A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Textile Workers

398.—Other Skilled Workers

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ager, ager man, ager minder, age minder, ageing machine minder ; steamer (finishing)
minds ageing machine, which develops and fixes printed colours on cloth, or occasionally, on yarn, by application of moist heat; regulates temperature, steam pressure, and ventilation of machine, and rate at which cloth or yarn is run through it; sometimes specifically . designated according to colour of goods or according to material used, e.g. aniline, indigo, hydrosulphite ager.
alterer, carpet
changes coloured yarn bobbins on Brussels carpet loom, in preparation for weaving a fresh pattern, or part of a pattern; usually done by improver in training as carpet weaver (370) q.v.
alterer, loom (elastic web)
changes jacquard cards on elastic web loom, or makes alterations to loom, when a change is to be made in web woven.
artificial silk worker
general term for any person employed in spinning, weaving, etc., of artificial silk, including spinner (365), winder (367), drawer-in (368), twister-in (368), weaver (370), silk hosiery hand (374), croft worker (380), dyer (381), printer (382/383), finisher (384); cf. artificial silk worker (143).
asbestos joint maker, asbestos packing maker
makes, by hand, asbestos jointing, rope packing for steam engines, pumps, pipes, etc.
assistant overlooker, assistant tenter (jute) ; underlooker, under overlooker
works under direction of overlooker (351/359) q.v. in extensive works, carrying out duties as for overlooker in charge of section, subsection or group of machines- sometimes specifically designated, e.g. assistant power loom overlooker.
assistant overseer (flax and hemp)
keeps carding machines in running order; removes waste fibres, dust, etc., with a stripping brush.
backer ; back filler, back filling mangler, back fill mangler, back starchcr, back starch filler, finisher (bleach works)
(i) minds a back starching, or back filling, machine, which starches cloth on one side only; guides cloth over tension rails to starch roller, keeping side which is to be left unstarched against roller; starts and stops drive which sets machine in motion;
(ii) a mangler q.v. in charge of a machine which puts thickening or weighting agents, starch, china clay, etc., on back of cloth.
baller, balling machine minder (finishing) ; cop maker
minds a machine which winds yarn or twine into balls; guides yarn or twine through machine to spindle, which winds yarn or twine upon itself, the lay of yarn or twine on hall being varied according to requirements; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., coir yarn bailer, cotton rope bailer, warp yarn bailer.
band sewer-on (wool spinning) ; taper, tape sewer, tape sewer-on
sews, by hand, ends of driving bands for use on spinning frames, or repairs such bands similarly.
barker (ropes, etc.) ; tanner
makes up bark tanning solution in open vat, and immerses ropes or cords, etc., therein.
batcher (flax and hemp)
(i) arranges different qualities of tow in layers to facilitate mixing of tow for carder (363) q.v.;
(ii) applies water and oil to opened out hemp, to soften fibre and to prevent it from "licking up" (luring subsequent processes of carding.
batcher (jute) ; jute stricker, stricker, striker-up
(i) tears apart opened bale of jute, and divides jute into strikes, or portions, convenient for handling; sometimes also grades jute according to colour; cf. jute cutter; places strikes within easy reach of softener feeder (399) q.v.;
(ii) divides up jute into four sets; doubles and twists ends of sets, places sets in a stall, a wooden receptacle, adds prescribed quantity of oil and water and leaves to soften; method almost superseded.
beam changer (carpets)
changes beam of threads forming pile of carpet in loom, and substitutes another beam, containing threads of another colour or of a different fibre, when pattern is to be changed.
beamer, white piece
minds a machine which winds bleached cloth on to a beam, large bobbin, with flanged ends, in preparation for subsequent processes of printing, dyeing, or finishing.
beamer (yarn dyeing)
minds a machine which winds yam on to a perforated beam in preparation for dyeing.
beatster, beetster ; fishing net mender, net mender, net repairer
mends fishing nets, by hand, with twine and shuttle; sometimes also a net mounter q.v.
billet marker (jute weaving) ; ticket marker
keeps record of length of jute cloth woven by weaver; checks measurements with particulars on billet or ticket.
blender, colour (cotton)
selects for blending, raw cotton of different colours, such that, when blended, the required type of yam is obtained.
blender (wool) ; shade getter (wool)
chooses raw wool so that, when blended, blend will give shade required.
