A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Workers in Wood


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accumulator box and stand maker
a joiner q.v. who makes boxes and stands for accumulators.
aileron assembler ; elevator assembler (aeroplanes)
assembles and fits together wooden and steel parts of ailerons, i.e. aeroplane elevators, by hand with woodworking tools.
banister assembler
a joiner q.v. who specialises in assembling machine-made parts of banisters.
bed frame maker
see mattress frame maker.
beer case or stand maker
as for division case maker.
beer case or stand repairer
strips damaged parts from beer cases or stands, and replaces them with new material, by hand.
bench hand, bench man
a joiner q.v. working at a bench, who receives pieces of wood after they have been cut and shaped by machinist (486) q.v. and fits and joins them together, by hand, by dove-tailing, morticing and tenoning, etc.; uses woodworking tools, glue, nails and screws; cuts and eases tenons and mortice holes, when necessary, in joining pieces of wood; sometimes cuts and shapes one or more pieces of wood, required for work, entirely by hand, with woodworking tools.
bench maker ; form maker
a joiner q.v. who saws, planes (as required), and joins wood to make benches or forms.
bier maker
a carpenter q.v. employed by undertaker in making biers; usually done by coffin maker q.v.
boat carpenter
a carpenter q.v. who specialises in the making and repairing of wooden boats, by hand.
body erector (aeroplanes) ; fuselage erector
a carpenter q.v. who fits together wooden parts of aeroplane body, or fuselage, and secures them by glueing and riveting, or with screws; also fits wires and stays.
cabin maker
see joiner, cabin.
carcass hand
see carpenter, house.
works in wood (mainly deal, pine, oak, and teak), usually already sawn to standard shapes and sizes, and sometimes planed, but not as a rule otherwise manufactured; uses hand tools only, e.g., hand saw, planes, chisels, screw driver, hammer; is mainly concerned with internal wooden structure of buildings e.g. framework, floors, roofs, as distinct from wooden fixtures (see joiner), or works upon heavy outdoor woodwork that cannot conveniently be made in a workshop, such as big timber work of ships, railway stations, house roofs, etc.; sometimes also a joiner q.v.
carpenter (barrel organs) ; case maker (barrel organs)
a carpenter q.v. who makes cases for barrel organs; also makes parts thereof, e.g. wooden barrels or rollers (revolving cylinders), which he cuts to required size and shape by machinery and with hand tools; fastens roller together with glue and wooden pins, and attaches pinion and crank wheel thereto.
carpenter, bridge
a rough carpenter q.v. skilled in construction of woodwork for bridges over small streams, dykes, etc.
carpenter, estate
a carpenter q.v. who repairs gates and fences, bridges, wooden parts of agricultural machines, and does minor repair and construction work, in wood, in and about houses and buildings on estate.
carpenter, farm
as for carpenter, estate.
carpenter, hedge; hedge-row carpenter
a rough carpenter q.v., generally itinerant, who does odd jobs at farms, cottages, etc.
carpenter, house ; carcass hand, fixer
a carpenter q.v. who works upon carcass of a house or building, putting in floors, timber work of roofs, window frames, doors, linings and skirtings, by hand, using woodworking tools.
carpenter (maintenance) ; joiner (maintenance), mill joiner
a carpenter q.v. who makes and repairs wooden utensils, e.g., trolleys, wooden tanks, used in a mine, factory, workshop or other industrial or commercial establishment; maintains and keeps in repair woodwork of buildings, machinery, or plant.
carpenter, pit ; joiner (colliery), pitwnght
a carpenter (maintenance) q.v. employed in maintenance and repair of colliery buildings, plant, etc.
carpenter, rough
a carpenter q.v. who makes wooden articles, erections, etc. not requiring a high finish, or much experience in the art of structural woodwork.
carpenter, ship
(i) a carpenter q.v. employed in shipbuilding trades;
(ii) in Scotland and N. of England sometimes used in sense of shipwright (482); cf. carpenter (on board ship) (735).
carpenter, stage
a carpenter q.v. who makes the woodwork of scenery and stretches canvas on framework with nails and glue ready for scene painter (875) q.v.; repairs wood- work of scenery; superintends scene shifters (887) q.v., and does other woodworking jobs at a theatre, music hall, etc., under direction of master carpenter q.v.
carpenter, tramcar
a carpenter q.v. who cuts and joins timber, and maxes and dove-tails plain woodwork of tramcars; lays floors of tramcars; fits partitions in deal or other soft timber, or in rough hardwoods.
