A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 8.—Other Workers

278.—Other Skilled Workers

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alloy man (copper smelting)
takes samples of copper during refining process and alloys them, i.e. melts them in a crucible with various metals, e.g. zinc, tin, to test suitability of copper for alloying purposes.
aluminium granulator
ladles molten aluminium into hopper of granulating machine where it solidifies; sets machine in motion, which crushes or cuts the metal into small granules (for explosive manufacture); fixes sieves of requisite fineness, through which granules are sifted into receivers or bins.
assembler (bedstead)
see fitter, bedstead.
assembler (cutlery)
see putter-together (cutlery).
assembler (stoves)
see fitter, range.
assorter (galvanised sheets) ; head sorter, inspector, inspector of sheets, looker-over, picker-out, sorter
sorts out finished sheets to various sizes and gauges, for despatch to particular markets; rejects any defective sheets.
assorter (tin boxes) ; checker, examiner, looker, sorter, tin sorter
(i) sorts tin plates according to gauge, cleanliness and flatness of surface;
(ii) inspects finished boxes, etc., and rejects any that are defective.
assorter (tinplate) ; inspector, sorter, tin sorter
examines sheets at one of several stages in tinplate manufacture, e.g. after cold rolling and annealing, when sheets with specks, black patches or blisters are rejected, and sheets partly welded together are opened by hitting with a wooden mallet, or after pickling, to reject sheets imperfectly cleaned of oxide, or after tinning to reject sheets not properly coated.
barrel maker (small arms)
general term for any worker engaged in machining barrels for rifles, guns and pistols, including barrel fine borer (200), barrel turner (200), barrel rifler (200), barrel lapper (238), barrel smoother (238), barrel browner (278) q.v.
see flattener (fish hooks).
bearder, bearding machine man (fish hooks)
feeds, by hand, metal rod into slot in bed of bearding machine, which cute barbs, or "beards" on fish-hooks; controls cutting tool by hand lever; sometimes sets machine, otherwise set by machine tool setter (211) q.v.
hangs finished bell or re-hangs renovated bell in position in belfry or clock tower; adjusts trunnions and bearings, as required, by means of engineer's hand tools; may also fit and adjust bell-ringing ropes or mechanical bell striking apparatus; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. church bell hanger.
bell man, bell minder ; furnace gauger (blast furnace)
lowers materials into blast furnace from a kind of funnel, called a bell; works levers to lift and drop bell; "dips" or measures depth of charge in furnace by dropping a rod, attached to hand lever, into furnace; sometimes done by charger q.v.; obsolescent, cf. hoistman (169).
bench hand (wire works)
see wire worker.
bender (boot and shoe plates, clog irons)
places cut lengths of special steel rod in a bending machine, where they are bent into shapes required for heel or toe tips, sometimes sets machine; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. clog iron bender, shoe tip bender.
bender, copper (generators, etc.) ; copper former
bends and forms bare copper bar or strip for stators of large generators or motors, switchboard connections, etc., by hammering it over a jig former by hand; may sometimes file formed bar to shape, usually done by copper filer (233) q.v.
bender, fish hook bender
see bower (fish hooks).
bender, iron
bends, by heating and hammering over a jig former or anvil, or by pressing or rolling in a machine, iron sheets, rods, tubes, bars or strips for iron fences, railings, etc.; commonly done by blacksmith (190) q.v.
bender pipe; rail bender (metallic bedsteads)
inserts pipe or tube between forming wheels of pipe bending machine in the forming of bedstead rails, tubes, etc.; controls machine by hand lever and tests amount of bend against a mould or template; often done by pipe fitter (261) q.v.
bender, rim; wheel rim bender
feeds cut lengths of rolled wheel rim into bending machine to bend it into circular shape for cycle or perambulator wheels.
bender, second (clog irons)
a bender q.v. specialising in bending shaped clog irons in a roller machine to fit curve of clog from heel to toe.
bender, swivel
feeds metal rod into semi-automatic machine, which bends and cuts it to form various kinds of swivels, e.g. gun or rifle swivels; watches machine for correct working; may set machine.
bender (tubes), tube bender ; bend maker
bends finished tubes to required shape either by heating in a forge and bending by hand, if large and heavy, or, if small, by means of dies under hydraulic power or hand press; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. handle bar bender.
bender, wire (textile machinery)
see wire worker (textile machinery).
bending machine attendant (test house, iron works)
clamps sections of iron or steel rails, rods, etc., into a roller machine and bends sections under a descending roll actuated by a hand lever; passes bent section to test room superintendent for examination.
bend maker
see bender (tubes).
beveller (tubes) ; swarfer
feeds, operates and controls by levers, machine which bevels edges of steel strip preparatory to rolling, in lap-welding process of tube manufacture.
blade gilder (swords)
(i) gilds blades of swords either by applying gold leaf by hand or by electro-gilding;
(ii) blues and gilds blades of swords with mercurial gold; cf. gilder (282).
blank maker (screws)
see header (screws).
blast furnace hand
general term for any worker employed about a blast furnace or cupola, including charger (279), feeder (279), cupola man (171), lip man. wheeler (279), q.v.
blast furnace potter (copper)
wheels iron pots into position at base of copper blast furnace or cupola; regulates flow of slag or metal into pots by opening or closing plug; wheels full pots away and tips them on slag heap, if slag, or into moulds, if metal.
blocker (saws)
see hammerer (saws).
blower for burner (lead extraction) ; fan, man
operates and adjusts, by a lever, the blast which is blown or drawn through revolving furnace for calcining lead ore and otherwise attends to working of furnace.
blow lamp worker (shipbuilding) ; closer
heats with blow lamp, or oxy-acetylene flame, thick angles, plate seams, bars, etc., which require to be closed after plates, etc., have been placed in position; hammers heated metal with a hammer to close up gaps.
bluer (metal)
prepares bath by melting together saltpetre and pyrolusite; dips steel articles in basket into kettle and maintains at constant temperature for few minutes; removes and washes in hot water; dips in oil and leaves to drain.
bluer (small arms)
an oxidiser q.v, who heats barrels of pistols and certain guns in charcoal on a hot plate, or in exhausted potash, until they take a blue colour, and then allows them to cool; washes in hot water, dips in oil and sets to dram.
bobbin and carriage hand (lace)
see carnage and bobbin hand.
bower, fish hook bower, bowing machine man ; bender, fish hook bender, ringer, fish hook ringer
sets, feeds and operates small fly press which bends fish hooks and forms ring at end; cf. fly press worker (254).
brass chain maker
attends and feeds semi-automatic machine with, brass wire or rod according to brass chain to be made; sometimes sets machine', usually done by machine tool setter (211) q.v.
brass mould maker (dental mechanics)
faces up, i.e. cleans and polishes, rough brass casting of mould used tor moulding teeth, in special miffing machine; finishes by filing at bench.
brass worker
general term for any operative working in brass foundry, but not exclusively, a hand worker; includes art metal worker (brass) (221), church brass worker (221), brass finisher and turner (224), brass flier (255), buffer (brass) (258), grinder (brass) (237), brass solderer (262), brass engraver (278) q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. camera brass worker.
bridge stocker (blast furnace)
(South Staffordshire) instructs fillers as to rotation of charges, i.e. coke, "mire" or ore and limestone; also helps on loading bridge of hoist and helps charger q.v. to fill furnace.
bright worker (needles)
see sorter (needles).
browner ; coslettiser
prepares bath of distilled water, phosphoric acid and iron filings; boils steel articles, e.g. parts of small arms, cycles, in bath; washes and scrubs in rinsing bath and sets on oven to dry quickly; dips in oil and leaves to drain; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. barrel browner, bayonet browner.
buckle tongue fitter and rollerer, buckle tonguer
fixes cast or pressed check tongue to buckles, by hand or by stamping machine; usually also fits roller on buckle by bending on strip of metal with pliers or in special machine.
bulger (tubes)
see expander, tube.
bundler (wire works) ; piler
makes up coils of wire or rods into bundles for transport; checks gauge and length of wire and labels accordingly.
bur examiner (dental instruments)
makes a visual examination of burs or dental drills, after they have been machined, to ensure that finish and cutting edges are to specification.
burner, bulldog
cinder burner, drop burner (blast furnace), slag burner; roasts tap cinder from puddling or blast furnace to make bulldog, a refractory slag for fettling puddling furnaces; obsolescent.
burner (pig iron)
fires kiln in which briquettes of iron ore duet and steel scale are made for use in blast furnaces; cf. mine burner (171).
cap maker (harness)
cuts and shapes sheet steel; grooves and channels it, and bends it to shape by hammering over and round moulds and patterns; welds in plug and closes it, thus making shell for hame.
carriage and bobbin hand (lace) ; bobbin and carriage hand
assembles, fits, finishes and trues up carriages and bobbins for use in lace-making machines, using small lathe and hand tools at bench.
carriage springer (textile)
fits springs on to fallers, of mule spinning machine, which control winding and twisting of yarn on machine, drilling, screwing and riveting with various hand tools.
caster, lead (not foundry)
see tapping man ; cf. lead caster (foundry; (188).
caster, printer's lead; type metal caster
see mixer, metal (typefounding).
caster, tin
pours refined tin, in molten state, from ladle into mould where it cools into blocks or ingots.
caster, type caster, lead caster (type), caster at machine
inserts matrix, from which type or characters are cast, into steel mould; fits mould into machine with accurate hand adjustment; fills pot with molten type metal and regulates gas heating pot; watches temperature of metal, adding flux, if necessary, to give correct consistency; manipulates controlling levers of casting machine and examines with gauge, type as it is automatically delivered from mould; adjusts machine to ensure accurate working.
caster driver (blast furnace)
controls levers of pig casting machine, which is fitted with ladle, and revolves to tip contents into a series of moulds.
caulker (hand), caulker (iron), hand caulker, iron caulker
smooths off rivets with hand hammer; tightens up plate seams by forcing edges close together with caulking tool; may also drill hole in plate where necessary and inject red lead by turning screw of plunger apparatus; work sometimes done by riveter (255) q.v.
caulker (machine), machine caulker, pneumatic caulker
uses pneumatic or hydraulic hammer and caulking tools to smooth off rivets and tighten plates; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., boiler caulker.
caulker (pipes) ; jointer, main jointer, pipe jointer (waterworks)
pours molten lead, or other caulking material, into joints of pipes and rams it homo with hammer and caulking chisel.
charge putter up (steel)
determines quantities and prepares charge for converters or furnaces in steel works from specification prepared by chemist; usually done by superintendent of melting shop.
charger, hydraulic (puddling furnace)
operates, by levers, hydraulic gear for charging puddling furnace.
charger, hydraulic (rolling mill) ; charger operator
controls levers and valves of hydraulic gear for gripping blooms with tongs and pushing them through re-heating furnaces or for charging them into furnaces; often done by rollerman (178) q.v. and gang.
charger (puddling furnaces)
stokes furnaces with coal and puts in raw pig iron, scrap iron or sheet billets, etc., as case may he, by hand, with shovel or by use of hoists; usually done by puddler or underhand (172) q.v.
charger (slag and slag wool)
see furnaceman (slag and slag wool).
charger, charger driver (steel)
controls various hand levers of "charger" or machine by means of which box loaded with charge is pushed into furnace in steel works and inverted.
charger operator (rolling mill)
see charger, hydraulic (rolling mill).
chaser (brass)
executes design on brass work by cutting away parts of the surface to varying depths with hand chasing tools; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., coffin plate chaser, harness furniture chaser.
chaser (carriage building) ; coach engraver
a chaser (brass) q.v. who chases or engraves, by hand, special name plates or other decorative metal work for high class carriages or coaches.
chaser (general engineering)
finishes cast metal work by removing seams and other irregularities with chisel and hammer.
chaser, hilt (sword); sword hilt chaser ; hilt engraver
raises a design on sword guards or hilts with graver and chisel and hammer; as for chaser (brass), but may work in steel; sometimes also works in gold and silver—much lighter work.
chaser, lead
see modeller, lead.
