A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
Go to Home Page


Sub-order 3.—Makers of Stationery, Cardboard boxes and Other Workers in Paper

559.—Other Workers

Back to List of Occupational Codes

adhesive seal maker
feeds embossing and die stamping machine with gummed paper and removes seals as stamped and cut out.
see fitter.
assistant vulcanised fibre machine minder
assists and works under direction of vulcanised fibre machine minder (558) q.v.
bander (cardboard boxes)
places box on block of banding machine and fastens end of gummed paper strip issuing from machine to box; sets machine in motion by means of a lever so that gummed paper is affixed all round edge; removes box and passes to turner-in q.v.
bender (cardboard boxes) ; shaper
passes straw and other boards into power machine, where they are brought into contact with projecting rib or lip on roller, thus making impression in board so that it can be easily bent; sets gauges; stacks boards when bent.
binder (cardboard boxes) ; bitter, bitter-up
binds, by hand or machine, edges of cardboard box with gummed paper, which holds together and serves to strengthen edges; in machine work , presses part of scored card blank, which will become bottom of box, against stock similarly shaped which revolves slowly; bends over each side against successive sides of stock as they come uppermost and joins sides and strengthens bottom edges by applying strips of paper.
bitter, bitter-up (cardboard box)
see binder.
blocker (cartridges)
places cardboard case of sporting cartridge, with metal bottom laid in position, in spinner of machine; works treadle which sets machine in motion and fixes bottom on to case as it spins on spinner; moves hand lever, bringing rimming wheels into contact with edge of metal bottom, thus fastening it securely on the case.
board combiner
see paster.
board liner (cardboard boxes) ; sheet liner
(i) covers cardboard with plain or ornamental paper by hand, using paste and brush;
(ii) passes cardboard into pasting machine by which it is carried over a roller and brought into contact with pasted paper and delivered at back, finished; stacks lined boards to dry.
bobbin head presser
manipulates hydraulic press which presses together several thicknesses of cardboard and millboard to make flanges for bobbins.
bobbin maker (cardboard)
operates a machine which rolls and cuts pasteboard to convenient size and shape for making bobbins, pirns and tubes; see also paper tube maker.
bon-bon maker
see cracker hand.
book-folder (stationer's)
folds sheets of paper, for making into writing books, by hand, using a bone instrument.
bottle cap machine operator
as for pleater.
bottle seal maker
an adhesive seal maker q.v. who makes seals for bottles.
bottomer (cardboard boxes), topper and bottomer
(i) places box on block and pulls gummed paper from machine on to edge of box; sets machine in motion by moving a lever, so that paper is stuck to top and bottom of box and cut off automatically at required place; removes and stacks box to dry;
(ii) brushes hot glue on glue board, flicks piece of paper of required size lightly into glue on board and places glued size upon bench; places box on glued paper and smooths with fingers.
see stripper.
calender man (compressed paper)
passes vulcanised fibre sheets through calender, to produce a smooth surface.
card labeller
puts gummed labels on cards, show cards, boxes and other articles of cardboard, as labels are received from mingler q.v.
card ribboner
threads ribbon through cards, almanacs, etc.; ties it in ornamental bows.
card trimmer
cuts edges of blocks of cards with a guillotine to get a clean edge after they have been roughly cut out by cutter (558) q.v.
case maker (cartridge rockets)
a paper tube maker q.v. who makes cartridge or rocket cases.
cementer (envelope making)
(i) gums envelope flaps by arranging a series of envelopes, one on top of another, so that only edges of flaps are showing; brushes over with gum and stacks to dry;
(ii) (hand machine cementing) places envelopes in press and draws away each envelope separately;
(iii) (power machine cementing) feeds machine and supervises running.
cementer, paper
gums together edges of paper articles.
cigar box decorator
pastes on, by hand or machine, decorative labels or bandings to exterior of wooden cigar boxes.
cigar box liner (paper)
affixes with paste, by hand or machine, plain or fancy paper to inside of wooden cigar box.
container tube maker
see paper tube maker.
cop tube maker
a paper tube maker q.v. who makes cop tubes for use in textile trades.
corrugator, corrugated packing maker
places reel of cardboard or paper on spindles of machine, using a pulley hoist; guides end of material between rollers of machine; starts machine with a hand lever, and stops it when required; takes off corrugated paper at delivery end.
