A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Workers in Wood

499.—Other Workers

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axle packer
for large axles, sheathes over finished bearing parts of axles, in process of making or fitting, or for transport, with wood and hoop iron to prevent damage.
backer-up ; feeder, sawyer's mate
assists sawyer (481) q.v. to push wood up to power-driven circular saw and to pull it away after it has been cut; cf. puller-off.
bark chopper ; bark cutter
(i) chops bark, by hand, with a small axe or chopper;
(ii) shovels or tips bark into hopper-head of a power-driven chopping machine; shovels chopped bark, as it is discharged from machine, into sacks.
bark cleaner ; bark grinder, bark scraper, bark shaver
cleans rough bark from cork with a revolving wheel equipped with cutters; also grinds cut blocks of cork on a sandpaper wheel to produce smooth surface.
bark cutter
see bark chopper.
bark grinder
(i) feeds bark into grinding mill, for convenience of transport, or to prepare for extraction of tanning liquors; cf. bark grinder (339);
(ii) see bark cleaner.
barking machine attendant
see wood barker.
bark picker
sorts and grades wood bark by kind, quality, size, thickness and suitability.
bark scraper
see bark cleaner.
bark shaver
(i) see bark cleaner;
(ii) removes bark from tree with hand scraper.
bark siever
uses a riddle or screen to separate dust from larger pieces of bark in a cork producing workshop.
bark stripper ; cork stripper, cork drawer-off
cuts cork, as imported, into long strips, suitable for further cutting or machining, either with a hand knife, or by passing cork into a power-driven machine fitted with a revolving cutter.
bark worker
general term for any worker engaged in preparing bark to be used for cork, ornamental purposes or for tanning.
barrel driving man
see machine barrel driver.
basket letterer, basket marker
prints with stencil, or paints with brush, by hand, name of prospective owner, upon sides of baskets.
bavin holder (firewood)
holds bavins, i.e. long bundles of brush-wood, for faggot maker q.v. who saws them to required length and ties them into bundles.
bavin maker ; pimp maker
makes up bundles of waste wood in coppices or forests for use as fuel.
bench hand, bench man
(cabinet making); assists joiner (474) or cabinet maker (473) q.v. in bench work upon machine-made cabinets or furniture; makes minor adjustments with hand tools and screws on fittings.
besom maker ; broomer
trims sticks for handles with draw knife; makes up bundles of broom, heath, birch or other twigs, and binds to handle with osiers or split sticks; often done by birch broom maker q.v.
binding board maker (for braid, etc.)
glues strips of wood to edges of small oblong pieces of wood (already machine cut), to make binding boards for braid, cord, etc.
birch broom maker ; broom dasher, broomer
makes handles of long wooden stakes, which he trims with draw-knife; makes up bundles of birch or other springy twigs; pegs them on handle and binds them round with wisps of osier or split stick.
birch picker
gathers birch twigs suitable for making besoms, etc.
see sandpaperer.
bobbin barreller
places finished wooden bobbins in barrels and pours linseed oil over them before they are painted.
bobbin counter, wooden bobbin counter ; tube counter and bobbin checker
counts number of finished wooden bobbins turned out by machines; makes simple record of number made by each machine for payment purposes.
bobbin polisher (wood)
feeds polishing machine with finished bobbins, with one hand, and with other hand works a lever which brings bobbins into contact with abrasive mop.
bobbin sandpaperer
smooths surface of finished wooden bobbin with sandpaper on a special lathe.
bobbin sizer
measures size of bobbins or other turned articles, with a "sizer" or gauge; rejects those that are too large or too small; cf. bobbin sizer (486).
bobbin slow tester
tests bobbins for trueness by placing them on a spindle revolving at low speed; cf. bobbin tester (498).
box maker (match factory), match box maker
(i) makes match boxes, by putting thin strips of scored wood, or, more often, of cardboard, into a machine, which cuts strip, folds it into shape of box and joins edges;
(ii) makes match boxes of thin strips of wood by hand; places strip round mould, covers with gummed paper and affixes striking part at side.
broach river
rives timber with a cleaver, and shapes the pieces of timber with hand knife to form broaches, i.e. pointed implements used in thatching; cf. wood render.
broom dasher
see birch broom maker.
