maker
assembles and nails together parts of light boxes, prepared by sawyer (481) q.v.; cf. fancy box maker (554).
finisher (action rails), action rail finisher, hammer rail finisher
covers action rails (known as "hammer rest rail" and as "half blow rest" respectively), as received from hammer rail maker (486) q.v. with felt, and joins them together with hinges and screws.
finisher, coffin
fits mountings, plates, handles, etc., to coffin with screws; usually also polishes outside of coffin, see polisher (478), and lines inside, see coffin trimmer (508).
finisher (coopering)
(i) shaves and scrapes barrel or cask after it has been built by cooper (477) q.v.; may also chamfer or chime ends of staves to form top and bottom runs and affixes end hoops;
(ii) completes cask or barrel by putting on permanent iron or wooden hoops.
finisher (small arms)
see maker-off (small arms).
fitter-up of bamboo furniture
see bamboo furniture maker.
fret worker
makes articles of fretwork throughout; cuts, see fret cutter (481), and fixes fretted designs upon furniture, etc., with nails or glue.
glove stretcher maker
cuts glove stretchers from beech or boxwood, by hand, and shapes with knife or cutter.
glued end presser
see bobbin end presser.
gluer (brushes)
attaches backs to filled brush stocks by brushing back with hot glue and fixing brushes in clamping frames till firmly set.
gluer and joint maker, gluer-up
(i) shoots (i.e. planes smooth), glues and joins together various parts of furniture, etc.;
(ii) applies glue with brush to prepared surfaces of wood, places in cramping machine, and forces together by adjusting screws.
grader (wood heels), heel grader, wood heel grader
cuts V-shaped piece from upper side of wooden heel, with small circular saw, holding heel against guides.
grid maker, wood grid maker
cuts wood to sizes required on circular saw or fastens together pieces of wood already prepared to make "grid," i.e. wooden frame containing openings to admit air or to allow escape of water; may merely nail laths to frame, or groove and tenon parts of grid before joining together.
grip maker, bayonet grip maker
(i) cuts hardwood with circular saw, and shapes it on spindle moulding machine, to make bayonet handles, for fixing on bayonet tangs; finally trims them on abrasive wheels;
(ii) passes wood into automatic machine which cuts and shapes it; switches on power-drive of machine, and adjusts machine as required.
gripper (clog soles)
cuts out groove round clog sole, for attachment of upper, on a wood cutting machine.
guitar maker
makes guitars of wood, using hand and machine tools; cuts sections to shape and glues them together, and, after finishing surfaces, mounts keys, bridge, strings and other accessories or ornaments.
haft maker
see handle maker.
hammer shafter
fits new wooden shafts in old and new hammers, makes head secure by driving hard-wood wedges into handle; sometimes makes shafts or handles for hammers, either by turning on a copying lathe, or with a hand spoke-shaving tool, see handle maker, helve dresser; may also make and repair rivet and tool boxes.
handle maker (wood) ; haft maker
makes handles for tools, teapots, etc., throughout, largely by machine, but usually with some additional hand work, e.g. sometimes files handles, or dresses them with a spoke-shave, plane, adze or chisel, drills holes for fixing to tangs, squares and finishes ends of spade handles to receive blade, etc.; cf. handle machinist (486).
hatchet man (coal mines)
(i) see timber cutter;
(ii) sharpens pit props by cutting point with small hatchet; cf. pit prop sharpener (481).
header-up (casks)
fits and drives in head after cask has been cleaned.
head maker (casks)
makes head throughout, i.e. combines work of head cutter (481) and head shaper q.v.
head shaper (casks)
rounds, bevels and shapes heads, as received from cutter, with chisel and other hand tools to fit ends of casks or barrels; may bevel edges by holding in a bevelling machine.
heel maker
see wood heel maker.
helve dresser, helve maker
a handle maker q.v. who makes handles or helves for axes, adzes, picks, etc., from rough wood, with planes, adzes, chisels, spoke-shaves, etc., and glasspaper.
