A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Workers in Wood

475.—Coach and Carriage (including Railway Carriage and Tramcar) Builders; Body Builders; Wheelwrights

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Editor's note: in the original book this has the code 475-6.

ambulance builder, ambulance maker
as for coach builder (private carriages).
barrow builder, barrow maker
as for cart builder ; cf. wheelbarrow builder (474).
Bath chair maker ; invalid chair maker, invalid carriage maker, wheel chair maker
(i) assembles wooden parts of body of Bath chair, invalid chair or carriage, etc., which have been prepared by machinist (486) q.v.; but does not mount chair on spring and wheels, or add hood and other fittings, for which see fitter or mounter;
(ii) makes body of Bath chair, etc., throughout i.e. prepares wooden parts, by hand, with woodworking tools, and assembles them.
body builder, body maker (not cane or wicker), wood body maker ; car builder, coach builder (tramcars), coach maker
receives wood, prepared by woodworking machinist (486) q.v., and builds up, by hand, with woodworking tools, according to design supplied, into framework, lining, floors, and other wooden parts of bodies of coaches, carriages, motor cars, railway carriages, tramcars, perambulators, etc.; cuts or chisels each part, if necessary, with saws, chisels, etc., to make it fit more perfectly; fits 'them together with bolts, screws, etc., and fits in wood panels and moulding on metal parts; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. bassinette body maker, coach body maker, motor body maker, perambulator body maker.
body finisher ; car finisher, carriage finisher, coach finisher, finisher, motor finisher
smooths surface of car or carriage body, after it has been built by body builder q.v., with glass paper or with pumice stone or powder, or by filing or planing; prepares surface for polisher (478) or painter (593) q.v. ; in repair work cleans off old polish, and prepares surface for re-polishing; cf. mounter.
body fitter
see mounter.
car builder (tramcars)
see body builder.
car finisher
see body finisher.
carriage builder, carriage maker
see coach builder (private carriages).
carriage finisher
see body finisher.
carriage fitter (railways)
fits brakework, axle-boxes, and other metal parts on under-frames of railway carriages.
cart builder, cart maker, cartwright
builds body of cart, see body builder, and adds axles, wheels, shafts, etc., thereto; work often done by wheelwright, q.v.
coach builder (private carriages, motor cars, etc.) ; carriage builder, carriage maker
general term for workers engaged in building or making carriages or coaches, including body builder, body fitter, mounter, coach body mounter q.v., and also coach trimmer, coach upholsterer (504) q.v.
coach builder (tramcars)
see body builder.
coach finisher (railway carriages)
see body finisher.
coach fitter (railway carriages)
fits and bolts wooden body on to chassis frame, and fits packing and timber bolsters into bogies; also fits brakes and general details on to carriages.
coach maker (railway carriages and tramcars)
see body builder.
coach wheeler
see wheel builder.
dray maker
as for cart builder.
felloe bender
see rim bender.
felloe cleaver, felloe hewer, felloe render
cuts out felloe (segment of rim of wooden wheel) direct from rough timber with hand tools; obsolescent.
felloe cutter, felloe maker
marks out shape of felloe (segment of run of wooden wheel) on plank of wood and cuts out with hand frame saw; sometimes done by band sawyer (481) q.v.
see body finisher.
finisher (rolling stock)
fits handle fittings, number plates, etc., on vehicle after it has been painted, working by hand, with hand tools; cf. body finisher (593).
fitter, fittings and furniture fitter
fixes in position, fittings and attachments of carts, carriages, or other vehicles.
float builder, float maker, tradesmen's float builder, tradesmen's float maker
a cart builder q.v. who specialises in making milk floats, and other tradesmen's floats or light carts.
hand cart maker
as for cart builder.
hanger (motor cars)
a body builder q.v. principally engaged in fitting splash hoards, foot steps, tool boxes, brackets, and other accessories to motor cars.
horse box builder, horse box maker
builds up, from prepared parts, rolling stock used for conveying horses on railways, and repairs such vehicles, as required; work usually done by body builder q.v.
horse box repairer
repairs woodwork of horse boxes, and fits new or repaired ironwork thereto, as required.
invalid carriage maker, invalid chair maker
see Bath chair maker; cf. invalid chair maker (473).
milk cart builder, milk cart maker, milk float builder, milk float maker
as for float builder.
motor finisher
see body finisher.
mounter, body mounter, coach mounter, coach body mounter ; body fitter
fixes body of carriage, cart, motor, or other vehicle to its chassis, or undercarriage, by hand, using hand tools, screws and bolts; also fits mudguards, etc., before painting.
repairer (cart, dray, float, rolley, trolley, van, etc.)
a cart builder or dray builder q.v. principally engaged in carrying out repairs, by hand, to carts, drays, floats, etc.
rim bender, rim maker ; felloe bender
places strips of wood (ash or elm) in steam chamber and withdraws them when sufficiently softened; places them in clamps and, by bending and screwing up tightly, shapes them into half circle on block; removes from clamp when dry.
rolley builder, rolley maker
as for cart builder.
side car builder
as for coach builder (private carriages).
spoke bender
softens wooden spokes in steam chamber and bends them to shape after they have been rent or cloven from baulk; obsolescent.
spoke cleaver, spoke hewer, spoke render
cuts wooden spokes out direct from rough timber, with hand tools, splitting the wood the way of the grain.
spoke cutter, spoke maker
shapes spoke, by hand, from square block of wood by cutting away edges with small side-axe; finishes by trimming surface with spokeshave or draw knife; mortices end of spoke for fixing into hub and felloe; sometimes done by machine by wood turner (486) q.v.
timber carriage builder, timber carriage maker, timber wagon builder, timber wagon maker
a cart builder q.v. who specialises in making timber carriages, i.e. wagons used for carrying tree trunks, baulks, and other large pieces of timber.
trolley maker, truck builder, truck maker, van builder, van maker, wagon builder, wagon maker, wagon wright, wood wagon maker
as for cart builder.
wheel blocker
bores hub of cart wheel on a wood lathe to receive axle, and attaches metal bushes thereto.
wheel builder, wheel maker, wheeler ; coach wheeler
receives hubs (stocks), spokes and felloes ready made; mortices hub by hand or machine; fits spokes into holes thus made; mortices felloes to take other ends of spokes and fits felloes to spokes; drives wooden or steel wedges into morticed holes to fix spokes firmly; smooths over work with plane, rasp, and sandpaper in readiness for tyre-smith; in some cases may also make spokes, hubs and felloes; cf. felloe cutter, spoke cutter, and stock maker (wheels) (486).
wheel chair maker
see Bath chair maker.
wheel gutter
mortices hub and fixes spokes of cart wheels into wheel centres; obsolescent; usually done by wheel builder q.v.
wheel maker (railway coach, etc.)
cuts out wooden or papier mache blocks to fill spaces between tyre rim and boss, and fits together parts of railway carriage wheels.
assembles wooden parts of carts, vans, etc., prepared by sawyer (481) or by woodworking machinist (486) q.v., and fits these parts together by hand, with hand tools, to make complete vehicles; often also does work of a wheel builder q.v.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.