cosaque maker
see cracker hand.
coverer (cardboard boxes) ; paperer
(i) lays paper, cloth or other material, material, -which has been glued by gluer q.v., to gauge on machine; places box on block and sets machine in motion by moving a lever, thus causing machine to put glued paper on box, fold ends, stick them down, press paper to box and deliver finished box in basket;
(ii) lays glued paper cloth or other material on box by hand; folds ends, sticks them down and presses paper, etc. to box—all by hand.
cracker hand, cracker maker ; bonbon maker, cosaque maker
prepares cracker by laying outside paper, lining and snaps in order; inserts toy in tin tube; folds paper cracker round tube and gums paper; crimps cracker by hand, i.e., makes wrist at both ends of cracker with string, removing tube during process; gums transfer, or scrap, etc., on outside of cracker, and packs crackers in boxes.
crinkled paper machine operator
places reel of paper on spindle of machine having two rollers, i.e., matrix and embossing rollers, which give crinkled effect to paper; guides end of paper between rollers to re-reeling end; regulates power-drive of machine; removes reel of crinkled paper from delivery end of machine, sometimes also adjusts pressure of rollers by means of screws.
cutter, paper (cable making, paper tubes) ; paper slitter, slitting machine driver
places reel of paper in position at feed end of slitting machine, using block and pulley to lift it; adjusts cutters of machine, using measuring gauges; guides paper through machine to spindles on which it is to be re-reeled after being cut; switches on power-drive of machine; watches to see that cutting and re-reeling are going on without a hitch; removes paper, when slit, from spindles on which it has been re-reeled.
cutter, paper tube
places length of paper tube on mandrel of cutting machine; adjusts cutters to length required; switches on power-drive of machine; presses treadle to bring cutters into contact with revolving mandrel; removes portions of tube, when cut.
cutter, telegraph paper
as for cutter, paper (cable making, paper tubes), cutting paper for tape machines.
cutter, tube
cuts long cardboard tubes to lengths required, usually by power machine.
cutter, wad
see gun wad maker.
cutting machinist (razor cases)
places razor case mould in machine, presses lever, so that outer case is cut through; removes mould, slides off top and cuts end of bottom or socket of case square in machine; sometimes done by hand knife by razor case maker q.v.
drys [sic] sheets of vulcanised fibre by hot air in drying room.
ender-on ; piecer-on
(i) a binder q.v. who sticks a strip of gummed paper on the ends of cardboard boxes by hand, when box is too large to have both sides and ends cut in one piece;
(ii) a binder q.v. who holds box in position on block of machine, brings end of gummed paper strip in contact with box and moves lever setting machine in motion.
envelope straightener
flattens, by deft movement of hands, curling gummed edge of envelopes, as delivered by drying machine.
see sorter.
eyelet machinist (paper goods)
as for eyelet machinist (549).
facer and backer
a corrugator q.v. operating a machine which corrugates paper and applies corrugated material to face and back of plain material, uniting them with adhesive; also keeps trough of machine filled with adhesive.
see fitter.
fitter ; assembler, finisher
operates a machine which attaches bottoms to cardboard cylinders intended to be used as containers for jam, etc.; work similar to that of blocker (cartridges) q.v.
flag maker (paper)
gums together two pieces of paper, printed with flag design, each on one side, and attaches them to stick, pin or string at folded edge.
flange coverer
a coverer q.v. working on flanged boxes.
flange fixer
fixes extension or flange, by machine, to top and bottom or cardboard before it is folded to form box.
folder maker
makes throughout folders for holding papers; passes cardboard sheet through machine which punches and creases it; passes strip of metal through punched holes; fixes metal strip in position by wire-stitching or glueing back, and attaches clip.
fronter (music rolls)
glues front or apron, containing title of piece of music, on to end of perforated sheet.
glazer (paper cartridge cases) ; polisher
places cartridge cases on holder of machine and glazes or polishes them by causing a burnishing iron to press on surface, as case revolves.