blocker (silk finishing)
(i) embosses designs on silk fabrics, by hand;
(ii) winds batches of cloth on a roller or block, before running them through finishing machines.
bobbin presser (lace)
reduces thickness of bobbins, filled with cotton or silk, for placing into carriages of twist lace machines; places bobbins in press, screws down lid, places press in steam oven and further tightens press, if necessary, on removal from oven.
bobbin threader (lace) ; brass bobbin threader, threader (lace)
puts brass bobbins, received from bobbin presser (lace) q.v. into carriages for use in lace machines, and passes thread of cotton or silk from bobbins through eyes in carriage of lace or net machine.
boiler, boiler man. (flax yarn) ; boiler handler, handler (flax yarn boiling)
boils flax yarn in water tanks to expel gummy and resinous matter.
boiler (hair)
boils ropes of spun (or curled) hair in a tank.
boiler (ramie spinner's)
see ramie spinner's boiler.
boiler, boiler-off (silk)
see washer, silk.
braider (fishing nets) ; breeder, breeder knitter, breeder weaver, net braider, net maker, net weaver, twine braider (fishing nets)
(i) fastens a number of ends of yarn or twine to a beam and braids them, i.e., plaits and knots yarns in such a way that threads intersect at regular internals and form a mesh;
(ii) (Dundee district); guarder; attaches edging of heavier net, four inches deep, to fishing nets woven on net loom, (using netting needle and twine.
braider, hand machine ; hand net braider ; hand braiding net maker, hand machine weaver, ratcher (hand plait)
a braider (fishing nets) q.v. using a kind of knitting machine or loom, worked by a treadle; fills needles with yarn and watches for faulty knotting.
braider, power machine ; braiding machine minder, net loom tenter, power machine weaver
places spools of fibro in position on automatic machine, which seizes fibres and plaits and knots them into fishing nets; controls machine by hand lever.
braider, semi-power machine ; semi-power machine weaver
a braider q.v. using a machine similar to power machine (cf. power machine braider) but requiring more hand control.
braider, twine
see braider (fishing nets).
braiding machine minder
see braider, power machine.
braiding net maker, hand
see braider, hand machine.
braid tenter (silk)
see plaiter.
brass bobbin threader
see bobbin threader (lace).
breeder, breeder knitter, breeder weaver
see braider (fishing nets).
see hydro-extractor.
card changer
removes jacquard cards which have passed through loom from jacquard card cylinder, and replaces them with new ones, to enable a different design to be woven; in Kidderminster carpet trade, also changes coloured yarn bobbins on loom, in preparation for weaving a new pattern.
card compiler (weaving) ; pattern maker
sorts up punched jacquard cards in proper order to produce correct pattern in weaving; cf. lacer.
card man (carpets)
is responsible for care of jacquard cards; sometimes also acts as card changer q.v.
card repairer
repairs broken jacquard cards, by drilling fresh holes near breaks, and lacing broken parts together.
card wirer
see lacer.
cellarman (cotton mill)
is in charge of cellars where raw cotton is stored; superintends stowing of bales, and their removal to other departments of mill as required; has charge of conditioning machines, which restore moisture to cotton.
cellarman (wool), weft cellarman
receives, and keeps in order stock of weft in cellar; issues weft for weaving; may also lift bales in and out of cellars; has no responsibility for conditioning; cf. stock room man (940).
chain setter
reading from design on squared paper, (cf. designer) buildsupj.by fastening link to link, loom chains, i.e., part of mechanism controlling interlacing of warp and weft, in production of fancy woollen cloths.
chain turner (at loom)
sets up, takes down, or changes loom beam chains, which maintain equal strain on warp during weaving.
clarker (wool winding)
helps warper (367) q.v.
cleaner (gassing)
see gasser (yarn).
passes cloth through rollers revolving in solution to remove faults, bleach, etc., before finishing or printing; runs or pours solution into receptacle and sets rollers; in small establishments may be done by mangler (textile printing) q.v.
colourer, colourist (carpets) ; colour matcher (carpets)
selects coloured yarns to go into carpets, in accordance with design received from designer q.v.
colourist (wool)
as for designer.
colour matcher (carpets)
see colourer (carpets).
compiler of steel pattern cards
as for lacer.