hollower (clog soles)
shapes cast or top side of clog soles on a wood cutting machine.
hooper-off (casks)
completes wet cask or barrel by putting on permanent iron hoops; drops welded iron hoops (sometimes hot) of proper size over end and hammers into place with blunt chisel; knocks off temporary hoops.
hosiery shape maker
partly turns, and then shapes with hand tools, hosiery shapes used for hosiery finishing.
hurdle maker
splits timber (generally chestnut); selects and prepares poles or other small round timber for uprights; mortices them to receive cross rails; drives in cross rails; nails and pegs them, and puts in cross braces; usually works in a workshop.
receives saplings, usually of willow or ash, and strips them of their small branches; splits sapling with bill hook; takes two stout pieces of split wood, sharpens them at one end and bores holes in them, for insertion of cross pieces; inserts thinner pieces of wood as bars, in holes so made; binds structure with a stouter piece of wood nailed diagonally across bars; makes fences of hurdles so made; usually works in wood yard of farm or sheltered corner of copse; cf. hurdle maker; in remote country districts, cuts own saplings and makes hurdles at home.
incubator maker
saws and joins wood to make outside frame of incubator, wooden trays, partitions, etc.; lines frame with tin and inserts lamp and other fittings.
inside hand (organs), general inside hand
engaged in workshop where organ builders specialise in different branches; makes and fits up action controls, sound board and similar work appertaining to inside of pipe organ; cf. organ builder (648).
key maker (piano)
makes sets of piano keys by glueing together several boards of bass wood, and marking out scaling; glues on chasing, i.e. thin strip of wood that goes from end to end of keys; glues on ivory, celluloid, or galalith for keys; cuts out keys by machinery; bores holes for centre and front pins and bushes holes with felt; glues black pieces on "sharps," and inserts leaden weight at end of each key to give balance; these processes are sometimes sub-divided.
key maker (organs), organ key maker
makes "frames" and "panels"; bores holes in frame and in panels; fixes ivories (keys) and ebony sharps; cuts apart panel, and inserts pins; also fixes individual keys in correct position.
lapboard maker
cuts, shapes and planes, on wood working machines, lapboards, i.e. boards upon which cloth is folded; usually covers boards with paper.
last maker
see boot last maker.
lath cleaver, lath render, lath river, lath splitter ; lattice render
splits timber, already cut to required length, into laths, used in plastering, by hand, with an axe.
lattice render
see lath cleaver.
leg block maker (pianos)
moulds on a spindle, wooden blocks attached to piano legs; may further prepare by glueing parts together and veneering; usually done by part maker (473) q.v.
lift maker
fits together or builds cars or cages used in carrying goods or passengers up or down a shaft; work similar to that of coach builder (476) q.v.
maiden maker ; dolly maker, peggy maker
saws with circular saw, and turns on lathe, wooden blocks, feet, shanks, handles and pegs for "dolly" of washing machine; bores hole for pegs and fits them all together.
maker-off (small arms) ; finisher
finishes wooden fore-ends and butts of guns, rifles, etc., by cutting, spokeshaving, rasping and buffing.
mallet maker
makes wooden mallets on woodworking lathe and with hand tools.
mandoline maker
as for guitar maker.
marker-off, marker-out
marks wood, with pencil, to shape and size required, indicating where it is to be cut, bent, etc.
mast maker (wooden), mast and spar maker ; derrick maker, spar maker, yard maker
shapes masts, spars, yards, and derricks from rough trunks of wood, with chopping axe, adze, etc., to required dimensions; sometimes done by shipwright (wood) (482) q.v. .
measure maker, rim measure maker
steams thin pieces of hardwood in a steaming chamber; bends them, by hand, over a jig or mould, clamping them thereon by hand-manipulated screws; cuts circular pieces for bottoms, with hand saw or band saw, and fits them into cylinder formed on jig; rivets whole together by hand, or on riveting machine; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., corn measure maker, fruit measure maker.
measurer (timber)
see timber measurer.
modeller (wood)
see wood model maker.