(i) applies adhesive to paper or cardboard, by hand with a brush, in manufacture of cardboard boxes, tubes or ether stationery;
(ii) passes cardboard over roller into glueing machine, which carries it to a wheel running in a glue well, where glue is automatically applied; machine may also fold cardboard, press it together and deliver at back.
gold tipper (cigarette papers)
(i) hand process , applies strips of gold leaf to sheets of paper, using adhesive; afterwards wipes off superfluous gold with pad, and cuts gilded j paper to size required with a guillotine cutter;
(ii) machine process, fastens spool of paper on machine, which takes up first adhesive composition and then gold dust from boxes; see that boxes in machine are kept filled with gold dust and adhesive composition; regulates power which drives machine and supervises running of machine generally; makes minor adjustments to machine when required.
groover (cardboard boxes)
passes thick sheets of cardboard into machine which cuts grooves in them so that they may be more easily bent to box form; controls machine by levers; sets gauges; stacks grooved sheets or boards.
gum coating machinist ; gumming machine feeder
fixes, with assistance of labourers, reel of paper in a machine which, by a system of rollers, takes up gum from a duct or trough and applies' it to paper; paper is then conveyed, mechanically, through drying room to re-reeling machine; guides end of paper between rollers of machine, and switches on power-drive of machine; directs labourers who fill trough or duct of machine with gum; watches re-reeling end of machine, and if paper shews any break or slitting, makes necessary adjustment or does repairs, by hand.
as for gluer.
gumming machine feeder
see gum coating machinist.
gum paper sorter
sorts or grades, in various qualities, sheets of gum paper by hand; throws out defective sheets.
gun wad maker ; wad cutter (cartridges)
cuts out circular discs of cardboard, for use in sporting cartridges, on a machine.
handler (paper bags) ; paper bag stringer, stringer (paper bag)
affixes string handles to paper bags by (i) laying ends of handles in position on bag and fastening down with strip of gummed paper,
(ii) gumming paper over the ends.
hydraulic press attendant (compressed paper)
presses vulcanised fibre sheets in a heated hydraulic press.
impregnator (parchment containers, tubes, etc.)
receives containers etc. from finisher (558) q.v. and places them on a moving band which carries them through a bath of melted wax; removes impregnated articles and sets them to dry; may attend gas jets which keep wax heated to correct temperature, and replenishes wax bath, where this is not done by mechanic (245).
affixes labels, prints, etc., to tops and sides of finished cardboard boxes, either by applying paste or other adhesive by hand with brush, or by flicking labels, etc. on to paste or glue board, or by placing boxes on block of labelling machine.
label sorter
examines completed labels and rejects any that are unsatisfactory.
lacing machine operator
places cardboard box on block of lacing machine and sets machine in motion by moving lever so that pasted lace paper is affixed to inner edges; fits reels of lace paper oil spindle and replenishes paste box.
lidder, lidder-up
puts together, by hand, finished lids and boxes to form complete articles; if necessary, inserts lids in punching machine to have thumb holes punched in them; sometimes also ties up completed boxes in bundles.
mingler (gummed paper goods)
as for mingler (518).
moulder (bottle caps)
places paper caps on end of rotating spindle of a machine, by hand; uses a small bone instrument to press lower end of cap against spindle, constricting it at point where cap closes on bottle neck.
mouthpiece maker (cigar and cigarette)
cuts stiff oiled paper to specified size on guillotine machine, which may be a treadle or a power machine; rolls mouthpieces and sticks edges, by hand, using gum or other adhesive.
nailer, nailer-up
nails together sides and ends of wooden frames and attaches cardboard sides, by machine or by hand, to make wood strengthened .cardboard boxes, draper's fixture drawers, etc.
paper cup machine operator
puts parts of paper cups or similar articles in machine which automatically completes them and delivers finished articles at rear of machine.
paper cap or hat maker
(i) cuts out paper caps or hats with hand knife;
(ii) pastes edges of paper together to make caps, etc., of different patterns.
paperer (cardboard boxes)
see coverer.
paper grinder
chamfers, by machine, each edge of paper which is to form paper tube, so that there is no extra thickness at joint.
paper pattern folder
folds together, by hand, pieces of paper pattern.
paper pleating machine operator
see pleater.
paper slitter
see cutter, paper (cable making, paper tubes).
paper tube maker ; case roller, container tube maker, roller (paper tribes), spiral winder, tube maker, tube roller, tube winder
feeds paper from reels into tube-making machine which pastes paper and rolls it into a tube until it reaches required thickness, set by gauge; brings cutting discs into play to cut into lengths; sees that glue boxes in machine are kept filled.
passer (cardboard boxes)
see sorter.