(i) see besom maker;
(ii) see birch broom maker.
brush machine finisher
a sandpaper machine hand q.v. finishing brush stocks; cf. moulding machine hand (486).
buffer (baskets)
see willow buffer.
bung maker
see vent peg maker.
camberel maker, cambrel maker ; gambrel maker
(i) splits timber into lengths with cleaver; .shapes and finishes with draw knife, and saws notches forming cambrels or gambrels, need for holding carcases in butchers' shops; now usually made of steel;
(ii) cuts suitable sections, with band saw, from naturally curved pieces of ash; saws notches, and finishes with hand tools.
cane chair sorter, cane sorter
sorts out various thicknesses of rods and osiers.
carpenter's mate
usually a labourer q.v. in carpenter's shop; may perform simple carpentry work at bench under supervision; assists carpenter (474) q.v. by holding up work and keeping tools.
chair paperer
sandpapers chair frames, by hand, after they have been shaped.
chip breaker, chip chopper
feeds logs of medicinal or dye woods into chipping machines in which they are broken up, and watches machine.
cleaner, cleaner-up (pianos)
scrapes (mucks off) and rubs veneered parts of piano with sandpaper or glasspaper, preparatory to polishing.
clipper (coopering)
makes special wooden hoops (used in dry cooperages) by cutting strips to required length and nicking ends which are then clipped together; usually done by hoop maker (477) q.v.
clothes peg maker
(i) cuts, peels and shapes sticks; cuts out fork by hand, and attaches band of tinplate at upper portion of fork with rivet or small nail;
(ii) turns knob headed pegs on lathe or shapes pegs by drawing through die of trapping machine.
conveyor attendant
removes baskets of finished bobbins from conveyor for transit to packing room; also removes empty baskets and stacks them.
cooper's assistant
assists cooper (477) q.v. generally, keeping him supplied with staves, hoops, etc.; removes finished barrels, cleans up workshop, etc.
cork drawer-off, cork stripper
see bark stripper.
creel peg maker (textile machinery)
turns creel pegs (wooden pegs fixed in creel for holding bobbins) on a wood turning lathe and cuts them to required length.
creosoter, timber creosoter
carries timber to and from tank in which timber is impregnated with creosote under steam pressure; puts timber in tank; controls steam pressure by means of a lever; removes timber from tank after specified time.
receives frame consisting of a stout webbing band of handmade matches, dipped at both ends, by hand, from dipper (148) q.v.; fixes it in guillotine machine and moves lever operating knife which cuts them in half; may also do work of box filler (949) q.v.
dowel maker
passes wood by hand, into automatic machine, in which it is turned and cut into dowels, i.e. small round section pieces of wood used for jointing sections of furniture, etc., together; sets machine in motion, by moving a lever, and collects dowels produced by machine.
drum lagger (electric cables)
a labourer who fixes wooden battens or "lagging" pieces on to drums, from rim to rim, to protect wound cable from damage.
end finisher (pencils)
feeds automatic machine which cleans, i.e. smooths and trues up, ends of varnished pencils.
faggot maker
takes long bundles of brushwood which are cut and bundled in the woods, and saws them into small bundles or faggots.
feeder (saw-mills)
see backer-up.
ferruler (walking sticks)
tapers end of walking or umbrella stick by shaving with a knife or by twisting in a cutting machine; fits a ring or cap of metal round the end, to strengthen it or prevent splitting and wearing, and fixes by driving in a small brass nail and filing smooth; usually done by fitter (484) q.v.
finisher (billiard cues)
glues leather tip on end of cue, and gives cue final sandpapering.
finisher (boot lasts) ; scourer (boot lasts)
smooths surface of wooden last by holding it against revolving wheel covered with sandpaper or other abrasive material; polishes it by holding against revolving waxed or soaped cotton mop.
finisher (lead pencil making)
general term for operatives engaged in finishing lead pencils, including end finisher, varnisher (lead pencils), polisher (lead pencils) and stamper (lead pencils) q.v.
firewood chopper ; wood chopper, wood cotter (wood yard)
chops pieces of wood, cut by firewood cutters q.v. by hand, into short lengths suitable for bundling.
firewood cutter
cuts wood, by hand or circular saw, into suitable lengths for chopping into .small sticks.
