A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Workers in Rubber, Vulcanite, Ebonite

608.—Other Skilled Workers

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air ball maker
see balloon maker.
air bed painter, air cushion painter
covers air beds or cushion's with decorative paint, using a brush or spray.
air bed coverer, air bed maker, air cushion maker, airproof goods maker
makes air beds, air cushions, lifebelts, etc.; cuts out rubber sheet to pattern, skivers, beats together and solutions seams; may also cover rubber by solutioning textile fabric cover and pressing it on; in small firms, often does work of air bed inflator (609) q.v.
armourer, hose armourer ; spinclet grip winder
operates hose-armouring machine, which strengthens rubber hose pipe, including "spinclet,'' a patent hose, by coiling wire round it; feeds hose from drum and wire from reel, to machine, and pulls levers actuating coiling mechanism; watches to see that there is no breakage of wire.
asbestos ring maker
makes up steam jointing rings, from rubber-coated asbestos cloth, by rolling it round rubber core, cold-pressing to shape in a mould under a power press, and then cutting into rings by machine.
balata belt finisher
trims belt edges with knife by hand, and stamps trade mark or name on that surface which is covered with balata by balata belt coverer (602) q.v. balata belt maker; feeds bands of balata covered fabric, between rollers, which press them together, to make machine belting; usually also performs work of balata belt finisher and balata belt, coverer (602) q.v.
ball blower
inserts hollow needle in vulcanised ball at spot where piece of unvulcanised rubber is attached to the inside; forces compressed air through hollow needle, thus inflating ball; withdraws needle and seals puncture with piece of unvulcanised rubber.
ball maker, rubber call maker
makes balls by cutting out four segments of calendered sheet rubber; applies a piece of rubber compound without any sulphur in it (to avoid vulcanisation) to the inside of one of the segments; joins the four segments together with solution roughly in shape of a ball, enclosing a pinch of ammonium carbonate; places ball in mould which is heated and rubber thus vulcanised, the rubber being pressed into shape of mould by the gases freed from the ammonium carbonate on decomposition by heat; often acts as ball blower q.v.
balloon maker, toy balloon maker ; air ball maker
(i) punches out very thin rubber sheet into pattern required; beats together edges of pieces by a small power-driven hammer; places it in a dye vat; vulcanises by dipping in disulphide of carbon; inflates it to test it;
(ii) dips glass or varnished wooden mould in trough of rubber dissolved in naphtha until mould is evenly and thinly coated with rubber; vulcanises rubber by dipping in disulphide of carbon; strips balloon off mould and inflates it to test it.
band maker
see elastic band maker.
belting maker, india rubber belting maker, rubber belting maker
folds sheet canvas and uncured rubber ready cut into thickness and width required for belt, and fastens layers with solution ready to be vulcanised.
billiard table cushion maker
see cushion maker, cushion stuffer (billiard tables).
block cutter (tents, tarpaulins, etc.)
cuts, from rubber or compressed fibre, designs or lettering on the more simple blocks used by brander; work sometimes done by printer.
block maker, brake block maker
(i) cuts thick calendered rubber sheets into brake blocks, using hand knife, and vulcanises them in a hydraulic press, as for vulcaniser, press (603);
(ii) cuts and shapes brake blocks of leather, rubber, or vulcanite, presses material against circular saw and finishes-off on power-driven emery wheel, which he switches on and off as required.
boot and shoe maker (rubber)
solutions together, on aluminium, wood, or iron last, parts of boots and shoes, pressing joins with hand roller and washing over with brush dipped in liquid naphtha.
borer (wind instrument, ebonite)
bores out hollow barrel of wind instrument made of ebonite, to gauge; as for rougher (486).
briar mouthpiece cutter
see vulcanite cutter (pipe).
briar mouthpiece turner (vulcanite)
see mouthpiece turner (pipes).
calenderer, calender hand, calender man, india rubber calenderer, rubber calenderer ; sheeter
passes rubber mixture, or dough, through calender machine having three or four pairs of steam-heated rollers to produce rubber sheets of any desired thickness, with or without a backing of canvas; where, as in some tyre-making firms, work is sub-divided, directs work of second hand, warmer-up, feeder-up (rubber calendering) (609) Q-v., and himself operates machine by switches, levers, etc., and regulates roller pressure by adjusting screws, etc.
calenderer, block
a calenderer q.v. who rolls rubber dough into sheets of exceptional thickness for rubber block cutting.
card clothing measurer, card measurer (textile machinery) ; cloth measurer
(i) measures rubber-coated cloth by hand before passing to card teeth setters (225) q.v.;
(ii) measures "fillets" (long strips) of rubber card clothing made by card setters (225) q.v.