a carpenter q.v. who cuts with saw and places in position, under water, heavy timbers used in construction of piers, wharves, docks, etc.
case maker (barrel organs)
see carpenter (barrel organs).
casement maker
a joiner q.v. making casement window frames.
chimney-piece maker (wood) ; mantel maker (wood)
, a joiner q.v. who prepares and puts together sections of prepared wood (usually hard wood and ornamented) to form chimneypieces.
cistern and tank-maker (wood) ; tank maker (wood)
cuts, planes, and otherwise prepares wooden planks, and fits them together to form cisterns and tanks.
clothes-horse maker
cuts timber to size with circular saw; mortices parts, by hand, and joins them together to form clothes-horse.
coffin maker, coffin and casket maker (wood)
a carpenter q.v. employed by an undertaker in making coffins, usually of elm or of some hard wood; generally assembles pieces of wood cut and shaped by woodworking machinist (486) q.v.
coop maker
a carpenter q.v. who shapes and assembles pieces of wood to make poultry coops, and inserts and fits in wire netting.
crib maker (sheep)
a rough carpenter q.v. making feeding cribs for use in sheep folds.
criss maker (tile making)
a carpenter q.v. who makes criss, i.e. top (curved to shape of tile) of horse i.e. wooden stand on which pantiles and other curved tiles are made, using hammer and chisel, sometimes turning part of work on a lathe.
division case maker
a carpenter q.v. who makes beer cases, egg boxes, mineral water boxes, and other boxes or cases which are divided into compartments; assembles and joins together, by hand, pieces of wood which have been cut and dove-tailed by other workers; sometimes also nails them together, fits in grids, sandpapers and varnishes surface.
door maker
a joiner q.v. employed in a machine shop where doors of standard patterns are made; fits and joins together, by hand, using woodworking tools, nails, screws and glue, parts which have been prepared by machinist (486) q.v.
drum builder (cables), drum maker (cables), cable drum maker
takes pieces of wood, cut to shape and planed by other workers, and assembles them; nails sections together and nails on battens; attaches flanges with long bolts, driven through drum, and nails on outer battens.
egg box maker, egg case maker
as for division case maker.
elevator assembler (aeroplanes)
see aileron assembler.
exhibition stand fitter
does rough carpentering, lays linoleum, tacks cloth, and does other similar work incidental to erection of exhibition stands.
fencer (wood), fence erector
receives timber ready cut to dimensions required, and nails upright pieces to horizontal bars; sinks posts and erects fence in position; usually also fixes gates in position, and repairs fences.
fencing maker
binds together palings of cleft chestnut or other wood with wire, using a hand machine, to make chestnut fencing.
see carpenter, house.
floor dresser
planes with hand planes, or scrapes with steel scraper tool, wooden floors, after being laid by carpenter q.v.; work usually done by carpenter q.v.; sometimes dresses by use of portable electric planing machine.
floor layer
a carpenter q.v. who lays down and clamps floor-boards side by side and nails them to floor joists, to form floors, then planing away with hand plane, any unevenness.
form maker
see bench maker.
frame maker (agricultural machines) ; machine erector, machine frame maker machine maker
a carpenter q.v. who builds framework and undercarriages of threshing machines, straw elevators, and other agricultural machines, and fits parts together.
frame maker, garden; horticultural frame maker
a carpenter q.v. who makes garden frames.
frame shooter (silk factories)
a mill joiner q.v. who levels up woodwork of silk dressing frames.
fuselage erector
see body erector (aeroplanes).
garden seat and furniture maker
see joiner (garden furniture).
gate maker
saws, shapes, and mortices pieces of timber and fits and nails them together to form gates.
greenhouse maker ; horticultural house maker
a carpenter q.v. who makes wooden framework of greenhouse, etc., either by hand, cutting, shaping and joining pieces of wood with woodworking tools; or more usually by fitting together pieces of wood prepared by machinist (486) q.v.; may also erect framework, usually on brick base, afterwards to be glazed by glazier (569) q.v.
handrail maker
a joiner q.v. , who makes working drawings of wooden handrail on setting out boards; makes by hand, with woodworking tools, various templates or moulds for use in cutting twists or turns in rail; cuts twists or turns from square blocks of wood on band saw, or directs band sawyer (481) q.v.; cuts ornamental moulding of twists and turns with hand tools; but usually receives long straight pieces ready moulded by moulding machinist (486) q.v.; fixes completed hand-rail into position, by hand.
hoarding erector, hoarding maker
a rough carpenter q.v. who fixes timber on rough standards, to make surface for advertisements, or as screen.