fish skinner (walking and umbrella sticks)
rubs surface of stick with dried dog fish skin to required smoothness.
gambrel maker
see camberel maker.
glass paperer
as for sandpaperer.
groover (lead pencils), grooving machine attendant
feeds wooden pencil slats into machine which grooves them ready for receiving leads.
hand planer ; planer (not machine)
smooths surface of wood or wooden articles, by shaving top layer away with hand plane on a bench.
heath broom maker
as for birch broom maker.
assists skilled workers, e.g. carpenter (474), wheelwright (475), sawyer (481), woodworking machinist (486) q.v., by moving and stacking timber, sawn and machined wood, manufactured articles, etc.; keeps skilled worker supplied with materials, holds up work, looks after tools, keeps glue pot hot, cleans benches and workshop; carries timber in yard or moves it by dragging on iron skids or rollers; usually specifically designated, e.g. carpenter's labourer, coach builder's labourer, joiner's labourer, joinery works labourer, pattern maker's labourer, raff (imported timber) yard labourer, saw mill labourer, sawyer's labourer, ship joiner's labourer, shipwright's labourer, timber cutter's labourer, (mines), timber yard labourer, wheeler's labourer, wood drying kiln labourer, wood planing machine labourer, wood yard labourer, yard labourer.
lag maker, lag and peg maker
turns wooden pegs on lathe, and drills holes for pegs in wooden blocks (lags) used for forming patterns on dobbie looms.
liner ; saw setter-out
marks out timber for cutting, with chalk or with straight edge and pencil.
machine barrel driver ; barrel driving man
rolls barrel or cask on to platform of barrel driving machine; slips an iron hoop over end of cask; adjusts movable iron arms, suspended over platform, to fit on hoop; moves lever, causing platform, with cask upon it, to rise by hydraulic power, thus pressing hoop against movable iron arms and forcing it tightly on to cask; removes cask when hoop is forced on as tightly as it will go.
machine nailer
see nailing machinist.
moulder (lead pencils)
see wood worker (lead pencils).
moulding checker
measures mouldings as they come from machine; collects them, according to size and pattern, prior to passing them into stock.
nailing machinist, nailing machine attendant ; machine nailer
operates a nailing machine used for making boxes; passes nails into hopper head of machine; places box or section thereof on table beneath machine; manipulates lever to actuate plunger which carries nails from hopper head and drives them one by one into woodwork of box.
nesting hand (match boxes)
one of two workers who put piles either of outside covers or of slides, i.e. inside portions, of match boxes into receiving guides of an automatic machine; this machine conveys both outer covers and slides along a bar fitted with devices which fill slides with matches, and slips filled slides into outer covers; another worker takes off filled boxes at other end and puts them in a basket crate; cf. box filler (matches) (949).
ointment box maker
passes strips and discs of thin peeled wood into automatic machine, which twists strips into circles and glues them to discs; also pours glue into feed container of machine.
outside box machinist (match boxes)
feeds match box making machine with skillets, received from skillet chopper (486) q.v.; fixes spool of printed paper on spindle of machine, and keeps feed trough of machine supplied with paste; switches on power-drive of machine, which automatically folds sections, pastes paper, and delivers outer covers complete, ready for nesting hand q.v.
see sandpaperer ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. stick paperer.
paper hand (piano hammers)
puts strips of wood after they have been shaped by spindle band (486) q.v. through power-driven sandpapering machine, to smooth part of hammer that is not covered with felt.
part finisher (piano)
cleans wooden parts of piano cases with sandpaper or glasspaper, before they are assembled or polished; works partly by hand and partly with a belt machine.
peeler (basket making), rod peeler, rush peeler, twig peeler, willow peeler
peels rods of willow, osier, rush, etc., before weaving, by means of a brake, a kind of pincers.
peg maker
general term for any worker making wooden pegs, by varying methods; usually specifically designated, e.g. boot peg maker, clothes peg maker, creel peg maker, shuttle peg maker, tent peg maker, vent peg maker q.v.
peg maker (boots)
passes wood, by hand, into automatic machine which cuts and shapes pegs for use by boot makers (412) q.v. in attaching soles to uppers; switches on power-drive of machine and collects pegs after they have been cut and passed through machine.
peg maker (casks)
see vent peg maker.
piler (coopering)
see stave stacker.