nozzle repairer (cooperages)
a bush hand q.v. who removes old bushes or nozzles from repaired cask with a hammer and chisel, inserts new bush, and screws it into hole with a two-handled bushing tool.
oar maker, boat oar maker ; oar and scull maker
receives oar form, i.e. a fir pole, usually imported already roughly cut, and lines it out, i.e. draws shape of oar thereon in chalk; saws it to shape indicated, with a circular saw, or cuts it down, by hand, with a two-handled knife and chopper; planes it with hand plane; nails leather collar or loom in position, to reduce friction where oar will rub on rowlocks, with copper nails, and sometimes nails strip of copper on edge of blade; usually done by mast maker q.v. or block maker q.v.
outside fitter-up
dismantles and reassembles, during removal, heavy furniture made in sections; screws and unscrews bolts, hinges etc.; may sometimes also do work of furniture porter (759) q.v.
pan maker (harmoniums)
cuts wood to size for "pan" (reed wind-chest for harmonium); glues frame together, and makes slots, by boring holes in pans, over which reeds are fixed by finisher q.v.; cf. pan maker (concertinas (486).
parquet flooring maker
makes parquet flooring which has been cut out by circular saw, or fret saw in case of intricate design; operates woodworking machines which groove and tongue edges and plane surface of parquet sections ready for laying; or makes up parquet panels from sections and binds together with glue.
parquet floor layer ; wood floor layer
lays prepared parquet flooring, by glueing or riveting to floor base; planes top, and scrapes with iron scraper; applies wax polish, or sometimes, stain or French polish.
patent floor layer
lays floors with patent composition, usually containing some mastic mixture, sawdust, etc.
pattern maker (wood scales)
see wood scale maker (pianos).
peggy maker
see maiden maker.
piano bracket maker
cuts with saw, and shapes with chisel, plane, etc., wooden candle brackets for pianos; usually done by part maker (473) q.v.
pick shaft glazer
grinds and polishes surface of pick handle on glazing wheel or machine, where abrasive material is smeared on leather face of wheel.
plate lock stocker
recesses and bores wooden blanks which encase working fittings of plate or stock locks.
poker worker
burns in design, by tracing with heated tool usually on wood but also on leather, cardboard, etc.; uses type of branding iron for repeat or standard pattern.
pole builder
trims and strips stems or trunks of trees for use as poles for telephone, telegraph,; or other electric wires; mounts cross trees, by checking them in and bolting them into position; fixes, by coach screws or other means, step brackets as required, for climbing; usually done by carpenter or joiner (474) q.v.
propeller maker, propeller shaper
receives wood for aeroplane propellers, which has been cut by sawyer (481) and by woodworking machinist (486) q.v., glues several thicknesses of wood, so prepared, together, taking care to lay each thickness opposite ways of grain from the last; places whole in a hand-manipulated press until glue is set; cuts and trims to shape with saw, plane, spokeshave and other hand tools; polishes whole with sand or glass paper, ready for French polisher (478) q.v.
pulley block maker, pulley maker
as for block maker (wood).
racquet frame maker
see tennis racquet frame maker.
raiser (coopering) ; rearer-up
assembles shaped staves and stands them up in first hoop to form cask or barrel, ready for trusser (477) q.v.
rake maker
turns, cuts and fits together component parts of wooden bay rakes.
see raiser.
rope block maker
as for block maker (wood).
rougher (clog soles) ; bottom leveller
holds block of wood, intended for clog sole, against revolving cutters of smoothing machine to remove roughness.
rounder (clog soles)
see side cutter.
rule finisher
passes rule, which has been prepared by rule framer q.v., into a machine which scores marks thereon, indicating inches, millimetres, etc.; punches numbers thereon with hand punch and hammer; rushes, i.e. sandpapers it; polishes it with hand pad, and adds brass parts (if any).
rule framer
takes piece of wood, usually boxwood, for better class of rules, and saws it to correct length; planes top, bottom, edges and ends, by hand with a plane, or on planing machine, and bevels one or both edges, by hand or machine.