conditioner, yarn conditioner, cop conditioner ; cop damper, damper, humidifier attendant, weft damper, yarn damper
dries and weighs samples of yarn, and calculates regain of moisture; minds sprinkling (damping) machine containing a gauge which registers amount of water used in sprinkling; decides stage of condition, i.e., moisture, required in wool or in yarn.
cop maker
see bailer.
copperman (silk)
see washer, silk.
corrector (lace)
see reader, card.
curler, hair
puts finishing curl or twist on hair rope or yarn, by hand, after first process of curling, or spinning (365) q.v.
curler, horse hair
as for curler, hair.
curler, mohair yarn
attaches a number of mohair yarns to staple of machine, which first twists yarn and then untwists it; attends to running of machine.
curler, soft (horsehair) ; teaser (horsehair)
partly untwists rope of hair, into which it has been twisted to give it a partial curl, and passes it through a teasing machine, similar to that used by hair miller q.v. to separate and open out hairs.
cutter, beaverteen
as for cutter, cord.
cutter, chenille
minds a machine which cuts chenille fur into strips, for use as pile in weaving, by means of knives set on a cylinder; guides chenille from its rollers to feeding roller of machine, gathers-up cut lengths of fur, controls machine by levers, replaces defective knives.
cutter, circular ; cord cutter, corduroy cutter
cuts corduroy, on a circular machine; applies edge of cloth to rollers, with pile facing upwards; sets engine in motion, which causes cloth to travel through machine, and cuts pile with circular discs.
cutter, cord; corduroy cutter
(i) see cutter, hand;
(ii) see cutter, circular;
(iii) applies edge of cloth to rollers, with pile facing upwards; sets engine in motion which causes cloth to travel through machine, and cuts pile with a specially formed knife, secured in machine; adjusts knife so as to cut pile at required angle.
cutter, felt
cuts felt to required size on guillotine.
cutter, fustian
cuts fustian, usually by hand; for processes, cf. cutter, hand.
cutter, hand (fustian, corduroy, etc.) ; cord cutter, corduroy cutter
passes end of cloth over frame and round roller, to which he secures it; draws it taut by strainer fixed to frame; inserts point of knife under loop of end thread, and pushes knife along warp, thus cutting pile.
cutter, machine (ramie, etc.)
feeds and minds a machine which cuts up ramie or other coarse fibre for greater convenience in subsequent processes (spinning, etc.).
cutter, moleskin
cuts moleskin (strong twill cloth, like fustian, but softer), by hand or machine; for processes, cf. cord cutter, or hand cutter.
cutter, Netherwood
a cord cutter or a fustian cutter q.v. using a Netherwood or Keighley machine.
cutter, pattern ; patternman, pattern room man, sample cutter
cuts cloth into small pieces for use as patterns or samples, by hand or in a machine.
cutter, pile (silk)
a hand cutter q.v. cutting silk pile fabrics.
cutter, sample
see cutter, pattern.
cutter, silk velvet
as for cutter, pile (silk).
cutter, thickset
cuts thickset, resembling corduroy, but with finer ribs, usually by machine; for processes, cf. cord cutter.
cutter, velvet ; velvet machine man
outs velvet, with hand knife or by machine, taking care that pile is set in required manner; for processes, cf. cord cutter, and hand cutter.
cutter, velveteen
as for cutter, velvet.
cylinder man, cylinder drying machine minder
see drying cylinder man.
damper, cop damper, weft damper, yarn damper
see conditioner.
design copier, designer's copyist
copies design made by designer q.v. and reproduces it in full and in proper colours for use of colourist q.v.
designer, cloth designer, textile designer ; design sketcher
devises new patterns for cloth, by new interlacings of warp and of weft yarns, coloured or not, and sets out such designs on paper; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. damask designer.
designer, card
a designer q.v. who sets out designs on special paper, indicating positions where holes are to be punched in jacquard cards by card puncher (396) q.v. using colours, measurements, etc., for guidance of design copier and of textile draughtsman (932) q.v.; cf. reader, reader-off (lace).
designer (carpets)
devises new patterns for carpets, by new interlacing of pile, chain, etc., warp, and weft, and sets out and colours such designs on paper; sometimes gives directions in preparation of material, e.g., to tuft cutter q.v. designer, pattern (printer's); textile print designer; designs patterns for use in textile printing, having regard to special requirement of customer in each case.