case turner (fountain pens)
see turner, fountain pen case.
cementer. india rubber cementer, rubber cementer ; rubber solutioner, rubber solutionist, smearer (waterproof garments), solutioner, solutionist
sticks seams and joints of rubber goods together with solution by hand, with finger or brush, afterwards pressing seams with a hand roller on a work-table.
clicker (rubber)
cuts out rubber uppers for goloshes, and canvas uppers for rubber boots or shoes; either cuts with band knife and template, or by placing shaped cutter upon number of calendered sheets of rubber or rubberised canvas beneath power press worked by hand-lever or foot treadle.
cloth doubler
passes two or more thicknesses of rubber-coated cloth, made by card clothing rubber spreader (602) q.v. through rollers to stick them together.
cloth maker
attaches thin sheets of rubber, cut by card clothing rubber cutter (609) q.v. to cloth, by machine; adjusts rollers, keeps reservoir supplied with solution; starts and stops machine by levers.
cloth measurer (textile machinery)
see card clothing measurer.
collar cutter
places in position, in power press, layers of rubberised composition sheets for men's collars, or, cotton interlining, and, manipulating clutch, cuts inner and outer collar shapes; fits cutting knives in machine as necessary.
collar maker (rubber)
a general term covering workers, as distinct from collar cutter q.v., employed on making men's collars out of special rubberised material; includes cementer, sewing machinist (419) q.v.
compositor (rubber stamps) ; sinker
sets up matrices of letters, etc., into which rubber dough is pressed to make rubber stamps.
cuts un cured rubber into lengths, by hand, using a knife; rolls rubber by hand over metal article, such as bit, and vulcanises as for vulcaniser press (603).
cover repairer
see tyre repairer.
cushion maker, cushion stuffier (billiard tables) ; billiard table cushion maker
(i) receives rubber of various lengths and thickness, and tests to ensure rubber aerated equally throughout; assembles lengths to approximately correct dimensions and cuts, by hand, to exact length and shape required, taking care to cut angles correctly; cements lengths of rubber together;
(ii) as for block maker q.v.
dental rubber finisher
rolls into thin sheets between steam-heated mechanically driven rollers of small calender machine dental rubber used in making dental plates; as for calenderer.
dental rubber maker
see masticator hand (dental rubber).
see reclaimer.
ebonite and vulcanite worker
see ebonite turner.
ebonite finisher ; vulcanite finisher
fits up and polishes on rotating mop articles made of ebonite or vulcanite, e.g. fountain pen barrels, hair combs, cycle accessories.
ebonite turner ; ebonite and vulcanite worker, hard rubber turner, vulcanite turner
shapes upon a lathe, articles of ebonite after vulcanisation; as for turner (486).
ebonite worker ; hard rubber worker
general term for any person working in ebonite or vulcanite, e.g. ebonite maker (602), ebonite finisher, ebonite turner q.v.
elastic band maker; elastic rubber winder ; band maker
(i) winds calendered rubber sheet compactly into block form or round an iron mandrel until required thickness is obtained; vulcanises it, and cuts it into bands, with knife lathe, to required gauge;
(ii) a forcer (602) q.v. who makes rubber tubing and cuts it into rings.
engine packing maker
see rubber packing maker; cf. asbestos packing maker (398).
examines visually, finished articles to see that there are no defects and passes or rejects accordingly.
examiner, golf ball
examines golf balls after each stage in process of manufacture; tests for weight, size, resistance to compression, etc. by placing in simple testing machine; also makes visual inspection; rejects defective balls.
feed maker
grooves and shapes ebonite rods into fountain pen feeds on hand lever operated lathe.
fibre turner
as for ebonite turner.
(i) general term for any worker applying finishing touches to any rubber goods, e.g. ball painting;
(ii) in ebonite trade, planes, bevels, etc., ebonite articles to give final finish;
(iii) moulded goods, cuts off rough edges where rubber has overrun mould.
flexible gas holder maker
a hose maker q.v. making flexible gas holders and tubes.
flexible pipe and tube maker
see hose maker.
fountain pen fitter
assembles parts of fountain pens, and sees that cap fits barrel.
fountain pen maker
general term for any person engaged in manufacture of fountain pens, including fountain pen fitter, fountain pen case turner q.v.
fountain pen polisher
polishes cap barrel and feed section of fountain pens, on buff or mop polisher.
fountain pen turner
see turner, fountain pen case.
garment maker, rubber; waterproof garment maker
commonly used in sense of waterproof garment sticker q.v. but may be used in sense of needle hand or finisher, cf. waterproof garment maker (419) q.v., or in general sense, for any person engaged in any process of making waterproof clothing.