rustic carpenter, rustic wood worker, rustic work maker, rustic worker
makes garden seats, garden tables, arches, etc., from wood in its natural state, i.e. wood that has not been stripped of its bark or subjected to any machinery; usually a rough carpenter (474) q.v.
sabot maker
shapes wooden shoes from solid wood, with power cutters, finishing with hand tools.
saddle tree maker
constructs wooden base for saddle trees by hand, using woodworking tools; glues component parts together; covers -with canvas, and, if required, sandpapers and varnishes completed work.
scaleboard box maker
assembles and sticks together veneer or chip wood, previously cut to proper sizes, with paper strips and paste, to form box; cf. cardboard box maker (554).
scale box maker
(i) makes fitted wooden box which holds weights for scales;
(ii) saws, planes and joins wood to form box portion of scales.
scale tang hafter
makes wooden scales, i.e. handles for butchers' knives and for cheap household knives; pins scales on tang through holes drilled by a machine; then polishes scale and end of tang on emery grindstones of varying fineness till they are perfectly smooth.
scull maker
as for oar maker, except that wood used is generally spruce.
scythe shaft maker
bends shafts for scythes to shape under steam pressure (see shaft bender), turns handles on lathe and fits into shaft.
shaft bender
(i) tree bender; bends shafts or handles for scythes, shovels, etc., by placing in steam chamber to soften them and then bending to shape and clamping tight in a shaping or bending vice
(ii) shaftman, makes shafts for light carriages by bending timber to shape by steam process; usually done by wheelwright or coach builder (475) q.v.
shaftman (carriages)
(i) see shaft bender;
(ii) shapes cart, carriage or van shafts from solid timber, by hand, with adze, plane and other hand tools, and fits parts together, with necessary fittings, hinges, etc.
shanker (clog soles)
cuts out instep in clog soles, on woodcutting machine.
see chair shaper.
sharp gluer (pianos)
glues, by hand, ebony sharps on to keyboard.
sharp maker (pianos)
cuts ebony or other hardwood, by fine machine saw, to size required for piano or organ sharps; cleans and polishes them on sandpapering machine ready for glueing on to keyboard.
shuttle block presser
presses hardwood shuttle blocks in hydraulic press, to increase density of wood.
side cutter ; rounder
shapes clog soles, by cutting outline of sole with a wood cutting machine.
sieve maker (wood or cane)
(i) bends and nails wooden frame of sieve, attaches gauze, or works wire through to form mesh;
(ii) makes, by hand, a kind of basket called a "sieve," of woven willow rods, for packing apples and other fruit, etc.
sole cutter (clog), sole maker, clog sole cutter
shapes wooden blanks or blocks, in readiness to be attached to clog upper by clog seatsman (415) q.v.; uses heavy hand knife, weighing 21 lbs., known as stock, hollower, or gripper.
sound board adjuster, sound board hand, sound board maker (pianos)
see bellyer.
spade and shovel shaft finisher
uses hand tools to cut and shape ends of standard handles, made by handle machinist (486) q.v., and to fit them to spades and shovels; fastens shaft to spade with rivet.
spar maker
see mast maker (wooden).
spokeshave maker
forms spokeshave grips from hardwood on wood turning lathe and wood cutting machine; inserts blades and coats tool with quick-drying varnish.
spring fastener (boot lasts), last spring fastener
bores holes in lasts, by machine, and fits spring for fastening together parts of last.
stocker (gun) ; stock maker
makes stocks of guns or rifles, by hand, from pieces of walnut wood, which have previously been roughly shaped; fixes them to rifle or gun, chiselling and cutting "head" of stock (where stocks meet metal parts) with great accuracy to ensure perfect fitting of rifle or gun mechanism; cf. stocker (486); sometimes specifically designated, e.g. gun stocker, pistol stocker, rifle stocker, shot gun stocker.
stock filer, stock finisher, stock machinist (gun)
finishes on sand wheel or leather buff, surfaces of rifle or gun stocks, and fore ends, in readiness for varnishing.
stock maker
see stocker.