horticultural house maker
see greenhouse maker.
hutch maker
a rough carpenter q.v. who makes rabbit hutches, colliery hutches (wheeled boxes for transporting coal in a mine), or bakers' kneading troughs.
makes various kinds of woodwork in a workshop (as distinguished from carpenter, who usually works outside workshop); fits together pieces of prepared wood (mainly deal, pine, ash, oak, mahogany, teak and walnut) by glueing, dovetailing, screwing, tongueing, and grooving, to make doors, windows, staircases, cupboards, panelling, etc., for houses, counters, show cases, etc., for shops, wood-work of railway carriages, tramcars, etc., lighter parts of ships' timbering and ships' fittings, etc.; sometimes also a carpenter q.v.; sometimes works in conjunction with cabinet maker (473) q.v. where work is to be decorated with veneers or with inlays.
joiner, cabin ; cabin maker, ship joiner
a joiner q.v. who constructs ships' cabins, including linings, bunks, racks, washing stands, etc.
joiner, carriage (textile machinery)
a joiner q.v. who makes wooden parts of carriages for mule spinning machines.
joiner, case (organs)
a joiner q.v. who makes external woodwork, e.g. panels, moulding, bands, imposts, posts, rails, plinths, decorative work, canopy, of pipe organs, by hand and/or by machine.
joiner, case (pianos)
a joiner q.v. who saws up parts of piano case, makes joints and fits parts together; cf. case maker (piano) (473).
joiner, coach
assembles pieces of wood, prepared by woodworking machinist (486) q.v.; assembles them to form frames, doors and other finer sections of coach woodwork, cutting and shaping if necessary, with saw, chisel, etc., to facilitate fitting, and fastening parts together with nails, screws or bolts.
joiner (colliery)
(i) see carpenter, pit;
(ii) in Cumberland and Cleveland, a carpenter q.v. who erects timber for support of roof and sides of colliery roads, and brattice for ventilation in working places.
joiner (garden furniture) ; garden seat and furniture maker
a joiner q.v. who cuts and joins together timber, either sawn and planed or "rustic,'' i.e. in its natural irregular form, to form garden furniture.
joiner, loom
a joiner q.v. who cuts and fits togther [sic] wooden parts of weaving looms.
joiner (maintenance), mill joiner
see carpenter (maintenance).
joiner, printer's
a joiner q.v. who makes printer's type cases and other equipment for printers' offices, by fitting together pieces of wood, which he usually receives cut, grooved, and tenoned by other workers.
joiner, ship
see joiner, cabin.
joiner, shop fitter's
a joiner q.v. who constructs shelves, counters, drawers, cupboards, etc., for equipment of shops, usually of less intricate construction, of commoner wood, or of less high finish than those made by shop fitter's cabinet maker (473) q.v.
ladder maker
a rough carpenter q.v. who makes and drills uprights of ladders, and makes and fixes rungs.
leading fencer (railways)
is in charge of a gang of men erecting or repairing fences along a railway; see fencer.
machine erector, machine maker, machine frame maker
see frame maker (agricultural machines).
mantel maker (wood)
see chimney piece maker.
master carpenter (theatres)
in large theatres is responsible for making and repairing wood-work required on stage, and often for all carpentry work in theatre; in small theatre is usually a working stage carpenter q.v.
mattress frame maker (wood), wire mattress frame maker ; bed frame maker
a joiner q.v. who assembles pieces of wood to make a frame to which wire mattress is attached or from which box mattress is made.
mineral water box maker
as for division case maker.
mould maker (artificial stone)
a rough carpenter q.v. making wooden moulds in which artificial flags, blocks, or stones are cast.
see carpenter, pit.
plane assembler (aeroplane)
builds up parts of planes, i.e. wings of aeroplanes, prepared by sawyers (481) and machinists (486) q.v. on a jig or mould, into complete planes, by hand, with woodworking tools.
plane erector (aeroplanes)
attaches elevators, i.e. ailerons, to aeroplanes or wings of aeroplanes; erects plane or wings on fuselage, i.e. body of aeroplane; also erects or builds up fuselage; assembles rudder, and attaches to fuselage.
platform hand (tramcars)
assists erector (210) q.v. in fitting up controllers on driving platform; assists body builder (476) q.v. in fitting of shields, guards, stairs, etc.
poultry appliance maker
a rough carpenter q.v. who puts together pieces of wood ready cut to measure to form wooden fowl houses, chicken runs, chicken hatches, egg boxes, incubators, etc.