golf ball hand winder
winds elastic rubber tape, by hand, tightly round centre of golf ball until it is evenly covered and ready for machine-winding into finished core.
golf ball maker, golf ball worker
general terms for any worker who performs one or more operations in golf ball manufacture; moulds core of golf ball in a press, vulcanises it by steam in a hydraulic press, winds rubber tape round core, places it in a shuttle, and winds elastic thread round it by machine from a bobbin; adds shell; finishes off by vulcanising; paints by rubbing with paint between palm of hand; see golf ball hand winder, machine winder, mould filler; mould opener; moulder (602), presser (602); press vulcaniser (603); golf ball painter (599).
golf ball machine winder
receives core from hand winder and places in shuttle of machine, which winds elastic rubber thread by machine (hand or power-driven) tightly j round centre which is hand wound, j until it is required size for core.
golf ball mould filler
places core between two half-covers, and places the whole in mould which is handed to golf ball presser (602) q.v.
golf ball mould opener
opens mould when taken out of press, and removes golf ball, now complete with outer cover.
grinder, india rubber grinder, rubber grinder, waste rubber grinder
puts pieces of waste rubber through a mill or rollers, to be ground into powder, ready for mixing with fresh raw lubber for manufacture of low grade products.
gutta percha worker
see rubber worker.
hard rubber turner
see ebonite turner.
hard rubber worker
see ebonite worker.
holer (wind instruments)
shapes holes for notes and stops in wind instruments made of ebonite; as for holer (486).
hose maker ; flexible pipe and tube maker, pipe maker
(i) makes hose by winding spirally long strips of calendered rubber on a chalk covered mandrel; solutions edges and presses them together; wraps round with thin cotton cloth or canvas to hold joints firmly, during vulcanisation;
(ii) a forcer (602) q.v. who makes hose by forcing, or extruding process; sometimes wraps first extruded tube with rubberised canvas while still on mandrel, and again extrudes a layer of rubber over canvas; finally wraps thin cotton cloth or canvas round to exclude air between layers and to hold firmly during vulcanisation; sometimes further distinguisher e.g. vacuum brake hose maker.
hose maker, embedded
a hose maker q.v. who winds wire round a hose by machine (see armourer), and then wraps further layers of rubber sheet and canvas.
hose maker, suction
as for hose maker, embedded.
hot water bottle maker
cuts, with hand knife or scissors, uncured rubber sheets to pattern and solutions edges together, pressing with hand roller to form body of bottle; similarly cuts and fits bottle neck; may vulcanise in steam chamber or pass to steam vulcaniser (603).
insulating material maker
(i) mixes, kneads, rolls, and cuts up a composition, varying considerably as to ingredients, of rubber-like consistency into shape suitable for manufacture into electrical insulators;
(ii) cuts insulating tape in strips from pure rubber cut sheet (unvulcanised), from rubber solution spread sheet, or from a composition of gutta-percha, see (i) above.
lathe hand
general term for any person working at a lathe, e.g. ebonite turner, washer cutter (609) q.v.
masticator, rubber masticator
feeds by hand, corrugated rollers of masticating machine with pure rubber, to be pulped for surgical appliances, dental purposes, etc.; shovels or otherwise removes pulped rubber from delivery tray; operates machine by hand levers.
masticator hand (dental rubber) ; dental rubber maker
a masticator q.v. employed only on making rubber for dental purposes.
mat maker, india rubber mat maker, rubber mat maker
a press vulcaniser (603) q.v. who cuts to shape, by hand, lengths of rubber sheets, lays one on top of another to obtain required thicknesses and solutions layers together; places mat in mould and press vulcanises it; sometimes punches holes in it, as for mat puncher (609) q.v., after vulcanisation, to form pattern.
mechanical rubber worker
stamps out of calendered rubber or rubber dough by means- of a press, rubber articles used in engines and machinery, e.g. dies, plugs, valves.
mill operator
see warmer up.
motor tread fitter
see tyre finisher.
motor tyre bead fitter
see tyre wirer.
mounter (rubber stamp making)
mounts vulcanised rubber stamp in wooden or metal frame, ready for use; cuts stamp to size with scissors and affixes with adhesive, first heating metal mount.
mouthpiece bender (pipes)
softens vulcanite mouthpiece of tobacco pipe in gas jet, bends it to shape by hand, and hardens it in cold water.
mouthpiece driller (pipes)
bores hole through vulcanite tobacco pipe mouthpiece with a power-driven drill.
mouthpiece fitter (ebonite)
see mouthpiece turner.