design filler-in, design painter
reproduces on paper design to be woven, by filling in certain squares, indicating where warp is to be raised over weft, on squared paper, and leaving other squares blank.
design sketcher
see designer.
developing machine minder (textile printing)
is in charge of machine used for second, or developing, process, of ice or developed colours (derivatives of coal tar kept below decomposition point by ice); feeds machine with colour, prepared for him; packs ice into machine to prevent decomposition of developing agents; guides cloth end through machine and through subsequent water bath.
dipper, colour (lace)
a lace dipper q.v. who dips lace net or curtains in a vat of stain, not fast dye, and then into starch.
dipper, lace
dips lace or net in starch, and passes it through rollers.
discharger, silk
see washer, silk.
divider, velvet
as for cutter, pile (silk).
dobby chain maker for loom
puts together chains of spindles which carry bowls (rollers) operating jacquard motion, in dobcross and similar looms.
dobby harnesser, dobby legger ; pattern maker
a harness gaiter q.v. engaged in tying loom harness on a dobby loom and otherwise setting up the "motion."
doubler (bleaching)
minds machine which doubles cloth longitudinally; as for cuttler (384).
doubler (elastic web)
twists together cotton and rubber threads, for use in making elastic web; as for doubler (366).
drawer (jute)
see lease lifter (jute).
dresser (bleaching)
see singer.
dresser (woven felt)
dresses wool with size, etc., in card room, in preparation for manufacture of woven felt.
drum filler (textile printer's)
under instruction of foreman, puts starch and size in specific quantities into drum of printing machine, and controls supply of hot water and steam by valves, thus keeping drum filled and at proper temperature.
drum machine minder, drummer (silk) ; opener
minds a machine which causes a drum to revolve and to wind opened silk waste upon itself.
drum stripper (carpet yarns)
takes threads of carpet yarn after they have been printed by carpet printer (383) q.v., and loops them together in hanks round drum on which they have been printed; numbers them to shew which thread each represents in carpet to be woven; with help of assistants, inserts a stick under oilcloth surrounding drum, and lifts it and yarn clear of drum.
drum stripper (textile printing)
removes, by hand, cloth from drum of printing machine; stops and starts drum by hand lever; highly skilled operation.
dryer, dryer man
dries raw material, yarn, cloth, or felt, either in a heated chamber, or by passing it over heated cylinders in a cylinder drying machine, or in any other form of drying apparatus; regulates temperature of drying chamber or drying cylinders, and time during which material remains in chamber, or speed at which it passes through machine; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., calico, cloth, felt, linen, silk dryer; cop, hank, warp, yarn dryer; cf. dryers (384 and 399), stover.
dryer, shade
a dyer q.v. who minds a drying machine in which cloth is dried after being dyed; adjusts admission of steam to drying cylinders to obtain correct shade, according to colour pattern supplied to him, shade depending on rate of drying.
dryer, tin; tin cylinder dryer
see drying cylinder man.
dryer, white; white piece dryer
a dryer q.v. engaged in drying white (bleached) goods in bleaching department of a composite works where dyeing or printing is also done.
dryer, yarn (flax and hemp)
see loft man.
dryer, yarn (genapping)
see setter, dry.
drying cylinder man, drying cylinder minder ; cylinder drying machine minder, cylinder man, tin cylinder dryer, tin dryer, tin man
a dryer q.v. in charge of drying tins or hot cans, i.e. revolving steam-heated cylinders round which cloth or yarn is passed; regulates heat of cylinders, and speed at which cloth or yarn passes over them.
drying machine man, drying machine minder, drying machinist
a dryer q.v. in charge of a drying machine, whether of cylinder or of any other type; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. cloth drying machinist.
dubber, velvet (fustian cutting)
shears or dubs, by hand with fine scissors any raised parts of fustian velvet due to faulty weaving or knotted cotton; usually done by weaving overlooker (356) q.v.; (more usual) using fine scissors, corrects slips, i.e., irregularities in pile caused by faulty cutting.
examiner (fishing nets)
see ransacker (fishing nets).
fancy hair bleacher, worker
as for hair bleacher or hair worker.
feeder-in (mercerising)
inserts yarn or cloth in mercerising machine; for processes, cf. merceriser.
fettler (cotton weaving)
see jobber, loom.