roof fixer, roof hand ; roof truss maker
a carpenter q.v. who cuts prepared pieces of timber to required angles, lengths, and joints to form frame of roof, and fastens them together with iron straps and bolts, or with nails.
roof repairer (rolling stock)
renews timber, steel, canvas, etc., used as roofing material on railway or tramway rolling stock.
roof truss maker
see roof fixer.
safe maker (wood), meat safe maker
cuts pieces of wood to required size and shape, and fits them together to make wooden safes and fixes wire gauze in door frames and/or sides for storing meat, etc.
sea chest maker
a joiner q.v. who assembles pieces of wood, which he receives ready cut and machined, and screws or nails them together to form sea chests; adds strengthening strips, metal angle pieces, hinges, locks and handles.
seat maker (tramcars)
a joiner q.v. who cuts, joins and fits together pieces of wood to form seats of tramcars.
sheep cage maker
a rough carpenter q.v. who makes cages for the conveyance of sheep and lambs from fold to fold or to market.
shutter maker (wood)
(i) a joiner q.v. who makes flat wooden window shutters;
(ii) (revolving shutters) fastens together lathes of special section with hinged chain, which is screwed to back, the whole being attached to a spring roller, so that shutter can be drawn up or down.
sign maker
a carpenter q.v. who joins and glues together boards, strengthened by battens screwed on back; dresses front to fair surface by planing, in readiness for advertisement to be painted on it; generally also fixes sign.
skylight maker
a joiner q.v. who fits together pieces of prepared wood to form a skylight, and fastens them together by tenoning and morticing, by glueing (or painting) tenons and mortices, and by driving in wooden wedges; then cleans off joints to fair surface with plane.
sliding partition maker
a joiner q.v. who makes pieces of framing, which may be fitted with (i) centre pivot at top and at bottom on which framing revolves when partition is folded, or
(ii) wheels to run on rails fixed at top and at bottom of framing; also fits pieces of framing together to make complete partition.
spout maker (cement)
a rough carpenter q.v. who makes, by hand, and repairs spouts of wood for conveying cement into bins in warehouse; cf. spout maker (metal) (264).
staircase builder
a joiner q.v. who takes side pieces of staircase, ready cut to required dimensions, and cuts grooves therein for insertion of steps; inserts steps, consisting of pieces or wood glued together, and fastens them in with wedges.
step maker
a carpenter or joiner q.v. who cuts, by hand, pieces of wood to required dimensions, and planes them for step ladders; cuts grooves in side pieces for insertion of steps; fit steps into grooves, and nails whole together; makes supporting stay, in same way; attaches stay to step portion by hinges; sometimes also makes trestles and similar articles.
tank maker (wood)
see cistern and tank maker.
target maker (floating), floating target maker
a carpenter or ship carpenter q.v. who constructs a foundation of timber and erects vertical supports for attachment of lattice work, for use as targets for gun practice; may also cover lattice with canvas, fastening it with battens and nails.
tool chest maker
a joiner q.v. who takes pieces of wood, ready cut and machined by other workers, and fits them together, by hand, to form tool chest; adds metal or rope handles, and fits in trays and compartments.
top deck hand (tramcars)
fits trolley poles, seats, rails, and other fittings of top decks of double-decked tramcars, and is responsible generally for wood work on top decks.
travelling box maker
see trunk maker.
trestle maker
as for step maker.
trough maker (wood)
a rough carpenter q.v. who makes wooden troughs for agricultural and other purposes.
trunk maker (wood), Saratoga trunk maker ; travelling box maker (wood)
assembles and nails together, by hand, pieces of wood, cut and shaped by other workers; glues outside of trunk, and covers it with cloth or leather; attaches metal edges and corners, hinges, handles and locks, also wooden battens or staves.
wainscot maker
saws, by hand, and fits from planed or moulded wood, wainscots for rooms, staircases, etc.; nails or otherwise secures to wall and flooring.
wheelbarrow builder, wheelbarrow maker
a carpenter q.v. who builds, fits, and joins together pieces of wood to make wheelbarrows.
wheelbarrow repairer
a carpenter q.v. who specialises in repairs to wheelbarrows.
window sash maker
a joiner q.v. who receives sections of wooden frames for sash windows, prepared by woodworking machinist (486) q.v.; fastens them together with screws or nails, by clamping in hand-manipulated machine, or with glue; makes joints fast with wooden wedges driven into mortices.
wing erector (aeroplanes)
a plane erector q.v. who specialises in erecting aeroplane wings and fitting to fuselage.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.