(i) checks finished work for accuracy and soundness of material, using rule, micrometer and gauges; where necessary, checks amount of piecework pay earned;
(ii) (tin boxes), see assorter (tin boxes);
(iii) (tubes) checks and records weights and quantities of material entering and leaving tube mills or departments of mills.
checker, gauge
checks accuracy of gauges used by examiners, by comparison with standard gauge or by measurement with micrometer.
checker, piecework
keeps record of output of metal workers on piecework, for purpose of calculating amount of pay earned; sometimes done by shop clerk (939) q.v.
checker, sample (steel manufacture)
checks and numbers samples of steel; keeps records of chemical analyses and of tests made.
chipper, chipper and scraper
a caulker q.v. who chips, usually with pneumatic tool, scrapes or cuts uneven plates until they are even and in line.
circler (textile machinery) ; circle pin filler, circle setter
builds-up circular combs of textile combing machines by inserting and fixing steel comb pins in the circles (or cylinders), or in metal plates of combs; c/. circle setter (225).
clammer (dies, seals, etc.)
feeds and operates a clam or machine in which soft dies are impressed by hardened steel die for repetition purposes.
clammer, clamper (roller engraving)
raises and etches mill (design in relief) on annealed steel roller from hardened steel die; places cylinder and die in machine and brings die to bear by control of levers; starts machine and watches proper working.
cleaner (musical instruments)
see scraper.
closer, flyer slot
closes slot in arm of flyer for flyer spinning machines, after brass lining has been inserted, using hammer and hand tools on bench.
closer (shipbuilding, etc.)
see blow lamp worker.
closer (tube)
closes joints of tubes, after drawing process but before brazing process (if any), by 'bringing edges together with a special hammer and other hand tools.
copper strip worker
see drawer, copper strip.
copper tape worker
as for drawer, copper strip.
corrugator, zinc corrugator (galvanised sheet)
has charge of corrugating press and directs men employed about it; sets machine for size of corrugation required and adjusts pressure by means of screws; feeds sheets into it.
corrugator (other pressed ware)
as for corrugator, zinc.
see browner.
cramper (needles)
turns over ends of hosiery machine needles, by feeding them by hand into magazine of automatic cramping machine.
cramper (wrought nails)
feeds iron sheet, strip or wire at black heat into cramping machine to make wrought iron nails; sets machine in motion and controls it by levers; does not usually set dies and gauges.
cross rolls man (tubes) ; mangleman, mangier, rounder
guides with an iron bar, tubes, as they emerge from welding process, between rollers of cross rolls, where they are straightened and rounded while still hot; adjusts rollers by means of screws.
crystalliser (lead extraction) ; lader, ladler (lead extraction), Pattison hand (lead extraction)
stirs up molten lead in large pot, in which Pattison process of desilverisation is conducted, and as it cools, removes in perforated ladle, solid crystals of pure lead, which sink to bottom of pot; when critical temperature is reached, ladles remaining liquid into another pot, and by repeating process increases concentration of silver in lead.
cutter, bloom ; bloom shearer, cutter-down, slab cutter, slab shear driver, slab shear operator
slings and clamps steel blooms or ingots in shearing machine, which divides them into suitable lengths for rolling; applies length gauge to ensure that correct lengths are being sheared.
cutter, ingot ; sheer
slings and clamps steel ingots in a machine saw which cuts them into slices for reheating and rolling into wheels and tyres.
cutter, nail
see machine minder (nails).
cutter, paragon frame (umbrellas)
places strips of tempered grooved steel, out of which umbrella ribs are made, in a guillotine; sets various gauges and operates machine by hand levers, to cut steel into lengths.
cutter, rail
see hot saw man.
cutter (shipbuilding)
a caulker (hand) q.v. who cuts apertures in ships' plates.
cutter, slab
see cutter, bloom.
cutter, stencil plate
cuts from sheet copper, zinc or brass, by hand with mallet and steel punches and chisels, stencils of lettering, designs, etc.; machine cut stencils are stamped out by press hand (254) q.v.
cutter-down (rolling mill)
see cutter, bloom.
cutter-out, joint (steel manufacture)
cuts through bolts with hammer and chisel, at joints round bottom of Bessemer converter; assists in removing bottom by means of a crane; may plaster bottom with ganister and take bottom into drying stove; usually done by bottom rammer q.v. cutter-out, machine knife; section cutter-out; cuts blanks for heavy shear blades or machine knives to size from thick section steel with hack saw; cf. section cutter-out (254).
dandy roll maker
see mould maker, dandy roll.
desilveriser ; separator, silverizer (lead extraction)
general term for any worker who carry out operations in either Pattinson or Parkes process of separation of silver from lead, includes crystalliser, zincage man, and lead refining furnaceman (171).
die caster, diecasting machine operator
attends machine which casts into metal dies, various alloys of aluminium, antimony, etc., and metals of low melting point; is responsible for temperature of melting pot and proper working of automatic or semi-automatic machine.
disher, disherer (clog irons)
see flatway worker.
doctor maker (textile)
shapes, in metal, doctors (scrapers) used on textile printing machines to scrape colour from rollers; cuts metal in power shears and works upon it in planing, grinding, glazing and drilling machines; fixes doctor between two thick plates of doctor holder and secures by riveting or with bolts and nuts.
drawer, copper strip ; copper strip worker
feeds copper rod ,etc., into rolling mill to make copper strip; feeds copper strip into tube drawing machine, in which it is drawn through die to make copper tube.
drawer, copper tape
as for drawer, copper strip.
drawer (puddling)
draws out, with tongs, a pile of iron from heating furnace for re-working, e.g., rolling, may help to feed furnace, if coal fired, or to regulate gas valves; sometimes specifically designated according to article for which iron is being worked, e.g., chain drawer.
drawer, sample ; sample catcher
takes small portions of molten steel from furnace during process of conversion in small ladle and tips into small mould, or "spoon," for test purposes; carries to sample passer q.v.; usually done by furnaceman (171) q.v. or by one of his helpers.
drawer (zinc extraction) ; tapper
assists smelter (171) q.v. to draw out metallic zinc from clay condensers with small tapping rabble; takes off and replaces prolongs or nozzles, cleans out oxides and powdered zinc from them, by tapping on floor; skims and runs molten metal into iron moulds, using long-handled tool or skimmer.
dresser, axle
removes uneven surfaces of rough forged axle with hammer and chisel; may also use file, see axle filer (233); often also acts as axle polisher (238) q.v.
dresser, ore (charge hand, zinc extraction)
is in charge of workers on any of various screening, crushing, washing and flotation machines used for dressing, i.e., preparing for smelting, zinc ores (blende or calamine); adjusts machines and watches proper working.
dresser, residue (zinc)
washes residue, after it has been crushed between rollers to separate metals from dross, on washing table; regulates feed of crushed ore to table, also speed of table and supply of water by means of levers.
dresser, type dresser ; letter finisher, type finisher
(i) cuts groove at bottom of lines of type and sees that they are all true as to height and alignment and that faces are good;
(ii) in large works, where machinery has been introduced, feeds, operates and controls machines which break, smooth, set and groove cast type; picks out from line any type that is defective.
drill twister
twists, whilst hot, steel drills and bits for boring wood, brass, eto.; grips steel bar or rod in tongs and draws from furnace; fixes it in grips of twisting machine; turns handle of machine to obtain desired amount of twist and, at same time, tempera work by pouring on water from a kettle.
driver, arbor
fixes or drives steel arbors or shafts into centre of wooden rollers used in wringing machines; fixes arbor and roller in chucks of machine and controls machine by hand levers, so that roller and arbor are slowly forced together.
driver, pusher
controls levers of machine pusher, which pushes ingots through a re-heating furnace prior to rolling.
driver, slab shear
see cutter, bloom.
dropman, gantry dropman (blast furnace)
a gantryman q.v. operating a trap door or dropping platform over ironstone kiln.
dropper maker, drop pin maker (textile)
makes detector wires for stop motions on warping machines; cuts steel wire to required length; shapes it and drills hole for warp thread with hand tools and small presses and machines.
edge worker (scientific instruments, etc.)
performs several operations, e.g., turning, drilling, tempering, polishing, on those surgical instruments that have sharp cutting edge, e.g., scalpels, knives, scissors.
electro-brasser (screws) ; gilder (screws)
effects electrolytic deposition of brass on better types of finished screws, by dipping screws in basket into tank; maintains proper quantity and strength of solution in tank; refits anodes as required; switches electric current on and off; cf. electro plater (282).
engine stripper
dismantles an engine in preparation for cleaning, re-fitting or removal; usually done by engine fitter (210) q.v.
engraver, bell
an engraver (hand) q.v. who cuts designs and lettering on bell by means of hand tools.
engraver, coach
see chaser (carriage building).
engraver, copper (process engraving)
touches up copper process plate with hand engraving tools, looking at work through a magnifying glass.
engraver (hand)
chalks lettering or design on brass plates or other metal goods and cuts out design with hand tools, or gravers; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. brass engraver, hilt engraver; cf. chaser.
engraver, hilt
see chaser, hilt.
engraver (machine) ; engraving machine worker
uses machine engraving tool or pantograph engraving machine to cut inscriptions, designs, etc., on metal plate; inserts pattern into slide, guides tracing arm upon it and controls cutting tool.
engraver (photogravure) ; retoucher
a copper engraver (process engraving) q.v. who improves richness and beauty of photogravure plate or cylinder by working on the surface with hand engraving tools.
engraving machine worker
see engraver (machine). etc.
etcher (cutlery, saws, etc.)
cleanses oil from blade and attaches transfer of firm's name, trade mark, etc.; applies varnish with brush to blade not covered by transfer; applies acid to bite through unprotecting parts of transfer into surface of metal, using dolly sticks, i.e. rag attached to wooden handle and dipped in acid; dips blade in water and thoroughly cleans away varnish and transfer with emery polish; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. cutlery etcher.
examiner ; gauger inspector, viewer
(i) examines engineering products at various stages of manufacture to detect faulty material or bad workmanship; makes visual examination and tests parts with gauge, when necessary, for accuracy; may also examine material and accessories prior to manufacture; in some cases, e.g. gas and water taps, tests only finished articles; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. bullet examiner, edge tool examiner, ring examiner (textile machinery), wheel disc examiner;
(ii) (tin boxes), see assorter (tin boxes).
examiner (chain testing house) ; tester (chain testing house)
an examiner q.v. in charge of a testing house where chains are tested under tension; directs operation of test house labourers in fixing chains in testing machine; controls power levers and supervises reading of dials and record of test.
examiner (cycles) ; tester
(i) fixes cycle frame in testing frame and examines it visually to detect inequalities or weakness of frame; tests bearings, brakes, etc.;
(ii) tracker; tests track of wheels by spinning; tunes up, if necessary, with spanner, etc.
examiner (files) ; tester
examines file for straightness; rings or sounds it, by striking on metal block; tests for hardness and to detect any defective teeth by rubbing over piece of steel.
examiner, oil pad (railway)
makes visual inspection of oil pads in axle lubrication system of engines; may rivet in new cotton pads or report defects for oil padder (279).
examiner, spring (axles)
see tester, spring.
examiner, stay ; stay inspector
examines and tests boiler stays, i.e. various supporting rods or plates which strengthen boiler or condenser and prevent bulging or collapsing.
examiner (steel pens)
see looker-over (steel pens).
examiner (tubes)
see viewer (tubes).
examiner, wheel (railway wagon works)
examines wheels and tests them by tapping with a hand hammer; decides, by sound given, whether they are in good condition.
expander, tube expander ; bulger
(i) clamps end of hot tube in vice and operates machine which expands end of hot tube or pipe by forcing in a die or mandrel, in preparation for jointing;
(ii) expands cold tubes in similar manner by passing tube between rollers, mandrel being forced in, in preparation for high pressure steam or water jointing.