fibre screener (coconut)
attends and feeds machine fitted with screen or grid, to sift fibre and to remove dirt.
filler, back; back starch filler
see backer.
finisher (bleach works)
see backer.
finisher, drum; line finisher ; stricking drum, finisher, sizer (twine and cord), sturdier (twine), twine finisher, twine polisher
minds a machine which polishes twine and cord in rope walk; knots ends of twine lengths, and passes them over pair of polishing drums in form of an endless band; controls power-drive which sets drum in motion.
finisher, stove
see stover (brimstone).
finisher, surgical bandage ; surgical bandage maker
cuts out, by hand or, more usually, by machine, bandage from roll of bleached cloth, and cuts tail (end), according to requirements.
finisher, twine
see finisher, drum.
finisher, warp
a dryer q.v. who minds a drying machine, in which warp yarn is dried, after it has been sized or treated by some other wet process.
finisher-and-reeler (twine)
see twine dresser.
firer (bleacher's)
see singer.
firer (fustian)
see gasser (cloth, etc.).
fixer (dyer's)
passes fabric through a solution of arseniate of soda, to prepare it for dyeing process.
fringe knotter
plaits and knots, by hand, loose fibres projecting from band or foundation of fringe; also makes tassels, shunters or bobs, and ties them on to fringe.
fringe twister
twists loose fibres projecting from bullion or other fringe.
gas hand
see gasser (yarn).
gasser (cloth, fustian, lace) ; firer (fustian), gas singeing man (cloth)
a singer q.v. engaged in singeing cloth, fustian, lace, etc. by application of a gas flame.
gasser (yarn) ; cleaner (gassing), gas hand, gas singeing man, gas winder (yarn), sweater, sweeter
places bobbins of yarn or thread on a gassing winding frame; guides thread or yarn to tube upon which yarn is finally to be wound; lights gas burners, and starts machine; regulates gas supply to burners, taking care that yarn is not scorched or stained, and that machine is kept free from gummy substance formed by burnt fibre.
gas singeing man
(i) see gasser (cloth);
(ii) see gasser (yarn).
gas winder
see gasser (yarn).
genapper, genapping machine minder
a gasser (yarn) q.v. specially engaged in burning off surface hairs of worsted yarns in a gas flame (genapping).
gofferer, gopherer, gophering hand
passes lace, frilling, or other material through gophering rollers to produce pleated effect.
grease extractor (woollen mill)
operates, by means of levers, press which expresses oil from soap cakes obtained in soap recovery plant of woollen mill; also supervises labourers adding acid to residue of soap and oil run off from scouring plant, moulding soap into cakes, etc.
grey man, grey room man (dyeing)
see sorter (grey room).
grummet maker
makes grummets (grumets, grumetts, gromets), i.e. washers of asbestos or of some textile material used to make tight tubes of water-tube boilers.
guarder (Dundee district)
see braider (Dundee district).
hair bleacher
prepares bleaching solution, and immerses hair in it.
hair dresser
see hair finisher ; cf. hair dresser (363).
hair dryer (felt)
(i) minds, and regulates heat of, drying ovens in which sheets of hair felt are placed to dry, after processes of milling and pressing;
(ii) minds a machine which dries hair fibre, after it has been washed.
hair duster
places hair, after it has been dyed, in mechanical shaker to free it from dust and dirt.
hair finisher ; hair dresser
does final finishing operations to horse hair piece goods used in tailoring, e.g., crabbing, starching; cf. crabber, mangler (384).
hair frater
see sorter, hair.
hair miller, hair millman, hair mill hand, hair milner ; hair mixer, miller, mill hand, millman, milner (hair)
(i) lays hair on floor, and mixes together, by hand, various qualities, e.g., horsehair, cowtail hair, pig hair, etc.;
(ii) places mixed hair on feed lattice of machine, called a mill, which draws hair through a cylinder, having a revolving shaft with projecting teeth, which opens and cleans hair; spins hair into a rope, by hand, to give it a curl; damps it, and bakes it in an oven to make curl permanent.
hair mixer
(i) see hair miller;
(ii) minds a machine which opens out, or uncurls, horsehair after it has passed through curling room, reducing it to a loose, frizzled condition, in which it is put in sacks for use in manufacture of bedding.