pimp maker (firewood)
see bavin maker.
pipe pumicer (wood)
see polisher, pipe.
pit maker
see vent peg maker.
planer (not machine)
see hand planer.
polisher (lead pencils), wood polisher (pencils)
feeds hopper of polishing machines with lead pencils, which are automatically polished in preparation for varnishing.
polisher (wood pipe), briar polisher ; pipe pumicer (wood)
(i) polishes inside and outside of bowl and stem of pipe, either with power-driven revolving pumice stone, or by covering with polishing paste and holding by hand against sandpaper bob;
(ii) polishes bowl and wooden stem of pipe after staining (see briar pipe stainer (598)) by holding it against revolving disc of calico.
polisher (wood heels)
smooths surface of wood heel by holding it against revolving wheel covered with sandpaper or other abrasive material; polishes it by holding against revolving waxed or soaped cotton mop.
puller-off, pull-out boy (saw mills)
stands at back end of circular saw bench and pulls wood through when sawn nearly to end; cf. backer-up.
smooths coats of polish or varnish on wooden articles by rubbing with moistened pumice powder on a pad.
rancer's attendant
carries bobbins from clenching machine to rancing machine; cf. bobbin rancer (486).
rounder, rounding machine attendant
feeds machine with pencil or penholder blanks to round them.
rubber, rubber-down
see sandpaperer.
rule rusher
sandpapers rales for rale finisher (498) q.v.
sand blaster (on wood)
imprints designs on smooth surface of wooden panels or other articles by exposing parts to be decorated to blast of fine sand driven by compressed air, other parts being masked by cardboard or other suitable shields.
sandpaperer, sander, sand paper machine hand, sandpapering machinist ; bobber, paperer, rubber, rubber-down
rubs surface of finished wooden articles with sandpaper or glasspaper, by hand, to make smooth or to prepare for polishing or varnishing; or prepares surfaces of wooden articles by bringing them into contact with a revolving disc covered with sandpaper or glasspaper.
saw setter-out
see liner.
sawyer's mate
see backer-up.
scaleboard collector, scaleboard sorter
collects and sorts scaleboard, as produced by scaleboard cutter q.v., and stacks or stores it where required, according to length, thickness, kind, etc.
scaleboard cutter
clamps wood, generally spruce, on bed of scaleboard cutting machine; adjusts blade of machine, by hand, to cut wood to requisite thickness (one thirtieth of an inch); switches on power-drive of machine, causing a wide blade to move forward and shave thin sheets from wood.
scourer (boot lasts)
see finisher (boot lasts).
scourer (wood heels), heel scourer
smooths surface of heel, when it has been shaped, by holding it against rotating wheels covered with sandpaper.
shive maker, shive turner
see vent peg maker ; cf. peg maker (486).
shoulderer (penholders)
feeds penholder sticks into machine which cuts shoulder on stick, to take steel mount or holder; often also feeds tapering machines (see taperer).
shuttle peg maker
turns shuttle pegs or pins on a lathe, and cuts them to required length.
skewer bottom fitter
applies glue to head of wooden skewer, and places skewer bottom (or bush) on to skewer, ready for fixing into position by machine.
skewer maker (textile machinery)
cuts and turns wooden skewers for cotton winding frames, by feeding wood into automatic machine.
sleeper pickler
as for creosoter.
slide machine attendant (match boxes)
attends, feeds and operates a machine, which makes slides, i.e. inner portion of match boxes; replenishes supply of wooden strips, paper, cardboard and gum in machine as required; cf. outside box machinist.
spool maker (barb wire)
makes, by nailing together machine-made wooden parts, large spools upon which barb wire is wound.
square sorter
sorts good squares from waste wood from sawmill, in which wood is cut into squares ready for turning down into bobbins; passes waste to chemical department to be made into charcoal or sold as firewood.
stacker (coopering)
see stave stacker.
stamper (lead pencils)
feeds hopper of stamping machine with lead pencils, which are automatically stamped therein with name of firm, indications of quality, etc.
stamper (pianos)
numbers each hammer in a set with an indiarubber stamp, to indicate its position in scale; usually done by hole borer (486) q.v.
stave stacker, stavie (coopering) ; piler, stacker
a labourer who piles staves in open stacks, with air spaces between, for seasoning; carries them from ship or truck to stack.