extractor (metal)
feeds crushed ores or workshop sweepings into hopper of machine, in which metal is collected on poles of electro magnet; controls levers and switches of machine and watches for proper working.
faller maker
any operative engaged in one or more operations of making or assembling parts or mechanism, e.g. faller wire, shaft rod, sickles, guides, of faller motions of mule spinning or other textile machines; includes faller finisher, faller setter.
fan man (lead extraction)
see blower for burner.
fettler (steel manufacture)
repairs hearth of open hearth furnace as soon as tapped; rakes over hollows in hearth with long-handled metal rabble scraping out residual molten steel; then shovels in powdered dolomite with short or long-handled shovels to fill up depressions in hearth; rakes all smooth with rabble.
fettler, tool ; tool repairer
repairs tools by hand, see tool maker (265), by beating out points on an anvil, by riveting, welding, etc.
filler, circle pin (textile machinery)
see circler.
filler, pin (textile machinery)
inserts steel pins, riveting or otherwise fastening them into bars or beds of combs; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. circle pin filler, gill pin filler, hackle pin filler.
filler, plug (steel) ; plug rammer
blocks up pouring holes of furnace (Siemens Martin process) with fireclay plug; after each "heat" rams fresh plug into position ready for next "heat "; often done by furnaceman's helper (279) q.v.
filler, porcupine
a pin filler q.v. inserting pins in hackle combs.
finisher, axle box ; axle bush finisher
removes irregularities from castings or more rarely, from forgings of axle boxes using hammer and chisel.
finisher, cart hame (cased hames)
punches holes with power press or punch in steel shell; rivets or brazes on fittings, i.e. draft and top and bottom eyes, after wood has been inserted into shell; finishes by buffing and polishing on bobbing and polishing wheels.
finisher, circle
finishes off circle combs used in textile combing or carding machines, i.e., adjusts wire teeth or pins, files smooth, burnishes and polishes them.
finisher, coach spring
files edges of spring plates, where necessary, and bolts plates together.
finisher, faller
files and generally finishes, in preparation for setting, "fallers" or wire contrivances by which textile spinning machinery is stopped when a thread breaks.
finisher, fork; iron fork finisher ; fork truer-up
removes fash, i.e. rough edge or surface, from, and grinds roughly, shaped agricultural forks by hand filing or by emery grinding on glazers or endless bands, coated with powdered emery and glue, to make them bright and smooth; sharpens prong-ends and sometimes also fits on wooden handles.
finisher, gill
as for finisher, circle, working on gill box and bars of combing and straightening machinery.
finisher, hackle
as for finisher, circle, working on hackle combs.
finisher, letter (type)
see dresser, type.
finisher (musical instruments)
polishes parts of musical instruments, before they are plated, by fixing in lathe driven by electric or other ' power and holding polishing mop against revolving part; may also put together parts of brass musical instruments, and make any necessary minor adjustments.
finisher, reed finisher (textile reeds)
(i) binds round top and bottom pairs of staves of reed with tarred twine to keep wires apart and each pair of staves together;
(ii) see straightener, wire (reed making).
finisher, saw finisher
see hammerer (saws) ; cf. back fixer (279).
finisher, slay; sley finisher (textile machinery) ; slay maker, sley maker
assembles and builds up, metal parts of lathe or sley of loom, into which reed fits; works at a bench and vice and makes any minor adjustments with file, etc.
finisher, spade and shovel; shovel and spade finisher ; spade and shovel handler, spade and shovel shafter
trims shafts (hafts) of spades and shovels with a spokeshave to fit socket and fixes and rivets into socket, with hand hammer.
finisher, spanner ; wrench finisher
finishes off drop forgings of spanners and wrenches or parts thereof by emery wheel grinding, lathe polishing and hand filing; fits together parts by riveting or with screws.
finisher, spring hook
files, fits and polishes, on bobbing wheel, drop forgings of spring hooks for use in harness gear.
finisher, type
see dresser, type.
finisher, wrench
see finisher, spanner.
firer and dogger (puddling furnace)
a firer (puddling) (279) q.v. who also acts as dogger (279) q.v. fitter; general term for workers assembling and fitting together metal articles from component parts or erecting simple metal apparatus in its place; usually works at bench, with vice, screwdriver, file, hammer and other hand tools; in some cases may use small riveting machine to fasten parts together; or may weld or braze joints; is usually a specialist in fitting together one kind of article and rarely has to alter or adjust parts to any extent; cf. fitter (210); often specifically designated, e.g. anchor fitter, hag frame fitter, casement fitter, chandelier fitter, cot fitter, grip fitter, iron cabinet fitter, mattress fitter, metal casement fitter, musical hell fitter, saddle' fitter, speedometer fitter, tank fitter.
fitter, bath
erects baths in bathrooms, etc.; fixes base to floor, fits taps, etc.; connects up with water supply and waste pipe; usually done by plumber (252) q.v.
fitter, bedstead ; assembler, fitter-up, maker-up, putter-together
fits together parts of metallic bedsteads, adjusting them where necessary and preparing for despatch; cf. rail fitter (bedsteads).
fitter, edge tool; tool fitter
fits together finished parts of edge tools, sometimes by hand riveting; adjusts parts, where necessary, by hand filing; reamering, etc.; cf. tool fitter (211).
fitter, gate (iron); iron gate fitter
bends iron rods or bars- to shape and fits together with necessary cast parts, to form iron gates; finishes off by filing with hand file; often also makes iron hurdles, palisades, fencing, etc.; frequently done by blacksmith (190) q.v.
fitter, gate and railings (iron)
erects iron railings in position where required; cuts iron with hack saw; cuts sockets in stone, etc.; fills in joints with molten lead; erects gate standards in same way and hangs gates.
fitter, grindstone
inserts metal spindle in centre hole of grindstone and clamps steel side plates with bolts and nuts on to spindle so that plates fit tightly against grindstone; sets spindle in bearings and adjusts side plates with bearings till stone spins true; may also wedge spindle into stone with wooden and metal wedges and set fast by pouring in molten lead.
fitter, hame ; hame maker
welds on D piece, draft and top and bottom eyes to hame, forged from mild steel by hame forger (190) q.v.; finishes with file and buffing wheel.
fitter (loose leaf books)
rivets metal fittings to loose leaf ledger covers, etc., under direction of bookbinder (532) q.v.; usually done by bookbinder as part of ledger binding work.
fitter, optical; optician's fitter
see frame maker, optical.
fitter, palisade
as for fitter, gate and railings.
fitter, plumber's
a plumbers' mate (253) q.v. who is experienced in hot water fitting (see hot water fitter, 240), hut who is not fully skilled as a plumber (252).
fitter, rail (bedsteads) ; railer
cuts with hack saw or power-driven circular saw, drills and fits together rails of metal bedstead in a frame; welds joints together with oxyacetylene apparatus; screws and assembles fittings of bedstead rails; may also braze certain parts of brass bedsteads.
fitter, range fitter, stove fitter ; assembler (stoves), fitter-up
assembles parts of stoves, grates and ranges and fits them together by drilling and filing where necessary; taps and drives screws.
fitter, rough (bedstead)
a bedstead fitter q.v. who examines component parts of metal bedsteads; drills necessary holes and performs other finishing operations; roughly fits bedstead together before it is passed to japanning department.
fitter, scissors
see putter-together, scissors.
fitter, scythe
cuts patent back to scythe in power shears, files-to fit; drills holes in back and scythe in drilling machine; rivets back into position with hand hammer.
fitter, spur tackle ; spur tackier
fits rowels, knobs, chains, rings and chapes to spurs, hammering, riveting, filing, brazing, where necessary.
fitter-up (bedsteads)
see fitter, bedstead.
fitter-up (stoves, etc.)
see fitter, range.
flat spring maker
passes strips of steel under head of press which forms small flat springs to required shape; may bend other small flat springs to shape round a former by hitting with a hammer.
flattener (fish. hooks) ; batterer
flattens reverse ends of fish hooks with hammer on hand anvil or in power press.
flatway worker (clog irons) ; disher, disherer
performs second shaping operation on front clog irons; places partially shaped iron on bed plate against two rollers and starts machine by hand lever, so that iron passes between forming rollers.
see slagger (zinc extraction).
flyer balancer
adjusts flyers (yarn twisting and roving mechanism) of spinning machines to ensure that both arms are balanced and of equal weight; places flyer on revolving spindle and taps with hammer as it revolves; also bends arm with pliers and files arms, as necessary, to get correct balance.
flyer maker (textile machinery) ; fly maker
assembles and fits together component parts of flyers and finishes whole article, using file, drill, screwdriver and other hand tools at a bench; cf. flyer maker (190).
flyer man, flyer mender
a maintenance man in flax and hemp mill, who repairs spinning frame flyers; melts out or unsolders old eye at end of flyer and inserts and solders in new eye which is formed by bending brass wire.
flyer weigher
weighs, on balance, each flyer several times during process of making and files it, if necessary, to ensure it is exactly of required weight.
fly maker
see flyer maker (textile machinery).
forger (screws)
see header (screws).
fork truer-up (agricultural)
see finisher, fork.
fork maker, iron (textile machinery); weft fork maker
assembles, fits together and finishes with file, etc. parts of mechanism which stops loom if weft thread breaks or gets slack.
former, copper
see bender, copper (generators, etc.).
founder (copper smelting)
see lader (copper).
founder (type)
see type founder.
frame maker, eye
see frame maker, spectacle.
frame maker, hood; perambulator hood frame maker ; frame smith, perambulator frame smith
a perambulator cold smith q.v. who bends light steel rod, round or flat, round patterns, for hood frames of perambulators, etc.; fits ends to hinge pins.
frame maker, optical ; optical fitter, optician's fitter
a lens mount maker (322) q.v. or a spectacle frame maker q.v. who makes any metal mounting or frame for optical glasses.
frame maker, spectacle ; eye frame maker
cuts off lengths of section steel or rolled gold wire, adjusts them accurately to shapes and sizes and solders them together, by silver soldering; screws parts together and trues them in readiness for polishing and glazing.
frame maker, wire
a wire worker q.v. who makes wire frames by cutting, bending and joining lengths of wire; joins by soldering in case of single strands or by plaiting in or twisting over in case of twisted wire.
frame smith, perambulator frame smith
see frame maker, hood.
furnaceman (slag and slag wool) ; charger (slag and slag wool)
stokes cupola, charges it with slag by shovelling in broken lumps and watches melting; reads pyrometers and advises blower (279) q.v. when to admit steam.
gantryman (blast furnace)
stands on gantry or platform at top of ironstone kiln and superintends calcining of ironstone; feeds small coal with shovel into kiln, using judgement to maintain kiln at proper heat; cf. gantryman (950).