paster (cardboard boxes) ; board combiner
as for board liner, except that thin cardboards of various weights are used instead of paper.
pattern card mounter ; pattern mounter
fixes fabric patterns to cards with metal tag or gum.
pattern card trimmer
as for card trimmer.
pattern mounter
see pattern card mounter.
see ender-on.
pleater ; paper pleating machine operator
(i) runs paper from small reels between rollers of machine which pleats it into pie dish frills, etc.;
(ii) places small discs of paper in revolving steel nest of machine which, by an automatic plunging movement, pleats them into capsules, and ejects completed capsules into basket beneath machine.
polisher (paper cartridge cases)
see glazer.
post card counter
counts post cards into packets of 10, 25, 50, etc.; makes up assorted packets of picture post cards.
post card trimmer
as for card trimmer.
post wrapper gummer
as for cementer.
pyramid maker (tobacco factory)
makes dummy cigarette boxes, etc., of cardboard, and fastens them together, with paste, forming pyramid for exhibition in tobacconist's window.
razor case maker (paper)
(i) wraps by hand pieces of brown paper soaked in glue size, round wood mould; then wraps round patterned paper and greases with tallow; when dry wraps round further layers of soaked paper; squares up by pressing in a heated press operated with hand lever; sets to dry; case then passes to embosser (552), varnisher and cutting machinist q.v.;
(ii) feeds and controls by lever machine which makes cases automatically from papier mache.
roller (paper tubes), case roller
see paper tube maker.
roller girl (parchment containers)
folds parchment-like paper lightly round a cone of wood or metal, having shape of container to be formed, and pastes overlapping edges, ready for finisher (558).
shaper (cardboard boxes)
see bender.
sheet liner (cardboard boxes)
see board liner.
shell maker (paper mill)
a paper tube maker q.v. who makes tubes (generally of cardboard) upon which paper is wound.
slitting machine driver
see cutter, paper (cable making, paper tubes).
sorter ; examiner, passer (cardboard boxes)
examines finished cardboard boxes, envelopes, paper tubes, etc., and rejects any that are defective.
spiral winder
see paper tube maker.
stacker (cardboard boxes)
stacks cardboard boxes passed along belt of automatic staying machine, ready for binder q.v.
stayer (cardboard boxes)
a binder q.v. who strengthens box by binding edges with gummed paper strip in machine.
stenciller (cardboard boxes)
operates stencil glueing machine which affixes labels to cardboard boxes, applying glue to edges of label only.
stitcher (cardboard boxes), wire stitcher
wire stitches or rivets cardboard boxes, by holding seams under needle or punch of power, driven machine; controls machine by switch or lever; sets bobbin of wire in machine and threads end through eye of needle.
stringer (paper bag), paper bag stringer
see handler (paper bag).
stripper (cardboard boxes) ; breaker
breaks off waste board from edges of stamped-out box blanks as they come from stamping machine.
tank minder (vulcanised fibre) ; tub minder
puts sheets of vulcanised fibre in tanks or tubs of water, to extract acid left by chloride process, cf. vulcanised fibre machine minder (558); turns taps to empty or fill tanks, as required; removes sheets from tanks when time indicated by foreman has elapsed.
telegraph tape maker
as for cutter, paper.
ticket sorter
sorts tickets after they have been cut and printed.
tint card mounter
affixes, with paste or gum, pieces of paper coated with different tints of paint, distemper, stain, etc., to numbered and named spaces on tint card.
topper and bottomer (cardboard boxes)
see bottomer (cardboard boxes).
trucker (paper tubes)
collects trays of wet tubes from tube making machines, and conveys them in trucks to drying stoves.
tube maker, tube roller, tube winder
see paper tube maker.
tub minder
see tank minder.
turner-in (cardboard boxes)
(i) snips corners of gummed or pasted paper projecting beyond edges of cardboard boxes with scissors; turns in or fastens down top and bottom edges and smooths with fingers;
(ii) places box on block of machine and sets machine in motion by moving lever so that edges of covering paper are automatically turned in.
varnisher (fibre can), fibre can varnisher
coats exterior of fibre can with varnish, by dipping or brushing.
varnisher (razor cases)
coats case by hand by brushing with black varnish.
feeds machine which pastes and covers cardboard boxes or lids entirely with paper.

Back to List of Occupational Codes

From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.