tally maker ; wood label maker
saws wood into thin boards, and smooths on planing machine; cuts boards into small pieces with circular saw; drills holes in tally and cuts point on one end by holding against guide in machine.
tennis racquet frame maker ; racquet frame maker
bends strip of wood to shape of tennis racquet frame by application of steam and by use of wedges; rasps, files and planes frame thus bent; smooths it with spoke-shave and sand paper.
tennis racquet polisher
rough polishes tennis racquet frame, by hand, with sandpaper, before stringing, and finally polishes it, by hand, after stringing, with spirit varnishes and pads.
timber bender ; bender, bent limber maker, bent timber man, bent wood maker (coach), bent wood worker, wood bender
(i) places wood in steaming vessel and bends it round shaped blocks, fixing it in position with clamps or wedges;
(ii) a carpenter (474) q.v. or a coach builder (476) q.v., who fits selected timber into jigs or frames, and places the frame, with the timber inside, in a chamber into which steam is introduced, thereby giving timber permanent set or bend for use as shafts, felloes, body moulds and frames.
timber cutter ; hatchet man
cuts, with hatchet or saws, timber to required size for props, sleepers, chocks, etc., at surface of coal mine cf. sawyer (481).
timber finder
a timber expert, whose duty it is to find suitable wood in timber yard or store for special work.
timber hewer
see timber squarer; cf. timber feller (016).
timber measurer ; wood measurer
takes dimensions of timber, using calipers and tape measure, and calculates amount of useful wood in baulk marks timber and records quantities in book.
timber selector
(i) chooses timber for purchaser, in timber yard;
(ii) decides for what purpose various kinds of timber in stock are suitable; judges quality and degree of maturity.
timber squarer ; timber hewer
roughly squares timber with an adze; cf. timber squarer (481).
toe and heeler (boot lasts), last toe and heeler
shapes toe and heel of last with last maker's knife, after it has been turned by machine.
tray maker (wood)
cuts out pieces of three ply and other wood for base and sides; joins them together with tenon joints and screws to form wooden trays; sometimes done by cabinet maker (473) q.v.
tree bender (spades and shovels)
see shaft bender.
trellis maker
nails or rivets together laths to form trellis, i.e. a kind of network, of diamond or square pattern.
trimming board maker
shapes trimming board, used in upholstery trade, by hand, with woodworking tools, working wood endways of grain, to prevent cutting knife penetrating.
trug maker
makes by hand, using woodworking tools, boat-shaped wooden basket, for use of gardeners, using thin boards of hard wood split by hand and bent; nails strips on to wooden frame-work.
veneer drier
takes charge of stock of veneers, dries them in heated chambers and makes them perfectly straight between presses.
veneer matcher
selects pieces of veneer whose grain and natural markings will accord well together; tacks a number of pieces, so selected, together, and cuts them to required shape and dimensions, with hand or band saw; glues them on surface to be veneered, e.g., piano panel, table top; places whole in a press, with heated zinc sheets, to keep glue plastic while work slowly sets, and screws press down with hand screw; removes work from press when set and scrapes surface, by hand, with steel scraper tools.
venetian blind maker
receives laths planed by machinist (486) q.v. and sometimes also sawn to required length by sawyer (481) q.v.; if laths are not sawn to length, saws them with hand saw; punches holes or slots in laths; cuts beam on which blind hangs; fixes webbing and cord and small pulley wheels in top beam, all by hand, using woodworking tools, screws and nails.
violin maker, violoncello maker
makes instrument of chosen wood, with hand tools (chisels, gouges, knives, planes, saws, etc.); fits stud, tail piece and thumb pegs for attach- j ing of strings; makes and fixes fingerboard; is often largely engaged in repairing violins or similar instruments.
washboard maker
(i) cuts off parts of washboard from machined lengths of wood, using woodworking tools, fits together, with brass or zinc screws or nails, and trims off edges;
(ii) makes frame and fits sheet of corrugated zinc.
washing maid maker
assembles parts of "washing maid," i.e. trough and stirring mechanism; fits together, and makes watertight,; cf. maiden maker.