(i) see examiner;
(ii) see tester; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. friction tube gauger, spindle ganger, spring ganger (axles), strip steel gauger (pens).
gauger, furnace (blast furnace)
see bell man.
gauger, plate mill gauger (rolling mills)
inspects and measures thickness of iron and steel sheets and plates, with standard gauges, as they cool on roller table between passes through rolling mills.
gauger, tin bar
gauges, weighs and Checks finished tin bars or ingots.
gauger, tyre gauger
checks thickness and diameter of steel tyre either hot, at tyre mill, or cold after turning.
gear man (rolling mill), gear manipulator
moves levers controlling apparatus which turns hot iron or steel bar or sheet into position suitable for rolling.
getter-up (cutlery)
prepares sets of components or material and apportions quantities for cutlers (228) q.v.
gig maker (textile machinery)
assembles and builds up gigs or teazles, made in cylindrical form and covered or studded with wire teeth or fibrous material, used in teazling machinery to raise a nap on woollen cloth.
gilder (screws)
see electro-brasser.
gill bar maker (textile machinery)
prepares iron bars or flats for gill boxes, i.e. , base surface on which gill combs or steel pins are fixed, by shaping them in planing or shaping machines.
gill stock maker
general term covering workers engaged in making gill stocks, including driller (200), gill pin setter q.v.
grader (iron and steel) ; pig selector
classifies pig iron according to grade or quality; sometimes done by foreman of pig lifters or stockers.
gripper (cutlery)
puts wooden grip on 'bayonet; fixes sides with screws or rivets and smooths and polishes grip when it is mounted.
guarder (fork)
puts on guard of carving forks; fits and files and pins it to forks, with rivet and hammer.
guide maker (textile machinery)
feeds with wire from spool and controls machine which makes metal guides for guiding yarn in textile machinery.
gun inlayer
cuts recesses in surface of gun or pistol barrel with hammer and chisel; inlays brass, copper, silver or gold in fancy design, by hammering into recess.
gun wire winder
sets, feeds and operates lathe which winds wire from bobbins round barrels of wire-wound guns.
hackle maker (textile machinery)
general term for any workman making hackle combs in textile machines, including driller (200), hackle pin setter q.v.
hackle attendant, hackle pin man
a setter q.v. who sets and repairs hackles.
hame maker (harness furniture)
see fitter, hame.
hammerer, saw hammerer ; blocker, finisher (saws), saw finisher, saw smith, smither
(i) flattens saw blades, after hardening and before grinding, by placing on flat steel table or anvil and striking any curved part with hammer;
(ii) receives back saw for light smithing and general adjustment after glazing; cf. saw doctor.
hammerman (tobacco manufacture)
trues cigarette machine knives with hammer, by band, and supervises sharpening performed by grinder (237) q.v.
header (holts, rivets) ; header-up, heading machine man
feeds and operates machine which cold forges heads on bolts or rivets from bar metal; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., Horsfall holt header, Marden bolt header, slide bolt header.
header (nails), wrought nail header
feeds and operates an Oliver hammer to put heads on wrought nails.
header, pin (artificial teeth)
see pin maker (artificial teeth).
header (screws) ; blank maker, forger (screws)
passes metal strip by hand into semi-automatic machine which cuts screws to required length and forms their heads;-watches machine for any faulty work.
header-up, heading machine man
see header (holts, rivets) ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., holt heading machine man, rivet heading machine man.
helver (tools)
fixes helve or handle into heads of hammers, axes, choppers, hoes, etc., by cutting handles to fit eye of tool and driving in metal or hard wood wedge.
hilt embosser, sword hilt embosser
raises design on sword hilt with hammer and punch; cf. embosser (254).
hilt piercer (sword)
pierces designs on sword guard with small fret saw.
hinge maker
assembles parts of hinges by fitting and pinning, clinching and burring over joint pins; may be done by hand with assistance of machine tools, or entirely on automatic machines.
hook maker, blake; boot hook maker
see needle maker, boot.
hook maker, bonnaz; embroidery hook maker
a needle maker q.v. making, by hand, embroidery needles which are hooked and have screwed shanks.
hot air man (blast furnace), hot blast man
controls valve to regulate passage of hot air to tuyeres of blast furnace; sometimes done by stove minder (171) q.v.
hot saw man, hot saw worker, hot sawyer ; rail cutter, rail sawer, rail sawyer
operates and controls circular saw which saws hot rails, etc., to required size, after they leave finishing rolls; cf. cold sawyer (279).
ingot maker
general term for any man who makes or casts metal ingots, including mould setter (steel), pitman, teemer q.v.
inlay machinist (small arms)
an engraver (machine) q.v. who recesses design for inlaying purposes.
see examiner ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. bar inspector, bench inspector (rolling mill) fish plate inspector, shop inspector, stay inspector (boilers).
inspector, inspector of sheets (galvanised sheet)
term rarely used; see assorter (galvanised sheets).
inspector (iron foundry)
see passer (ironfoundrv).
inspector, sheet mill
as for assorter (tinplate).
inspector (tinplate)
see assorter (tinplate).
inspector (tools)
examines tools at various stages of manufacture and when completed, for faulty material or workmanship or other imperfections and tests accuracy of precision tools with limit gauges.
inspector (tubes)
see viewer (tubes).
inspector in field (rolling mill)
makes final inspection before despatch of materials from works, where not done by customer's representative.
iron: worker
general term covering various workers engaged in manufacture of iron, including puddler (172), bar roller (178) q.v.; cf. iron worker (constructional iron) (226).
jointer, gun wire
joins together, by scarfing, drilling, riveting, soldering or brazing, ends of successive lengths of wire used for winding round barrels of wire wound guns.
jointer, hydraulic
a caulker (pipes) q.v. making waterproof joints in pipes, etc., of hydraulic machinery.
jointer, main jointer, pipe jointer (waterworks and hydraulic power)
see caulker (pipes).
justifler (typefounding)
see matrix maker (typefounding).
kerner (typefounding)
cuts away with hand tools, body or shank of such type as is faced with overhanging letters, to enable them to be close to letters on either side.
lace carriage maker
assembles parts, which have been blanked out of sheet metal, of carriage used to contain bobbins in lace machines; fits them together; finishes them and trues them up.
lader, ladler (copper) ; founder (copper smelting)
ladles molten metal from refining furnace and pours it into moulds, using either small ladles (from 25 to 40 lbs.) or large ladles carried on bogies, which may hold several hundredweight.
lader, ladler (lead extraction)
see crystalliser.
ladle liner
patches and, when necessary, re-lines ladles into which molten metal from furnaces is run in steel manufacture: when patching, duties as for ladle dauber (279); (relining. or extensive repairs'), allows ladle to cool and removes it; builds a wall of fire brick round entire inside; makes bottom lining by tamping down moist refractory clay; covers sides with fire clay and rams it into all cavities to form a smooth surface; sometimes conveys a gas tube to ladle and connects with gas flue; fires gas and so dries ladle; alternately, dries ladle by lighting a fire inside it: is usually a skilled bricklayer (565) q.v., but also knows properties of various refractories, especially their behaviour under high temperatures.
latcher (needles)
fits latches to hosiery needles; inserts latch in slot of needle and hinges with pin, which is screwed or rivetted fast; adjusts latch for easy working.
lead caster (printer's)
ladles out. from melting pot, molten lead, mixed by metal mixer q.v., and pours in ingot moulds for use in type casting machine, stereotyping, etc.; sometimes done by metal mixer; cf. caster (188).
lead pipe maker, lead pipe press man ; lead press driver
attends and feeds press in which lead pipes are made; fits die into ram and core into container of pipe press; melts lead in large pot and stokes fire or regulates gas under pot; controls lever of mechanical worm which allows molten lead to run down trough into container of pipe press; allows lead to cool to point of solidification and then applies hydraulic pressure by turning wheel; directs winding of lead pipe as it emerges from press on to receiving drum.
lead press driver
see lead pipe maker.
lead squirter (cartridges)
attends hydraulic press which squirts molten lead through small hole in die to form lead rod for bullet cores; feeds lend ingots into large melting pot over furnace and tans off molten lead through connecting trough to container of press; allows lead to cool to certain temperature and then gives signal to valve man (279) q.v. to start press.
letter founder
see typefounder.
leveller, plate (boilers and tanks, rolling stock) ; leveller and straightener (rolling stock) ; levelling plater (boilers and tanks)
hammers out and straightens on levelling block or anvil, by hand, light metal plates or sheets used in coach body making, tank or boiler making.
leveller (safes)
(i) rolls, flattens and straightens in machine, steel plates from which outside and inside of safes are made;
(ii) planisher, plate setter; straightens or planishes plates for making safes. under steam hammer, or by hand on anvil.
liner (shipbuilding)
see packer (shipbuilding).
ling maker, lingo maker (textile)
shapes round wire or lead to be used for lingoes, weights attached to each harness coupling to keep it taut; flattens and punches hole in one end to allow lower loop of loom harness coupling to pass through.
lip man (lead extraction)
taps crude lead from lip of blast furnace into cast iron pans, by opening hole in clay plug with iron bar: may then ladle by hand into moulds; usually done by furnaceman (171) q.v.
looker (tin boxes)
see assorter (tin boxes).
looker-over (galvanised sheet)
see assorter (galvanised sheets).
looker-over (steel pens) ; examiner (steel pens)
examines steel pens after a process has been completed, to detect faulty nibs, which are thrown out.
machine minder (nails), nail machine minder ; nail cutter, nail maker
receives roughly forged machine tool which he grinds and sharpens, and sets it in nail-making machine; has charge of a number of machines (from 12 to 15), supervises working of machines, regrinds tools and resets them, as required; also feeds machines with sheet iron or iron wire, according to type of nail made; is assisted in feeding of machines by nail machine feeder (279) q.v.; may help to repair machine when necessary; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., clout nail maker; cf. nail maker (stamped) (254), nail machine minder (254).
machinist (reed making)
see reed maker.
maker-up (brass spinning, etc.) ; putter-together (brassware)
assembles an cl puts together spun or turned parts, to form finished articles, at a bench with hand tools; in doing so, may pe-form some wiring, soldering or brazing.
maker-up (metallic bedsteads)
see fitter, bedstead.
maker-up (pressed and stamped ware) ; putter-together (pressed metal)
general term for worker who makes up or assembles parts of any article which have been prepared by machine, roll or stamp works at bench, using hand tools: may, in some cases, solder joints or rivet parts together with hand hammer.
mangle man, mangler (tubes)
see cross rolls man.
mangle operator
see straightener, plate.
marker (files)
applies firm's name or trade mark by drop stamp or by hand with hammer and die.
marker-out (iron fencing)
measures and marks out with chalk, according to blue print or specification, iron bars, etc., for cutting, drilling, etc., in making of sections of iron fencing.
matrix maker (typefounding) ; justifier
(i) sinks matrix of type character by hand hammering punch (engraved by punch engraver (230) ) into soft bar of copper or brass alloy;
(ii) matrix presser, matrix stamper; inserts punch in hand-manipulated press and screws down punch into bar;
(iii) suspends punch in glass box in electrolytic bath; removes matrix, in form of metal skin, from surface of punch, fills it with backing metal and mounts on bar.
matrix presser, matrix stamper
see matrix maker.
measurer (rolling mill)
measures or checks length or other dimensions of rails, rods, sheets, etc.; in sheet mills, done by roller (178) q.v. measurer, steel; takes measurements of steel plates, angles, channels, etc., produced in steel works, and checks against specifications.
mender (iron tank)
repairs iron tanks by cutting metal away round hole; cuts fresh plate; drills holes round edges of hole and plate and rivets patch in place.
metal slitter (tubes)
sets gauges in machine shears and feeds metal sheets into machine to be cut into strips of required width.
metal smith (gas meters)
assembles and solders together parts of wet gas meter drums.
mill man, nickel millman (Mond process)
shovels ore into ball crusher machine; controls levers of machine and watches steady discharge of powdered ore on to conveyor.
mixer, Bessemer weigher's
mixes various kinds of scrap metal preparatory to passing it forward to weigher (279) q.v.; usually done by metal mixer (steel) q.v.
mixer, metal mixer (steel)
is in charge of metal mixer (a tilting furnace holding up to 400 tons of metal) and superintends workers attached thereto, tipping in molten metal, etc.; sometimes also operates lever, which tilts mixer and pours steel into ladles; cf. teemer at mixer.
mixer, metal (typefounding) ; printer's lead raster, printer's lead maker, type metal caster
melts metals forming type metal, e.g. lead, antimony and tin, in pan; mixes them together and casts into bars, suitable for handling by typefounders.
mixer, nickel
roughly weighs out quantities of crushed ore, silica sulphur and fluxes and shovels into hopper of mixing machine; shovels mixture into barrows for conveyance to furnace ready for calcining in preparation of matte; obsolescent.
modeller, model maker
(i) makes model in wax or plaster of Paris; casts principal model, usually in brass; finishes model and chases with hand tools; passes model to patternmakers to serve as standard; usually makes and repairs his own tools; may also do the necessary preliminary drawing;
(ii) makes small scale models of ships, engines, machines, etc.; is often a patternmaker (480) q.v.