hair tipper
assists curler q.v. by further loosening hair, after it has been curled, to facilitate spinning.
hair worker
general term for any person employed in curling, spinning, weaving, etc., of hair, or in processes incidental thereto; includes hair bleacher, hair dryer, hair duster, hair finisher, hair miller, hair mixer, hair sorter, hair tipper, hair carder (363), hair drawer, (363), hair dyer (359), hair baker (399), hair opener (428), hair weaver (370), hair spinner (365), hair warper (367), hair washer 399).)
halter maker (rope), rope halter maker
twists strands of hemp by hand wheel to form rope of suitable length for halter rein; forms strong eye at one end by whipping with twine; weaves webbing on hand loom or frame, forming eye from warp loops by binding with twine; knots up rein and web to make halter; obsolescent.
handler, boiler handler (flax yarn boiling)
see boiler (flax yarn).
hand machine weaver (fishing nets)
see braider, hand machine.
harness builder, power loom harness builder
builds up, away from loom, series of cords and attachments to form jacquard loom harness, i.e., gear which controls movement of warp threads in weaving; threads and ties lingoes, hanger cords, mail eyes, comber board and warp threads, as necessary, assisted by thread coupler (399) q.v.
harness gaiter ; harness tier-up, warp loom knitter
ties healds into harness of loom; threads them through holes in wooden heald or rod, spaced according to fineness of cloth to be woven.
harness sewer (wool weaving)
repairs harness of loom, i.e. gear which controls movement of warp threads in weaving, using special needle and twine.
harness tier-up
see harness gaiter.
heald fitter
suspends healds from loom rods in particular arrangement required by pattern to be woven.
heald mender
a putter-up or loom jobber q.v. who repairs healds by hand; joins broken ends.
horse hair bleacher, dresser, miller, sorter, worker
as for hair bleacher, dresser, miller sorter, worker, respectively.
humidifier attendant
see conditioner.
husk crusher, husk mill hand (coconut fibre)
minds a crushing machine, which separates fibre from husk of coco-nuts by action of metal heaters, and feeds machine with husk, which has first been soaked.
hydro-extractor, hydro-extractor minder, hydro-extractor tenter, hydro-extracting machine minder, hydro man, hydro tenter ; buzzer, motion minder, slinger, swisser, whizzer, whuzzer, wuzzer
puts wet yarn or cloth or felt into a hydro-extracting machine, consisting of a perforated cylindrical metal cage; sets cage revolving, when moisture is thrown off by centrifugal force; removes material from cage for conveyance to dryer.
jacquard harness builder, jacquard harness maker
as for harness builder.
jacquard harness mounter
mounts or fixes jacquard harness on looms.
docs minor repairs to drawing frames, spinning mules, doubling frames, looms, or other textile machinery, and does other odd jobs under the direction of overlooker of his department; often further distinguished according to class of machine or of material, e.g., braid jobber, double jobber, drawing jobber, spinning jobber, twisting jobber.
jobber, loom ; fettler (cotton weaving), putter-np
repairs minor defect in loom; assists tuner (356) q.v. to put healds and reeds into loom; places and starts new beams for weaving, and removes beams when empty.
jute cutter, jute selector
selects and assorts jute into grades, according to colour, and cuts off roots by drawing fibre across fixed knife or scythe blade; often done by batcher (jute) q.v.
kilting hand (lace)
tucks, quilts, and makes up lace or other material by machine; sets gauges and guides and feeds material between rollers.
knotter, machine knotter
operates a mechanical knotter, which ties ends (threads) of old warp on to those of new warp.
knotter (quilts, etc.), quilt knotter
gathers up fringe of quilt or other fringed goods, and ties it into knots at intervals round edge.
lace hand, lace worker
general terms for workers tending any machine and/or carrying out any operation in lace making or finishing trade; includes twist hand (376), hand lace worker (377), lace warehouse hand (385) q.v.
lacer, card lacer, card cutter's lacer ; card wirer; jacquard card lacer, jacquard lacer
threads jacquard cards, lace pattern cards, etc., in proper sequence as required by pattern of cloth or lace, by hand or by machine; cf. card compiler (weaving).
lacer, chain; dobby lacer ; jacquard card lacer, jacquard lacer
(i) places jacquard cards, by hand, side by side in proper sequence; threads them together with a needle, the thread passing alternately from right to left and from left to right in such a way as to form an endless chain of cards;
(ii) places jacquard cards in proper sequence in a machine and operates mechanism which laces them automatically.