stick polisher
polishes or varnishes sticks for umbrellas, parasols, or walking sticks.
tallyer, tally man
see timber checker.
taperer, tapering machine attendant
foods penholder sticks into machine which tapers them; often also feeds shouldering machine (see shoulderer).
telegraph pole dresser
strips, with draw knife, bark and skin off trees selected for use as telegraph poles.
tent peg maker
cuts out shaped pieces of wood from boards, with circular band saw, and notches them in wood cutting machine to make pegs, used to secure tent ropes to ground.
timber checker ; tallyer, tally man, wood checker
verifies measurements of timber received at docks, in timber yard, or in works; keeps simple record of timber received or despatched from wood yard.
timber loader
see wood loader.
timber man
arranges and stacks timber in works yard and issues supplies to sawyers, coach builders, etc., as required.
timber marker
brands ends of timber with branding iron to indicate quality, cubical contents, etc.; may also mark for cutting.
timber treater, timber preserver
seasons or treats timber with chemical substances, generally creosote, to preserve it; may paint surface of wood with solution or place timber in a high pressure chamber to impregnate it with chemicals and so render it non-inflammable, or less liable to rot, or seasoned in appearance; cf. creosoter.
levers baulks of timber on to low trolley and pushes it along rails in and out of saw mill.
applies coat of thin shellac to smooth wood surface, by hand with brush, lays on transfer and sets aside to dry; tears off paper and rubs transfer clean.
carries barrels from cooperage to warehouse; cf. tubbie (477).
tube counter and bobbin checker
see bobbin counter.
varnisher (lead pencil making)
attends varnishing machine which automatically coats pencils with varnish; feeds pencils into hopper and watches machine for smooth running.
vent peg maker ; bung maker, pit maker, shive maker, shive turner
turns conical wooden pegs, or plugs, for barrels, from square or round sticks, using lathe or trapping machine.
waste wood sorter
sorts over wood from which bobbins have been made, takes out any good bobbins inadvertently left in it, and fills up bags of firewood for sale.
willow buffer ; buffer
steeps willow twigs in boiling water and removes bark, by hand, exposing buff-coloured wood.
wood barker ; barking machine attendant
removes bark from logs either by hand, with a two-handled knife, or by fixing logs in front of revolving cutter of a machine.
wood bundle maker
makes up bundles of firewood, places string and chopped sticks in kind of trough to proper height and ties up.
wood checker
see timber checker.
wood chopper (firewood)
see firewood chopper.
wood chopper (wood pulp) ; wood splitter
splits thicker logs in halves in splitting machine and afterwards feeds them into chopping machine in which they are converted into chips.
wood cleaner (wood pulp) ; wood duster, wood willower
feeds wood chips into large revolving screen to remove dust and dirt before boiling.
wood cleaner (wood yard)
strips tree timber of branches and leaves.
wood cleaver
see wood render.
wood cutter (wood yard)
(i) see firewood chopper;
(ii) see wood render.
wood duster (wood pulp)
see wood cleaner.
wooden knitting pin maker
sharpens point of wooden knitting pin, in a machine similar to a pencil sharpener; affixes small wooden head, with glue, and varnishes pin.
wooden screw maker
passes wood, by hand into machine, which automatically shapes and turns wooden screws; sets machine in motion, by moving a lever, and collects finished screws produced by machine.
wooden skewer maker
makes wooden meat skewers, by hand, from ash twigs, by trimming with knife.
wood faggoter
a coppice worker who makes up bundles of waste sticks, or of rough stakes, for firewood, fascines or other purposes.
wood loader ; timber loader
loads timber on to wagons with chain, blocks and ropes.
wood render ; wood cleaver, wood cutter (wood yard), wood splitter
splits timber, with cleaver or wedge and mallet, into pieces suitable for various purposes, e.g. making of tool handles.
wood splitter
(i) see wood chopper;
(ii) see wood render;
(iii) a woodman, who splits wood in the tree, by driving in iron wedges with blows of mallet.
wood willower
see wood cleaner (wood pulp).
wood worker (lead pencils) ; moulder
puts wooden sticks to be moulded into halves for pencils, in hopper of moulding machine; keeps feed clear from jams; sticks, in halves, pass automatically into glueing machine.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.