mixer, ore (copper extraction)
weighs and mixes various copper ores in correct proportions and shovels into barrows for charging into furnaces or cupolas; obsolescent.
modeller, lead
(i) lead chaser; cuts, from block or sheet lead, models and designs with repousse tools and chasers;
(ii) pattern maker, metal pattern maker (stoves and grates); makes lead or pewter patterns of stoves and ranges; cuts sheet and block lead to shape of various parts and with grooving and repousse tools cuts designs and lettering; smooths and finishes each model or pattern ready for matrix maker (180) q.v.
mould coverer (cardboard making)
covers moulds or rollers, which are used in wet end of board machine and pasting machine, with fine copper mesh and stitches mesh on with copper wire.
mould maker, dandy roll ; dandy roll maker
makes up a dandy roll (part of a paper making machine) by soldering wire mesh to metal rings fitted to a spindle; works fine plated wire into suitable design to form watermarks in paper, by weaving, bending and plaiting, and solders this to outer surface of dandy roll.
mould maker (glass)
assembles and fits together cast parts of cast-iron moulds, used in blowing bottles or in pressing flint glass; cuts designs, trade marks, etc., on moulds; sometimes done by fitter (210) q.v.
mould man (steel), moulds man ; platform man
pours molten aluminium or other material into mould while molten steel is being poured, to prevent it boiling; secures cap (an iron plate) on top of mould after pouring; sometimes sprays cap with water to hasten cooling and, when steel has partially cooled, removes cap and knocks out ingot: usually done by pit man or mould setter q.v. or by pitman's helper (279) q.v.
mould tier
see setter, mould (type-founding)
mounter (boilers and tanks)
fits various cocks, fittings or mountings to boilers or engines; drills holes for bolts and screws; makes good joint with asbestos packing and screws bolts up tightly.
mounter, dagger sheath
attaches steel or brass parts, tips, etc., tc leather case, by riveting and use of hand press.
mounter, kettle (hollow-ware)
assembles and rivets handles on kettles, either by hand riveting or by means of power-driven vibrating hammer.
mounter, pillar mounter (metallic bedsteads)
sets and pins various cast, spun or pressed embellishments or mounts on to pillars or other parts of metal bedstead, using vice, drill and hand tools at bench.
mounter (saddlery, harness)
mounts nickel, brass and silver fittings and bands on whips, hunting crops, etc., employing resin and plaster of Paris as cement, and hand riveting where necessary; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. whip mounter.
mounter, scabbard
fits various ornamental fittings on scabbards of swords, daggers, bayonets, etc., by filing and riveting; may also make and fit mounts of sheet brass and attach steel parts, tips, etc., to leather cases.
mounter, wheel and axle ; wheel presser
mounts wheels of railway vehicles on axles or dismounts them, by hydraulic press; slings wheel and axle in chains and pushes into position in hydraulic press; controls levers and valves of press and watches pressure gauge or hydraulograph.
nail maker
see machine minder (nails).
needle maker
general term for workers employed in any process or making needles, including needle stamper (254), eve stamper (254), ayer (254), eye filer (233), pointer (needle) (237) q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., bleacher's needle maker, hosiery needle maker, sail maker's needle maker.
needle maker, boot ; blake hook maker, boot hook maker
(i) makes throughout, needles for leather closing and blake hooks;
(ii) general term for persons engaged in various stamping processes of making hoot needles when work is sectionalised, including pointer (237) q.v. needle maker, machine; sets up, with accurate adjustment, various .automatic machines which punch and eye needle heads; may also feed machines with drums of steel wire or direct machine minders.
nickel cupola man ; nickel refiner
general term for any workman engaged in charging, tapping, etc., cupola in which nickel is reduced, including nickel cupola charger (279), charger's helper (nickel) (279) q.v.
nickel cupola potman
guides pot or ladle (suspended by crane) to taping hole of cupola when nickel or slag is- to be tapped; when pot is filled, supervises removal of pot and tilts it to pour nickel into steel moulds.
nickel tap room man
operates plant for dissolving by hydrochloric acid and precipitating nickel oxide from material, after calcining process.
see wheel lacer.
nozzler (tubes)
see tagger (tubes).
ornamenter (metallic bedsteads)
ornaments japanned metal bedsteads with metal or flower transfers, cf. transferer (279), also by painting gold and coloured lines with a fine brush.
oxidiser (metal)
heats and immerses metal articles in acid baths to oxidise surface of metal; dries off acid in saw dust and applies lacquer with a brush or by dipping to give bright finish, if required, cf. browner, bluer.
packer, asbestos
inserts, with various steel tools, asbestos packing into fittings on steam plant required to be steam tight, e.g., blow-off cocks, water gauge cocks, engine glands, etc.
packer, gland
inserts, with various tools, metallic, rubber, hemp, leather or asbestos packing into glands or stuffing boxes of steam engines, pumps, etc., through which moving parts reciprocate to prevent leakage of steam, water or compressed air; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. railway engine packer, hydraulic packer.
packer, matrix
machines two sides of matrix to be used in type casting to width of type to be cast; makes up sides with packing pieces, riveting whole together to form complete in a tribe.
packer (shipbuilding), ship's packer and liner ; liner, slipper
adjusts in position or packs plates, beams, frames, etc., on ship's structure to ensure fairness and to obtain close work, in preparation for riveting; fits taper and parallel slips or liners, where necessary, to fill in spaces between plates, frames, etc., and bolts temporarily in position to prevent dropping; often done hr platers (222) or riveters (255), or their apprentices (256), or by iron caulkers q.v.
painter, blotch painter (roller engraving)
paints out with brush and acid resisting paint, portions of roller surface not to be etched.
pan man (copper extraction)
see shot copper man.
pan runner (pig iron)
under direction of blast furnace keeper (171) q.v., brings up into position (usually by means of locomotive) large ladle mounted on wheels; when ladle is filled with molten metal, tapped from furnace, runs ladle on to weighbridge for gross weight to be taken by weighman (279) q.v. .
parer, edge tool
pares off or thins down cutting edge of tools, either by filing them while they are held in a vice or by milling or grinding; cf. parer (200).
parer (rolling mill)
sets gauge on mechanical shears and, wearing leather gloves, places sheets in machine to pare away edges, operating shears usually by foot lever.
passer (ironfoundry), castings passer ; inspector (ironfoundry), viewer of castings
makes visual inspection of, and tests by tapping with hammer, castings for blow-holes or other faults, such as curvature, unevenness in pipes, excrescences of metals, or scabs, and rejects those which are too bad for use.
passer, sample (steel manufacture)
is responsible for deciding, on results of chemical and physical tests and from general appearance of charge, when conversion process is complete; then gives order for tapping and pouring.
pattern maker, metal pattern maker
(i) makes models (patterns) in brass, aluminium, cast iron, etc., for use of moulder (180) q.v. in forming sand moulds; casts patterns from a master mould of wood, plaster of Paris, pipeclay, etc. see caster (183): finishes pattern with hand and machine tools according to dimensioned drawings;
(ii) (stoves, grates), see modeller, lead.
Pattison hand (lead extraction)
see crystalliser.
pedal feet maker (piano)
makes piano pedals, by hand or stamping machine, from brass strip; may also assemble stamped parts and rivet in riveting machine.
peeler (puddling furnace)
places piles, or pieces of wrought iron to be welded into bars, on a peel, a tool for charging piles into reheating furnace of finishing mill of wrought iron or puddling works; sometimes done by underhand (172) q.v.
perambulator cold smith, perambulator smith
bends cold steel or iron to form springs, parts of undercarriages of perambulators, etc.; may pass work through a bending machine or use vice, bench and hand tools for bending by hand; bends to given specification or according to template; cf. perambulator fire smith (WO).
picker (needles)
examines needles, which are spread out on a level stone and picks out, for hammer straightener q.v. any that are bent.
see assorter (galvanised sheets.
pickler's assistant (galvanised sheet)
receives sheets from feeder (279) or tanker (234) q.v.; sorts out defective sheets and returns them to pickier (250) for further treatment; sets aside faulty sheets.
pig selector
see grader.
piler (wire works)
see bundler.
pin maker
sets up pin-making machines, inserts dies, and is responsible for their running and the quality of work done: may sometimes make dies, see die sinker (230).
pin maker (artificial teeth) ; pin leader
feeds wire from spool through dies in a. machine; sets gauges and controls levers of machine which cuts pins to length and heads or double-heads them.
pin maker (piano)
cuts steel rod with hack or machine saw, in making wrest pins for pianos; turns it in lathe and shapes in shaping machine; drills hole and finishes with file.
pistol inlayer
as for gun inlayer.
pitman (steel)
general term for workers around casting pits where ingots are cast, including mould man, mould setter q.v.; also assists in pouring molten metal into moulds, slinging ingots when cool.
pitman, valve (steel manufacture)
assists valve man a.v .; attends to gas valves underneath steel melting furnaces.
planisher (safes)
see leveller (safes).
plate mangier
see straightener, plate.
plater, close (carriages, harness, etc.)
brass plater, harness plater; covers ornamental and bright metal parts of carriages, harness, buckles, etc., with coat of silver, or nickel foil; cuts foil to shape with shears, tins surface of metal part to be covered by dipping in molten tin. places foil over tinned surface and applies hot soldering iron to cause it to adhere; trims and finishes with file.
plater, levelling (boilers and tanks)
see leveller, plate (boilers and tanks, rolling stock).
plater, saddle tree ; saddle tree riveter
attaches metal plates to saddle trees to strengthen them, drills necessary holes and fastens by hand riveting.
plate strengthener
see straightener, plate.
platform man (steel)
see mould man (steel).
pointer, wrought nail pointer
shapes or forges point on wrought iron nails by machine or Oliver hammer, while cold, pourer, see teemer, ladle.
printer's lead maker
see mixer, metal (typefounding).
prover and tester (brass ware)
tryer (gas fittings); tests finished articles, such as gas or water taps, with pressure gauge or compressed air, to detect leakages, and indicates, by mark, that they have been tested.
prover, gas meter; meter prover
see tester, meter.
prover (tubes)
see tester, tube.
puncher, punching machinist
sets and supervises working of punching machine for making holes in plates used in boilermaking, shipbuilding, when more expensive drilling is unnecessary; slings plate on to bed of machine, directs punching machine worker (279) or assistant in operation of punch, and changes position of plate as each hole is punched as marked.
putter-together (bedsteads)
see fitter,
putter-together (brass ware, pressed metal)
see maker-up (brass spinning, pressed and stamped ware).
putter-together (cutlery) ; assembler, work board hand
general term for workers who put parts together, including bayonet setter, cutler (228), fork hafter (228), getter-up q.v.
putter-together, scissors putter-together ; scissors fitter
assembles blades of scissors; finishes them with buff and emery wheel and, after fitting and bending slightly, rivets or screws in fulcrum; may also punch hole for rivet in each blade.
radiator man (motor car)
a tinsmith (264) q.v., or a coppersmith (227) q.v., or a sheet metal worker (264) q.v. who assembles and dips or solders component parts to make up radiator; may also execute repairs.
radiator man (tester)
a tester q.v. who immerses radiator in water bath and tests with compressed air.
railer (metallic bedsteads)
see fitter, rail.
rail sawer, rail sawyer
see hot saw man.
rammer, bottom (Bessemer steel)
rams into position with long iron ramming tool and rake, refractory material, e.g. dolomite or ganister, to form lining or "plug" at bottom of Bessemer converter in furnace.
rammer, car (Bessemer steel)
(i) prepares a surface or bed on car, on which mould is carried away on rails from teeming ladle, by ramming in refractory material into space provided to accommodate mould;
(ii) operates hydraulic ram which moves mould cars under ladle.