lacer, jacquard; jacquard card lacer
(i) see lacer;
(ii) see lacer, chain.
last setter (genapping)
see setter (genapping).
see sorter (grey room).
lease lifter (jute) ; drawer (jute)
takes end of warp which goes last on to weaver's beam, after beam has been removed from beaming frame, and which contains weaver's lease; selects individual threads, and draws them through healds with a hooked tool, oi attaches them to ends of warp threads in fabric already woven and in loom.
list boy
sews, with hand sewing machine, driving lists or cotton bands, which drive spindles of spinning frames; sees that bands are kept in good condition, replacing old bands with new when necessary.
locker, flat
feeds a power-driven flat lock machine with knitted fabrics, which are carried along a sloping arm, are automatically trimmed to correct shape, and thence pass to stitching needles, which join them edge to edge, forming a very flat seam.
loft man, yarn loft man ; yarn dryer (flax and hemp)
places hanks of wet spun yarn from reeling room in steam-heated drying room or kiln; straightens out and turns hanks during drying operation, to ensure uniformity, in preparation for bundling.
long side minder (silk)
minds any machine having a long side, i.e. a greater number of spindles than is usual; may be either a roving frame minder (363), a spinner (365) a doubler (371), or a thrower (372) q.v.
loosener (healds)
prevents varnished threads of healds from sticking together.
machine man
see tuner's assistant.
mangler, back fill; back filling mangler
see backer.
mangler, mangle man (bleacher's)
minds a mangling machine, which generally has two or more rollers, one above another, or a roller above and a plate, called a doctor, below, between which cloth is passed; guides cloth through trough, containing various pastes or solutions according to particular kind of finish required, and also through rollers, and makes any adjustments required; sometimes specifically designated according to character of solution, e.g. soda mangler, water mangler.
mangler, dry
a mangler q.v. in charge of a machine whose rollers are heated, or through which cloth is passed only slightly damp.
mangler, filling
a mangler q.v. in charge of a machine which, besides mangling, also dresses cloth with a filling material, such as clay.
mangler, mangle man (textile printing)
minds a mangling machine, which partially dries cloth after washing by pressing it between rollers; sets rollers to regulate pressure; guides cloth end through machine to winding-on roller; starts and stops machine by pulley lever, etc.; in small establishments, also does work of clearer, preparer, slop paddler, starcher q.v. mangler, white; a mangler q.v. engaged in mangling white (bleached) goods only, in bleaching department of a works where dyeing or printing is also carried on.
marker-out (fustian, etc.)
marks out on fabric, portions of pile to be cut and not to ke cut, respectively.
mat comber
straightens out twisted strands of yarn from surface of woven mat to improve its appearance.
mat maker
makes door mats by hand, by inserting tufts of coco-nut fibre through string warp, suspended from a beam, in such manner that tufts form pile of mat.
mat shearer, mat trimmer
(i) trims projecting fibres from surface of mat, and remedies minor defects with needle and shears, to improve its appearance;
(ii) minds a machine which shears off projecting ends with rotating spiral cutters.
passes cotton yarn or cloth between rollers, which carry it through a trough of caustic soda solution, thence through a stretching frame, and finally through a washing trough, to extract excess of caustic soda and to give yarn or cloth a silk-like lustre.
miller, millman, mill hand, milner (hair)
see hair miller.
mohair wirer
fastens ends of pieces of mohair cloth with fine wire.
motion minder
see hydro-extractor.
mounter, harness mounter
fits jacquard attachment, cards, and harness to loom ready for weaver; joins or ties by hand linen threads which have been drawn through comber board to cotton cards, each of which is attached to jacquard mechanism.
muslin clipper, muslin cropper
one of a pair of workers who cut, on cutting frame, connecting threads of muslin leaving pattern comprised of short ends; places muslin in frame, guides through cutting knives, attaches to hooks of winding-on roller, sets knives and, in cutting, either guides muslin, by hand, over rollers to knives, or, taps it gently with a cane to open-out connecting threads; after cutting, releases knives and removes muslin; operates machine by hand lever.