mouthpiece polisher (pipes)
polishes vulcanite mouthpieces of tobacco pipes, by hand, on a revolving felt mop.
mouthpiece turner (pipes) ; briar mouthpiece turner (vulcanite), mouthpiece fitter (ebonite)
turns vulcanite tobacco pipe mouthpiece on a lathe, and fits them into bowls of tobacco pipes.
an ebonite turner q.v. who opens or enlarges the orifice of fountain pens to receive nib and feed.
oxidiser (linoleum making)
attends machines oxidising linseed oil from raw oil to stoved cake oil; works pumps, as for pump driver (950) to govern flow of oil from tanks to trays for stoving; regulates, by valves, heat of stoving chamber; loads and unloads stove with trays.
pipe maker
see hose maker.
presser, belt
a pressman or moulder (602) q.v. who presses and then vulcanises flexible belts.
reclaimer, recoverer ; digester
feeds old rubber articles, which have been sorted by kind of rubber and cut up into pieces, into a grinding mill, to be ground to powder or small pieces; boils powdered waste rubber in boilers with alkalies [sic], acids, and sulphites; transfers it to a washing vat, dries it, and rolls it into sheets.
general term covering workers using hand rollers, e.g., tyre maker (pneumatic) (602), waterproof garment sticker (608), ground sheet maker (609) q.v.
roller coverer (textile machinery) ; rubber roller maker;
wraps sheet rubber round metal rollers for use in textile machinery; vulcanises it as for vulcaniser, press (603) q.v.; may also smooth on a lathe as for roller turner q.v.; cf. roller coverer (tyres) (602).
roller turner (vulcanised)
makes vulcanised rubber roller level and smooth, by pressing emery wheel against roller, as it rotates in a lathe; actuates lathe by hand lever.
rubber appliances maker ; india rubber surgical hand, rubber surgical hand, surgical hand
(i) a rubber goods maker q.v. making surgical and other appliances of india-rubber;
(ii) fits together parts of rubber surgical appliances, e.g., metal or bone part of rubber syringe to bulb.
rubber drawer
see tubing drawer.
rubber goods maker, rubber goods worker
solutions and joins up edges of pieces of uncured rubber sheet or of covered fabric already cut to shape, which are then vulcanised by curer (603) q.v.; sometimes specifically designated according to goods produced e.g., diver's clothing maker, football bladder maker, gasbag maker, hot water bottle maker, oil sheet maker, sleeping bag maker, tobacco pouch maker, water bed maker.
rubber mill hand
works in mill room as a general utility man, e.g., masticator, rubber mixer (609), forcer (602), calender q.v.
rubber packing maker ; engine packing maker
makes engine packing and jointing material of rubber, usually by rolling material round a mandrel and by cutting the tube thus formed into rings.
rubber piecer (card clothing), card clothing rubber piecer
joins strips of rubber with solution, or by pressing them together prior to vulcanising; generally also bevels or otherwise finishes edge-s with skiving knife, in preparation of rubber bases for textile card clothing.
rubber roller maker
see roller coverer.
rubber slipper maker
as for boot and shoe maker (rubber).
rubber stamp maker, india rubber stamp maker
makes rubber stamps, by pressing rubber into moulds, or squirting rubber dough into matrix or die set up by compositor q.v.
rubber stamper
stamps pieces of uncured rubber into sole and heel pad shapes, on stamping machine; fixes dies in top half of machine, positions rubber thereunder, and operates lever actuating die stamp.
rubber tread maker
see tyre finisher.
rubber worker (aeroplanes)
see solutionist (aeroplanes).
rubber worker, india rubber worker ; gutta percha worker
general terms for any worker engaged in manufacture of rubber goods.
sawyer (rod)
saws up vulcanite rods into specific A lengths for use in manufacture of penholders, etc., by pressing rod against circular saw which he actuates by hand lever.
screw stopper maker (ebonite)
(i) as for stopper maker;
(ii) an ebonite turner q.v. engaged in fashioning screw stoppers on hand lever operated lathe.
shaper, tyre shaper
see tyre curler.
see calenderer.
sheet maker
a calender hand q.v. who passes rubber dough through a calender machine having two rollers, to reduce it to required thickness; regulates setting of rollers (which, determines thickness of sheets) and watches passage of sheet through rollers; see also sheet maker (602).