rammer, joint (steel manufacture)
rams up joint between movable bottom of converter in bottom of Bessemer converter, by packing in refractory material with long-handled ramming tool; usually done by bottom rammer q.v.
rammer, lead (steel manufacture)
a rough moulder who makes moulds to contain feeding heads of ingots, i.e. temporary extension of moulds to contain molten metal which runs down to mould proper as metal contracts (this prevents formation of pipes or cavities in ingot when it cools); cf. moulder (180).
rammer, plug (steel)
see filler, plug.
cuts recesses, by hand, with saw or by machine, in castings forgings, etc., to give clearance for cutting tools, etc.
reed maker ; machinist (reed making), setter (reed making)
makes reed, a frame of parallel vertical iron wires, secured at their extremities by wooden staves; feeds specially prepared wires to machine that automatically cuts them to requited lengths, inserts each wire in position between wooden staves and finishes off by binding with tarred twine round both top and bottom pairs of staves to keep wires apart, and binds each pair of staves together; cf. finisher (textile reeds).
reeler, bar reeler (rolling mill)
(Lancashire) removes scale, polishes and straightens round steel bars by passing them through hard rollers in a reeling machine.
refiner, refiner man (copper)
(electrolytic process) is in charge of plant used in refining-copper by electrolytic process; superintends charging of depositing tanks; adjusts electric current passing through system by reading meters and adjusting switchboard; makes usual examination of copper deposited in cathodes and directs operations generally; cf. refiner (copper) (171).
refiner, dirt
sorts, washes and sifts sweepings of workshops to recover valuable scrap dust, e.g., brass, copper, tin, lead or other metal filings.
refiner, metal
general term for any worker engaged in any process of refining metals, including refining furnacemen (171) q.v.
refiner, nickel
see nickel cupola man.
repairer, chain (harness)
repairs chains by cutting out worn or broken links and by welding or brazing in new ones.
repairer, plough (tram car)
repairs, by hammering, smithing, bolting, etc., broken or bent parts of ploughs which attached to underframe of car, pick up current in conduit system.
repairer, syphon
repairs mechanism at top of syphon bottles used for aerated waters, using pliers, files, valve fixing tool and other hand tools at bench; usually cements syphon top on bottle.
repairer, ticket punch
repairs worn ticket punches by filing and grinding jaws or refitting new cutting edges where dies are removable.
repairer, tool
see fettler, tool ; cf. tool sharpener (287).
re-rater (gas works)
readjusts automatic apparatus in slot gas, meters, as price of gas varies, to increase or decrease amount of gas supplied for every coin inserted.
retoucher (photogravure)
see engraver (photogravure).
rigger (aeroplanes, etc.)
fixes wire stays on aeroplane or airship and is responsible for their proper tautness, alignment and position; dd>is responsible for condition and, where necessary, for repair of all parts of machine except engine, propeller and instruments.
ringer, fish hook ringer
see bower.
ring maker (textile machinery)
general term for any person engaged in making metal rings for ring spinning frames, including ring forger (190), ring hardener (220), polisher (288), ring turner (200) q.v.
ring spindle maker
as for spindle maker.
riveter (brass bobbins)
rivets parts of brass bobbins together by holding in riveting machine; usually done by bobbin maker (224) q.v.
riveter, busk riveter (corsets)
assembles parts of corset busks, rivets steel strip together, and rivets in studs and eyes, using hammer and machine riveter.
riveter, saddle tree
(i) see plater, saddle tree;
(ii) forges iron fittings for saddle tree, and rivets them on to plates on wooden framework.
rod looker
an examiner q.v. examining rods in rod mill visually and with gauges.
rod ring maker
twists, by hand, with pliers round mandrel, or by machine, wiro rings used on fishing rods as guides for line.
roll changer
takes down worn rolls and fits new or freshly turned rolls in their places, under supervision of roller (178) q.v., using chains and overhead tackle.
roller coupler (textile machinery) ; turner-in (Yorks)
fits and couples together short lengths of rollers, to form one long roller, for preparing, spinning, twisting or doubling machines.
roller stretcher
straightens out fluted steel rollers, such as those used in cotton trade, which have become crooked; places roller in chucks of lathe and tests truth against a block; taps roller with copper hammer or wooden mallet, according to hardness of roller, to correct irregularities.
rounder (tubes)
see cross rolls man.
rubber (files)
rubs finished file over piece of steel to detect any defective teeth; usually done by examiner q.v.
sample catcher
see drawer, sample.
sampler (blast furnace)
takes samples of ore, coke, limestone, etc., off gantry trucks, boats, etc.; and takes samples of slag or pig iron and prepares them for examination by analyst or other expert.
sampler (copper smelting)
inserts email ladle into metal to take a button or small round sample of copper during process of refining; allows to cool and breaks with hammer; usually done by refiner (copper) (171) q.v. who examines sample visually and so determines stage of refinement reached.
sampler, mineral; ore sampler
breaks up, sieves, weighs and makes up parcels of ore for laboratory analysis in such a way as to give a fair average sample of consignment and hence of its metallic content; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. nickel sampler, zinc sampler.
sampler (tinplate)
draws sample from boxes of finished plates for buyers; examines visually for finish and size, takes thickness with gauge and tests for ductility and strength.
saw doctor
(i) sharpens saws, hand or power-driven, with power-driven grinding machine, and sets teeth of saws at proper angle for cutting; sawyers often sharpen and set their iron saws by hand; cf. saw sharpener; "tensions" or restores rigidity and trueness of surface to saws, damaged by careless use or strained by heavy work by hammering and rolling, and generally keeps them in good order; cf. hammerer.
saw maker
general term for workers engaged in any process in saw making, including hammerer, blocker, smither, parer (279), setter, filer (233), hardener (220), saw backer (279) q.v.; in large works, processes are generally thus sub-divided, but most of the men are capable of doing any of the processes, and apprentices learn them all; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. band saw maker, hack saw maker.
saw smith
see hammerer (saws).
directs sawing operations in iron and steel rolling mills and is responsible that saw drivers (279) q.v. cut materials to required dimensions; cf. sawyer (279).
scarfer (chains)
makes links from, link blanks by chamfering edges of blanks and fitting them together (scarfing), using a hammer or drop press and die.
scraper (musical instruments) ; cleaner
reduces brazing marks and other irregularities on brass musical instruments, by filing and by scraping with a steel scraper.
separator (lead extraction)
see desilveriser.
setter, barrel (small arms)
(i) detects faults in barrels, either finished or unfinished, of guns, rifles, etc., by looking down the bore; sets or trues them by hammering with a copper or wooden-headed hammer on a block;
(ii) fixes gun barrels in a machine which detects faults by means of optical devices; operates machine so that pressure is brought to bear on barrel in required place and continues making adjustments, until barrel is seen to be true.
setter, bayonet
tempers! blade by heating it in a fire and cooling in oil and in water; sets or straightens it, by working it backwards and forwards between two steel supports on bench.
setter, circle
see circler (textile machinery).
setter, die (wire drawing) ; plate setter (wire works)
sets and fits in machine, dies or plates, through which wire is drawn; cf. die setter (211); may also draw wire, see wire drawer (268).
setter, faller setter
fits, secures in position with screws and adjusts mechanism of fallers on mule spinning machines.
setter, frame setter (metallic bedsteads)
fixes rails, bars, etc., of bedstead into suitable position with necessary moulds at joints, in readiness for pouring metal; is responsible for distance and alignment.
setter, heading machine (bolts, rivets)
fits and secures dies in heading machine, i.e. machine which punches head on bolts or rivets; does minor repairs to machine and instructs header q.v.
punches head on bolts or rivets
punches head on bolts or rivets; does minor repairs to machine and instructs header q.v.
setter, mould (steel)
is in charge of operations of setting and stripping casting pits, i.e. placing moulds on pits ready for casting and removing them afterwards; may also assist pitside craneman (950) q.v. to sling ingots and moulds; usually done by pitman q.v.
setter, mould (typefounding) ; mould tier
inserts and fixes moulds in casting machines, and makes all necessary adjustments for accurate working; obsolescent; work usually done by type caster q.v.
setter, needle setter, pin setter (textile machinery)
hammers in pins, spikes, pegs or needles in component parts of textile machinery, i.e. combs, gills, hackles, lattice rollers, and other combing machinery; sets, i.e., bends or trues pins or needles with hand pliers and a gauge; cf. combwright (210); often specifically designated, e.g. comb setter, comber setter, gill pin setter, hackle pin setter.
setter, plate (safes)
see leveller (safes).
setter, plate (wire works)
see setter, die (wire drawing).
setter (reed making)
see reed maker.
setter (saws), saw setter
sets, i.e. bends teeth of saws with hammer on anvil so that they project slightly alternately to left and to right of central line of saw; in case, of hack saws, uses a small power tooth setter; usually also sharpens teeth, see sharpener.
setter, spring
adjusts spiral springs to required length or shape; closes up or pulls apart each coil with tongs or pliers, working against a former or mandrel or gauge; heats large springs before setting; sets small springs cold.
setter, tool ; edge tool setter
sets or finishes cutting edges of tools by filing or by hammering; sometimes whets them on oilstone; sometimes also hardens, cf. edge tool hardener (220), tool setter (211).
setter-in (cutlery)
fixes cutlery blades in hafts, grips or scales, bores holes, drills for pins or rivets with hand or small machine drill, secures with rivets and if necessary, with with [sic] cement.
setter-up (spectacles)
finally adjusts frames of spectacles, with hand tools at bench, according to prescription or specification.
shaft stretcher
stretches and straightens shafts which are being turned; places between chucks of lathe, so as to revolve in long V-shaped bed; manipulates levers to cause press to bear on parts out of straight and adjusts holding chucks as shaft, during straightening process, lengthens.
shanker (harness furniture)
solders shanks into brass or nickel harness furniture, and files joint smooth.
shanker, wrought nail shanker
cuts off required length of iron rod, for making wrought nail, either with cutter on anvil or with power shears.
shaper (clog irons), clog iron shaper
places iron strips in furnace, removes a strip with pincers and bends over mould or pattern, using other pincers; flattens iron under drop hammer, worked by lever; cf. bender.
sharpener, sharper, saw sharpener
(i) sets up, feeds and controls grinding machine which sharpens teeth of saws;
(ii) sharpens teeth of saw by hand, with file, immediately after setting, to definite angle and pitch; usually also sets saws, see saw setter; cf. saw doctor.
sharpener and setter, saw
a saw setter q.v. who also sharpens saws, see sharpener.
shearer, bloom
see cutter bloom.
shot copper man ; pan man (copper extraction)
produces "bean shot" and "feathered shot" by granulation of copper; runs molten copper through perforated ladle into a perforated pan, which is immersed in hot water for "bean shot," or in cold water for "feathered shot."
shuttle spring maker
cuts steel strip to length for weaving shuttle springs; bends strip to shape and drills holes for screws.
sickle tedder
cuts file-shaped teeth or serrations on one side of sickle blade, either by hand chisel and hammer or by holding in special file teeth cutting machine.
sight tube maker
cuts from length of tube, and turns in an automatic machine, a small portion used in making sights for rifles, etc.; obsolescent.
silverizer (lead extraction)
see desilveriser.
skate mechanic
does minor repairs to ice and roller skates; fits new screws, adjusts slides and grip; adjusts ball bearings of roller skates; usually works in workshop attached to rink.
slab shear operator
see cutter, bloom.
slagger, blast furnace (copper)
runs off slag from copper blast furnace or cupola, or from "settlers when flow is not continuous, breaks clay plug with bar and replugs when flow ceases; runs slag into wagons to be conveyed to dump, or into water where it is granulated and washed away down a launder; in some works, superintends running off of slag by semiskilled workers.
slagger, furnace slagger (iron and steel manufacture)
a superior grade of furnace keeper (279) q.v., next under furnace helper (171) q.v.; supervises flowing off and removal of slag, using trough preparer and bogies or ladles; cf. slagger (279).