wattle maker
a hurdle maker q.v. who makes frame work of hurdle and then weaves it with twigs or wattles.
wig block maker
shapes, with hand tools, wooden blocks to hold wig in making.
wood bender
see timber bender.
wood dresser (harness furniture)
cuts out and shapes, by hand, using woodworking tools, wooden base for cased cart harness, ready for metal casing.
wooden bobbin finisher
finishes off, with hand tools, roughly turned wooden bobbins and fixes metal attachments.
wood fibre maker
see wood wool cutter.
wood finisher
smooths finished work, usually with glass and sandpaper either by hand or by holding woodwork against face of sandpapering or buffing machine; usually done by joiner (474) or cabinet maker (473) q.v.
wood floor layer
(i) see parquet floor layer;
(ii) lays floors with wooden blocks, arranged in a pattern, usually on a foundation of cement, fixing blocks by means of melted bitumen; planes or scrapes to one level and applies first polish.
wood handle maker (not tool)
as for handle maker; may shape principally by hand from hard woods, e.g. box, ash, ebony, using saw and small lathe.
wood heel maker ; heel maker
(i) shapes wooden heels with chisel and spokeshave;
(ii) general term for workers engaged in any of the various operations of wood heel making, when work is subdivided, including blocker, breaster (486), concaver (486), grader, scourer (499) q.v.
wood hewer
cuts and shapes wooden baulks with axe or adze for various purposes, e.g. "rounds" one end and "points " other of piles which are to be steel shod and collared.
wood label maker
see tally maker.
wood letter cutter, wood letter maker
chalks or pencils outlines of letters on pieces of well-seasoned, smooth wood and cuts out solid letters by means, sometimes, of a keyhole saw, or, more generally, of a small band saw; finishes off letters by bevelling, filing, sandpapering, etc.
wood measurer
see timber measurer.
wood model maker ; modeller (wood)
makes models in wood, working from scale drawings; measures and marks out wood accurately, cuts parts with fine saws, planes and shapes with various wood cutting hand tools; joins parts together with small nails and screws; may also do wood carving, see wood carver (485).
wood packing maker
see wood wool cutter.
wood pipe maker (organs)
an inside hand q.v. who makes wooden organ pipes, by glueing and pegging together boards of definite length, into long square tube.
wood rake maker
makes handle by drawing stick through die of trapping machine to smooth it and reduce to required section; saws, shaves and bores head; makes teeth on trapping machine, and fits parts together.
wood scale maker (pianos) ; pattern maker (wood scales)
makes a pattern in wood (called a wood scale), of a piano scale, from which a mould is afterwards taken for use in making iron scale of a piano; work done by hand, with hand woodworking tools.
wood shell maker (drums, etc.)
saws scaleboard wood, i.e. thin wood, generally spruce or ash, to required length; steams it in steam chamber; bends it to shape of drum by hand on a jig or shaped mould fitted with clamping screws; joins ends with glue, or with rivets or staples, which are driven in by hand or on machine; presses join, if glued, with a hand-manipulated caul press fitted with hand screws; leaves drum shell to dry.
wood shovel maker
fits on to turned handle, a shovel-shaped piece of wood, made by chisel and spokeshave.
wood wool cutter, wood wool maker ; wood fibre maker, wood packing maker
places waste veneer or waste peelings from logs, in a pile, on bed of a machine, and clamps them in position; switches on power-drive of machine, which planes thin shavings from pile as it advances automatically towards horizontal cutter of machine.
wood worker
general term for any person working in wood, e.g. as a cabinet maker (473), or as a joiner (474), or as a wood cutting machinist (486) q.v.
wood, worker (orthopaedic)
cuts out and fashions wooden parts of surgical appliances, by hand, taking measurements from plaster casts or moulds, and using woodworking tools.
writing slate framer
fits wooden frames, dove-tailed or haunch-tenoned together, round slate.
yard maker
see mast maker (wooden).

Back to List of Occupational Codes

From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.