(i) winds uncured rubber to be used for a special purpose, e.g. rubber bandages, on drums, wrapping it at the same time with cloth kept under tension; places drum in heating chamber;
(ii) places toy balloons on hot plate in order to dry them after dyeing.
see compositor (rubber stamp).
smearer (waterproof garments)
see cementer.
solutioner, solutionist, rubber solutioner, rubber solutionist
see cementer.
solutionist (aeroplanes) ; rubber worker (aeroplanes)
applies with a brush rubber solution (dope) to covers of aeroplane wings to render them impervious to air and water; also cements joins in fabric with solution.
sorter, india rubber sorter, rubber sorter
sorts old tyres, garments, hose, etc., into different grades, types and qualities, in preparation for being broken up for reclamation; see reclaimer.
spinclet grip winder
see armourer.
stopper maker (rubber works)
fills steam-heated metal moulds with uncured rubber, or low; grade vulcanite, and puts them in vulcanising press; turns screw handle to regulate pressure; removes moulded and vulcanised stopper.
surgical hand, india rubber surgical hand, rubber surgical hand
see rubber appliances maker.
tread cutter
see tyre tread cutter.
tubing drawer ; rubber drawer
draws narrow strips of sheet rubber with solutioned edges through a round hole in a plate, whereby edges adhere, and strips are formed into tubes.
turner, fountain pen case ; case turner (fountain pens), fountain pen turner
an ebonite turner q.v. making fountain pen cases.
turner (wind instruments, ebonite)
turns barrel of wind instrument made of ebonite to size and shape required, on a lathe; as for turner (486).
tyre curler ; shaper, tyre shaper
shapes and expands rubber tyres from flat state in which they are received from tyre maker (602) q.v. by placing curling iron inside, and ironing to shape by hand.
tyre finisher ; motor tread fitter, rubber tread maker, tyre tread fitter
affixes tread to tyre cover by hand, with solution, before vulcanisation; sometimes presses small pieces of rubber into required shape to form external surface of tread; usually does not re-tread, cf. tyre maker (602) , tyre retreader.
tyre repairer ; cover repairer
repairs burst or worn tyre covers and inner tubes by solutioning and patching, or by vulcanising process, see vulcaniser (603).
tyre retreader
attaches new treads to worn tyre covers by solutioning and vulcanising; places tyre on wheel-shaped core, strips-off tyre casing with hand knife; if necessary, cuts away worn casing and solutions-on new canvas; builds-up and solutions on new rubber tread as for tyre finisher; wraps tyre in canvas and vulcanises as for vulcaniser, steam (603).
tyre tread cutter ; tread cutter
(i) most usual, cuts long strips of tread from tube hand (603) q.v. into lengths, using hand knife, and weighs;
(ii) cuts calendered rubber sheets into strips, and builds them by solutioning into shape for use in re-treading tyres;
(iii) cuts up and weighs lengths of solid rubber for making solid tyres.
tyre tread fitter
see tyre finisher.
tyre wirer ; motor tyre bead fitter, wirer
(i) affixes steel wire to outer edge of tyre covers to strengthen them and to facilitate fitting them into wheel rim; receives cover from tyre maker (602) q.v. and binds wire into each edge of canvas layer by lapping and with solution;
(ii) inserts steel wire by hand into lengths of solid tyres for carriages.
valve examiner (tyres)
examines and tests valves of tyres, to ensure that they are airtight, by inflating tube and placing valve under water; usually done by valve fitter (609) q.v.
valve maker (mechanical)
(i) cuts rubber valves for engineering and chemical trade fittings, out of rubber sheeting by means of a power stamping machine;
(ii) a press vulcaniser (603) q.v. making engineering valves.
valve rubber maker
a tubing drawer q.v. making valve rubbers.
varnisher, india rubber varnisher, rubber varnisher
(i) polishes semi-finished or finished rubber goods, by hand, using cloth impregnated with shellac polish; '
(ii) attends polishing or varnishing machine; controls machine by means of levers, feeds rubber goods to rollers, passing goods through trough of shellac; guides polished goods to hot drying drum and finally to winding-on roller; maintains supply of polish in trough.
vulcanite cutter (pipe) ; briar mouthpiece cutter
cuts up blocks of vulcanite, on a power-driven guillotine or circular saw, into sizes convenient for making into mouthpieces for tobacco pipes.
vulcanite finisher
see ebonite finisher.
vulcanite turner
see ebonite turner.
warmer-up ; mill operator
warms raw rubber by passing it between steam-heated rollers, in preparation for calendering.
waterproof cover maker
cuts out parts of cover from rubberised cloth, using tin patterns; solutions seams, and passes to machinist (419) q.v. and finisher q.v.
waterproof cementer, waterproof garment sticker, waterproof sticker
sticks together with rubber solution, seams of waterproof garments, applying solution with fingers or brush and rolling-over seams with hand roller.
waterproof maker (rubber)
as for garment maker, rubber.
see tyre wirer.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.