slagger (zinc extraction) ; finer
draws out molten slag from flues below zinc smelting furnace, with a long rake on to floor; shovels slag into iron barrows for conveyance to slag tip.
slag trier (copper extraction)
see tester, slag.
slay maker, sley maker
see finisher, slay.
see cutter, ingot.
see packer (shipbuilding).
smither (saws)
see hammerer.
sorter, head sorter (galvanised sheets)
see assorter (galvanised sheets).
sorter (needles) ; bright worker (needles)
spreads out needles, after glazing, on table; rolls them about with fingers and flicks out any that are crooked, marked, broken or otherwise defective; cf. sorter (needles) (279).
sorter, slag
sorts out slag, containing a high percentage of metal, for remolting, judging largely by colour.
sorter, tin sorter (tin boxes)
see assorter (tin boxes).
sorter, tin sorter (tinplate)
see assorter (tinplate).
sorter, wire tooth (card clothing)
sorts out wire teeth according to size and gauge, preparatory to setting them in cloth or leather foundation of card clothing.
spade and shovel handler, spade and shovel shafter
see finisher, spade and shovel.
spelterman; spelter worker (zinc extraction)
general terms applied to workers in zinc extracting and refining works; includes distiller (171)/ residue dresser (278) smeltery (171), spelter furnaceman (171), zinc recovery hand (279) q.v.
spindle jigger
see tester, spindle.
spindle maker
general term for any person engaged in making steel spindle for textile machines, including spindle forger (190), spindle grinder (237), spindle pointer (237), spindle setter (210), spindle slotter (200), spindle straightener q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., flyer spindle maker, springer (tubes); straightener (tubes ); slips tube through a loop of rigid iron fixed in vice, and removes slight bends in finished butt-welded or lap-welded tubes by springing or pulling tube against sides of loop.
spring maker
makes springs throughout;
(i) forges leaves of laminated springs or heavy spiral springs for vehicles, rolling stock, generators, etc., see spring smith (190); sometimes hardens and tempers them, see hardener (220); bolts and fits leaves together or fits terminals to spiral springs, see spring fitter (210);
(ii) stamps out flat springs and hardens and tempers them for weighing machines, small arms, textile machinery, etc.
spring maker, carriage (textile)
a spring maker q.v. who makes springs for carriages of mule spinning machines.
spring scragger
see tester, spring.
spur tackler
see fitter, spur tackle.
squarer, hinge squarer (iron hinges)
(i) cuts, drills, dresses and squares to gauge, wings of hinges, using saw, hand or machine drill and emery or carborundum wheels or files;
(ii) operates power press which squares hinges made of mild steel.
squeezer man (puddling furnaces)
puts, with tongs, heated ball of iron into a helve or squeezer, worked by a cam on rolls, which exercises a continuous pressure on it; obsolescent term to be distinguished from shingler (174), who hammers it under a steam hammer.
staver (tubes)
fixes end of tube into a punching machine which compresses the end or thickens it for strengthening purposes; may also expand tube, see expander (tubes).
fits boiler stays in position, screws them up and cuts oft superfluous metal, with hand tools or by machine, see staying machine worker.
staying machine worker
operates staying machine which drives and taps holes, screws up boiler stays and cuts off superfluous metal; cf. stayer (279).
steel bar maker, steel shaft maker (textile machinery)
shapes and makes steel bars and cam shafts either by forging from block or ingot steel
see forger (190), or by shaping with turning, milling or other cutting machinery, see turner (200).
steel worker (steel manufacture)
general term for persons engaged in manufacture or rolling of steel, including charger (279), blower (170), furnaceman (171), roller (178) q.v.
straightener, comb (textile combs)
a needle setter q.v. who specialises in bending true, with hand pliers and a gauge, pins or needles in textile combs out of alignment, etc.
straightener, guide rolling
see straightener, rod mill.
straightener, hammer (needles)
hammers crooked needles on small anvil, to straighten them.
straightener, hard
a hammer straightener q.v. who straightens needles after hardening.
straightener, iron plate
see straightener (saws).
straightener, plate straightener ; mangle operator, plate mangier, plate strengthener, strengthener
operates levers which control rollers or mangle used (for straightening steel plates after rolling, or, in boiler and tank making, slightly bent heavy steel plates for use in making boilers, tanks, etc.; sets gauges and adjusts space between rollers by means pf screws; directs work of labourers in slinging plates into position on bed of machine.
straightener, rail straightener
with assistance from labourers, swings from crane, finished steel rails on to bed of "gag press"; sights along head of rail from one end towards a light at other end, to detect bending; moves rail so that crest of curve is immediately under press and then gives instructions to gagger (279) q.v.
straightener, rod mill ; guide rolling straightener
straightens rod, while hot after rolling, on mill floor, by hitting with hammer (usually wooden hammer).
straightener (saws), saw straightener, saw plate straightener ; iron plate straightener
straightens or flattens stone cutting saws bent in use, by hammering on an anvil or iron plate.
straightener, soft (needles)
a hammer straightener q.v. who straightens needles in the soft, i.e., before hardening, on anvil, with hand hammer.
straightener, spindle ; spindle stretcher
(i) a straightener q.v. employed in a mill where spindles are produced; operations similar to those of rod mill straightener q.v.;
(ii) for small spindles used in textile machinery, may tap with hand hammer on a steel plate to reduce irregularities.
straightener (tubes) ; tube stretcher (railway)
(i) straightens finished tubes by placing them between plates, the upper of which is moved rapidly backwards and forwards by machinery, by feeding them into specially constructed straightening rolls, or for heavy tubes, by manipulating them under a steam hammer;
(ii) see springer.
straightener, wire (reed making) ; finisher, reed finisher (textile reeds)
examines flattened wire dents or teeth in reeds made by reed maker q.v. (for textile looms); withdraws dents that are faulty, substituting good ones by hand; bends wire, where necessary, to make distance between dents uniform; c/. wire straightener (279).
see straightener, plate.
see straightener ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. spindle stretcher, tube stretcher.
studder (metallic bedsteads), angle iron studder
fits studs, to which laths are attached, into punched holes in angle-irons of bedsteads by power or hand press.
swarfer (tubes)
see beveller (tubes).
swivel maker (sporting rifles)
cuts loops from rod steel on shearing machine, bends to shape on .bending machine, drills and rivets loop to swivel on riveting machine or by hand riveting.
tackleman (steel manufacture)
erects, and is in charge of, lifting tackle, chains, blocks, slings, etc., used for lifting and moving plant and material about works; maintains tackle in good repair.
tagger (tubes) ; nozzler, lube stemmer
heats ends of iron or steel tubes in muffle furnace and reduces diameter of end by hammering by hand on an anvil or under a power hammer with aid of swaging dies, to enable end of tube to be pushed through bell or die and so form grip for dog on draw bench; sometimes feeds tubes to welding rolls or merely passes to tube drawer or tube welder (266) q.v.
Talbot furnace worker
a steel worker q.v., working at Talbot tilting furnace, including Talbot furnaceman (171), charger (279) q.v.
tapper (foundry) ; teazer
breaks clay plug in tapping hole of cupola with a pointed steel bar, so releasing molten metal, which falls into ladle; periodically taps slag at slag holes; usually done by furnaceman (171) q.v.
tapper, tapper-out (iron and steel manufacture)
dries refractory clay in tapping hole and spout of furnace by lighting a fire underneath; when furnace is ready to be tapped or emptied, drills or hammers out clay with which tapping holes are closed, and keeps molten steel flowing by means of a long bar. tapper (rolling mill); taps steel plates with hammer to detect flaws by ring of metal; obsolescent.
tapper (zinc extraction)
see drawer (zinc extraction).
tapping man (lead extraction) ; lead caster (not foundry)
(i) opens iron plug by turning worm screw and so taps pure lead from "merchant kettle," i.e., vessel in which lead is collected after zinc has been expelled, in process of desilvering, and runs it into cast iron pig moulds; in this form it is "merchant" or commercially pure lead;
(ii) runs off molten metal from reverberatory furnace, after impurities have been skimmed off, into cast iron pot or kettle, which is placed below tap hole; usually done by furnace man (171) q.v.
see tapper (foundry).
teemer, ladle teemer (steel manufacture) ; pourer
(i) pours steel from converter or tilting furnace into ladles by turning wheel controlling angle of converter;
(ii) moves lever raising stopper of steel ladle, thus allowing molten steel to run out into moulds prepared by pitman q.v.; closes pouring hole in similar way when mould is full, and repeats operation till all steel has been poured into moulds.
teemer, spiegel (steel manufacture)
taps cupola by breaking through clay plug in tap hole with iron rammer and supervises teeming or pouring of spiegeleisen from spiegel cupola into ladles and from ladles into converter.
teemer at mixer, metal teemer at mixer (blast furnace)
a ladle teemer q.v. pouring molten iron into mixer (a tilting furnace in which up to 400 tons of molten metal are mixed and stored) from ladles and from mixer into ladles.
teeth maker (card clothing)
sets up machine which cuts, bends and points wire teeth for card clothing; obsolescent, cf. card setting machine minder (225).
tester ; gauger
general term for workers testing pipes, boilers, motor cars, finished machines, engines, etc., for strength, water tightness, smooth running, power, efficiency, etc., operations vary considerably according to article tested and method or machine used; nearly always uses gauges and templates, takes readings of dials, etc., and records results in text hook; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., fuse tester, hollow-ware tester, sewing machine tester, rail tester, stove tester, wire tester.
tester, bench (motors, motor cycles)
see tester, engine (bench).
tester (boilers and tanks), boiler tester
tests boilers by filling with water and connecting up with hydraulic pressure pump; takes readings from pressure gauges and notes carefully, seams and joints for leakage; also tests by sound by tapping with hammer after hydraulic test.
tester, brake (rolling stock)
tests efficiency of vacuum or other brakes on a string of coaches connected up with engine; with brakes on, reads all pressure gauges and in event of any leakage or faulty working, eliminates coaches one at a time, till fault is traced.
tester, car ; engine tester (road), final test man, road tester (motor)
drives finished chassis to test it under road conditions and reports behaviour; if necessary, makes minor adjustments during trial; frequently done by engine or chassis fitter (210) q.v.
tester, carbon
makes rough chemical tests of samples of steel, taken as steel "buttons" from furnace, to ascertain carbon content; usually done by shift chemist and his assistants.
tester (chain testing house)
see examiner (chain testing house).
tester (cycles)
see examiner (cycles).
tester, engine (bench) ; bench tester, motor tester, tuner (vehicles)
runs engine on a bench under artificial conditions approximating to strain imposed upon it under road conditions, usually by applying a measurable braking force to fly wheel; takes revolutions per minute; may take indicator diagrams and calculate indicated horse-power; reports behaviour and, if necessary, tunes up or makes minor adjustments.
tester, engine (road)
see tester, car.
tester (files)
see examiner (files).
tester, heat (blast furnace)
takes temperature of furnaces and stoves and of blast entering furnace, by reading pyrometer; now generally done by stove minder (171), foreman or chemist, or by manager.
tester, matrix
tests brass matrices, to be used in type casting by linotype process, by taking a trial cast, comparing this with a standard letter and measuring for depth of strike, truth of alignment, etc.; machines matrix or shapes it by hand tools at bench, if alteration is required.
tester, meter (gas and water meters) ; gas meter prover, meter prover
tests gas or water meters by passing measured quantities of gas (or air) or water through them and checking readings; also tests meters to ascertain that they are gas-tight or water-tight, by connecting up with compressed air pump and immersing in water.
tester, motor
see tester, engine (bench).
tester, pipe
see tester, tube.
tester, rivet
hits heads of rivets of boilers, etc., with a small testing hammer to ascertain by sound whether they are tight or slack; applies steel searchers in plate seams, etc., to detect gaps; sometimes done by riveter (255) q.v.
tester, road (motors)
see tester, car.
tester (rolling mill)
see test house machine attendant.
tester, slag (copper) ; slag trier
takes samples of slag flowing from blast furnace or cupola or refining furnace; granulates them by dropping or pouring into water and tests granules for their copper content by cracking them and making visual examination; may pass to chemist for chemical analysis.
tester, spindle (textile machinery)
(i) spindle gauger; tests, with measurements, gauges, spindles for textile machines, to ascertain if dimensions are correct;
(ii) spindle jigger; places assembled spindle in a support and connects, by means of a gut driving belt, to revolving shaft; watches spindle as it revolves (11,000 r.p.m.) and feels with finger for any roughness; rejects spindles not running true; removes any roughness with emery cloth; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., ring spindle tester, spindle and flyer tester.
tester, spring ; spring examiner, spring scragger
(i) (small spiral springs) places spring in holder and moves lever to bring controlled weight to bear on spring; reads length of spring and pressure upon it from gauge and pressure dial; may also measure length of spring before and after test;
(ii) (heavy spiral springs and laminated springs) places spring on bed of hydraulic press or scragging machine; controls valves and levers to bring pressure to bear on spring; takes readings of deflection and stress from gauge and pressure dial; releases pressure and again measures length or arc of spring on gauge.
tester, tank
fills tanks with water and attaches water pressure pump; controls pump valve, takes readings from gauge and watches for water leaks; certifies tank as tested at given pressure per square inch.
tester, tube tester ; pipe tester, prover (tubes)
tests tensile strength of finished iron and steel tubes, generally by means of internal hydrostatic pressure; connects pipe to hydraulic pressure pump, controls valve and takes readings of pressure gauge; also applies compression tests in testing machine, see test house machine attendant.
tester, wet and dry (shipbuilding)
a caulker (hand) q.v. who does caulking, injecting, etc., in preparation for and during testing for water-tightness.
test house machine attendant, test house machine man ; tester (rolling mill)
places test pieces of metal, e.g., iron bars, steel rails, in different types of hydraulic or electric testing machines, which measure flexibility, tensile strength, etc.; controls valves and levers to apply pressure and bending moments; roads dials and gauges, indicating pressure, deflections, etc., and makes records in test book.
test man, final
see tester, car.
tongsman (steel forging)
guides steel forging, iron or steel bar or sheet when being worked upon by power hammer, press or rolling mill, with tongs suspended from travelling trolley by a chain; sometimes specifically designated according to work, e.g., front tongsman, tongsman at cogging, tongsman at finishing, tongsman at roughing.
tracker (cycles)
see examiner (cycles).
triangle maker
bends over, by forging, one end of special steel rod; •heats rod to red heat, secures it in a vice, and bends it by hand to shape of triangle; grinds to give bright finish.
truss spring maker
bends steel strip, either by hand over a former or by machine in a press; punches holes at each end in punching machine; may also harden and temper springs, i.e. by heating in fire and quenching in water or oil.
tryer (drums, kegs)
a tester q.v. who inserts rubber bung into drum (or keg) and connects with compressed air cylinder; immerses drum in tank of water, turns on cock of air cylinder and watches for air bubbles; marks position of any leak and returns faulty drums for re-soldering or dapping.
tryer (gas fittings)
see prover and tester.
tube manipulator (tubes)
expands, bends, flanges, crushes or shapes tubes to section, and performs other similar operations, by hand or with machine tools; cf. bender, expander, tube presser; sometimes fills tube with resin or pitch to prevent bulging.
tube presser
fits dies into power press and inserts tube against gauge, to be shaped or pressed, e.g. cycle forks, ends of which are pressed flat to take nuts.
tube shoulderer
prepares one end of solid drawn copper or brass tube for draw bench, by reducing or tapering it; places end in power-driven hammering machine, moves starting lever and turns tube, by hand, in machine.
tube stemmer
see tagger.
tuner, bell
cuts and trims with chisel and file, bell castings to required size or formation in order that note shall be correct.
tuner (vehicles)
see tester, engine (bench).
tungsten former (wireless valves)
(i) feeds pure tungsten in powdered form into heated press to form blocks;
(ii) hammers heated blocks of tungsten into rods on an anvil by hand.
tungsten plate cutter, tungsten plate former, tungsten plate maker (wireless valves)
cuts plates from sheet tungsten in shearing machine; forms or bends cut plates for anodes in a press fitted with heated dies and jig (or former).
tungsten wire worker
general term for workers engaged in making tungsten wire for wireless valves, including tungsten former, wire drawer (268) q.v.
tuning fork maker
receives tuning fork after it has been hand forged, secures it in vice and shapes length of arm and body of fork with special files, till desired note is obtained; judges note by ear and compares with standard forks tested by National Physical Laboratory.
turner (clog irons)
feeds straight strips of iron into moulding machine, against a pattern or mould, to be pressed into shape of heel iron or of front iron, after they have been cut to length by cutter (279) q.v.; changes moulds in machine, as required.
turner-in (textile machinery)
(Yorkshire), see roller coupler.
type founder ; founder (type), letter founder
a thoroughly skilled man, capable of making type throughout, performing the work of matrix maker and caster q.v. and either doing the finishing himself or superintending the various workers engaged in finishing cast type, i.e. dresser, finisher, kerner, breaker (279), pager (279) q.v.
tyre dropper-on, tyre furnaceman, tyre heater (rolling stock) ; wheel dropper-on, wheel hooper
heats tyre in furnace to red heat to expand it; places it on wheel centre, where it contracts in cooling and grips wheel centre and disc or spokes with strong pressure; may also hammer tyre under special steam hammer.
umbrella notcher
fixes notch, i.e., notched ring to which ribs are hinged, to steel tube or wooden stick by drilling and riveting in a pin with hand hammer.
umbrella rib bender, umbrella rib curver
fits special dies into hand or power press; places rib in press by hand and manipulates hand lever to cause press to descend and bend rib to shape.
umbrella rib maker
fixes various dies and gauges on semi-automatic machine; places spool of grooved wire on spindle and feeds end of wire through tempering gas-heated furnace and through straightening plates into machine which cuts and forms the wire, presses end toggles or joints and punches rivet holes in ribs; watches machine for proper working.
umbrella riveter
assembles stretcher and rib and rivets pin through hinge with hand hammer at a bench.
umbrella springer
fits spring in position on steel tube or wooden stick and secures by riveting pin with hand hammer.
valve distributor, valve man (steel manufacture)
attends to gas valves round furnaces and keeps them in working order; sees that water seals in reversing levers, are in order; renews defective parts, using hand tools; usually done by fitter (210) q.v.
vessel man (steel manufacture)
inspects Bessemer converter, after each heat, looking through blue glass; repairs bottom and patches lining with fireclay; if necessary, unscrews and removes bottom for more extensive repair; also removes, with hammer and chisel, solidified steel on lip of converter.
see examiner ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. action viewer (small arms).
viewer, ball bearing
tests with gauge and by visual examination, for size and perfection, balls for ball bearings; rejects faulty balls.
viewer (cycles)
scrutinises each part of cycle at each stage of manufacture to detect faulty material and errors of size.
viewer (tubes) ; examiner, inspector (tubes)
carefully examines tubes at various stages of manufacture for defects in material; also checks dimensions with gauges.
viewer of castings
see passer (ironfoundry).
washer, hand
a dirt refiner q.v. who washes workshop sweepings by hand.
washer, pan mill
a dirt refiner q.v. who washes shop sweepings in a pan mill.
washing tables attendant
a dirt refiner q.v. who attends washing tables agitated by power; shovels crushed ore or dirt on to tables and controls water supply and speed of tables.
watcher, slag watcher (steel manufacture)
notes colour and viscosity of slag, which indicates condition of charge in furnace; sometimes done by furnace watcher (171) q.v.
wheel blocker and setter (railway coach)
blocks and sets up true, composition wheels of railway passenger coaches, i.e., wheels with steel tyres and centres of wooden or compressed paper discs; cuts wooden blocks to V-shape on circular saw, weighs each piece on scales and matches up; fits pieces into circular iron band and tightens up with bolts; cuts out centre for boss with band saw; drills holes in wheel blocks with jig and multiple drilling machine.
wheel builder, cycle wheel builder ; wheel maker
laces a few spokes through flanges of hub; attaches them to rim of wheel and tightens them up until hub is approximately in centre; places remaining spokes in position; roughly adjusts wheel, sets it on spindle in a jig and trues it up.
wheel builder (perambulators) ; wheel maker, perambulator wheel maker
makes wheels for perambulators, mail carts, etc., either by threading spokes through holes in hub and riveting free end through corresponding holes in rim; or by passing headed spokes through hole in rim and screwing them into hub; trues up wheel in vice, by bending rim and adjusting lengths of spokes.
wheel dropper-on
see tyre dropper on.
puts wheels, after they are built, on to axles of bogies, chairs, portable engines, wagons, etc.; inserts balls in ball race, if any, screws on adjustment cone or collar, dust ring, oil box, etc., according to type of wheel; sometimes done by wheel builder q.v.
wheel hooper
see tyre dropper-on.
wheel lacer (cycles) ; nippier, wireman
threads wire spokes through holes in rim and hub and screws on nipples ready for wheel truer q.v. wheel lacer and driller; a wheel lacer q.v. who previously drills holes in rims in drilling machine with jig or division plate as guide; sometimes done by wheel builder q.v.
wheel maker (cycles)
see wheel builder (cycles).
wheel maker (perambulators, etc.), perambulator wheel maker
(i) see wheel builder (perambulators);
(ii) general term for workers engaged in any one of a number of different operations where work of wheel making is sectionalised e.g., hub driller (200), hub maker (200), rim welder (249), nm worker (279), wheel lacer q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., bassinette wheel maker.
wheel presser
see mounter, wheel and axle.
wheel truer (cycles), cycle wheel truer
(i) places wheel on a epindld or a jig and trues it up by tightening or slackening spoke nipples and, if necessary, bending rim in vice;
(ii) adjusts fork attachment and bearing hub to set wheel to run true between forks.
wheel truer, wheel truer-up (perambulators, etc.)
as for wheel truer (cycles); usually done by wheel builder q.v.
willey tooth maker ; woolley tooth maker
cuts teeth or spikes from steel rod with hack or machine saw; forges them to correct shape and finishes them with file, etc., ready to be set in rollers of willeying machines, used for operating wool and other textile materials, to remove dust, etc.
winch fitting maker (fishing rod)
assembles and adjusts metal and wooden parts of fishing rod winches, using hand tools at bench.
wireman (cycles)
see wheel lacer.
wireman and truer-up
combines work of wheel lacer and wheel truer q.v.
wire turner (textile machinery)
see wire worker (textile machinery),
wire worker ; bench hand
general term for any person who makes wire goods, wholly or in part by hand, by straightening, cutting, bending,, curving, etc., wire to required shapes.
wire worker (foundry)
shapes wire, for use in core making, on a mandrel, using hammer and pliers, wire worker (pianos, etc.); cuts, bends, points and threads wires for piano or organ actions with a wiring machine.
wire worker (textile machinery) ; wire bender, wire turner
makes screens, guards, and other wire appliances for textile machinery; turns or bends wire over a pattern, using hammer and hand pliers.
woolley tooth maker
see willey tooth maker.
work board hand (cutlery)
see putter-together (cutlery).
wrought nail maker
forges wrought iron nails, by hand, on "Oliver" hammer; c.f. cramper.
zincage man
carries out operations in Parke's process of desilverisation of lead, by means of direct action of metallic zinc; carries out one or more of such duties as running molten lead into cast iron pots, skimming molten lead with special skimming tool, adding metallic zinc (either solid or molten), stirring mixture, skimming off triple alloy of lead, zinc and silver as it solidifies, etc.
zinc fixer
cuts sheet zinc and fits and fixes it with zinc nails, screws or rivets in sinks, on roofs, etc.; cf. zinc roofer (226).

Back to List of Occupational Codes

From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.