muslin ripper
stretches muslin between two rollers and cuts, with hand knife, certain warp cords to form pattern; machine here unsuitable; passes ripped muslin to muslin clipper q.v.
net braider
see braider (fishing nets).
net fitter, net fixer
a net mounter q.v. who completely fits net, including norselling, see net orseller.
net loom tenter
see braider, power machine.
net maker, net weaver
see braider (fishing nets) ; cf. hand machine braider, power machine braider, semi-power machine braider.
net mender, net repairer, fishing net mender
see beatster.
net mounter ; trimmer (fishing nets)
(i) fits nets with ropes as guards, cords and gables and with masking twine by knotting, lacing, splicing and binding;
(ii) (Dundee district) attaches rope to top, bottom, and sides of nets, i.e., guards, by means of norsels (see net orseller) or by lacing mesh at selvedge with a light line attached to guard by a clove hitch (knot) every few inches.
net orseller, norseller
attaches orsells or norsells (short lines about ten inches long) to top and bottom of fishing net at regular intervals by passing looped edge round cord at edge of net and slipping open end through loop; may also attach norsels to long line or rope for line fishing and whips or knots hooks to open ends.
neutralizer (flannel)
feeds flannel, which has been carbonised by the action of sulphuric acid, to washing machine; regulates water supply and adds soda ash as required; withdraws flannel at conclusion of operation.
see drum machine minder.
orange raiser (dyer's)
puts cloth through solutions of bichromate of soda or of potash, or through lime water, to raise, or bring out, chrome orange colour in basic lead salts.
paint squarer
prepares in colour, on squared paper, designs used by card cutter (396) q.v. in making jacquard cards.
pattern maker (not making-up)
(i) see card compiler; cf. pattern cutter (396);
(ii) see dobby harnesser; cf. pattern maker (making-up) (943).
pattern man, pattern room man
(i) attends to classification, filing, and indexing of various patterns of cloth woven;
(ii) see cutter, pattern.
pattern setter
see setter (carpets).
pegger, card pegger, lag pegger, loom pegger
fixes pegs in lags, pieces of wood drilled with holes, which control warp threads to be raised in weaving to allow weft threads to pass and thus decide pattern.
pegger, dobby
a pegger q.v. fixing pegs in lags for dobby looms.
picker (hair)
see sorter, hair.
piece raiser (carpets)
(not Kidderminster) passes velvet pile carpet over drums through which steam is pumped, to raise pile and improve its appearance; controls machine by hand levers and regulates steam valve.
pinner (flax and hemp)
(i) a polisher q.v. who throws hanks of bleached or dyed thread and fine twine over a hook, and with a round iron bar as a lever, or pin, pulls and twists hanks to remove stiffness, and to give it a partial polish and soft texture;
(ii) hangs hanks of thread, etc., on opposite hooks of a machine, which softens thread in same way as hand process described above.
plaiter, asbestos
minds a machine making tubular asbestos braiding; for processes, cf. plaiter (braids and tapes).
plaiter (braids and tapes) ; braid tenter (silk)
places bobbins of yarn on a circle of spindles, and draws and connects threads of yarn to a circular feed; controls power-drive of plaiting machine, which causes spools to rotate forming a plait, threads being interlaced like ribbons round a maypole.
plaiter, plait maker (coir yarn), coir plait maker
places bobbins of coir yarn on spindles, and starts machine; attaches end of plait thus formed to a roller, which rolls up plait as it is made, for use as mat edging.
polisher, hank yarn
minds a machine consisting of a large revolving brush against which prepared hanks of yarn in chain form are pressed, to give them a glazed appearance; regulates distance of hank from brush.
polisher, twine
(i) as for polisher (yarn); +
(ii) see finisher, drum;
(iii) see twine dresser.
polisher, warp yarn
places beam containing doubled warp threads behind polishing machine; guides yarn through a trough containing a polishing mixture, through squeezing rollers and in contact with cylindrical brushes to bobbins upon which yarn is wound; controls power-drive of machine.
polisher, yarn polisher ; polisher winder
attends yarn polishing machine; makes-up starching preparation, guides yarn-ends from bobbins through starch troughs to drying cylinders and brushes and attaches to winding-on bobbins or beam; starts and stops machine, replaces bobbins, cleans trough, etc.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. asbestos polisher, linen thread polisher, twine polisher; cf. hank yarn polisher.
polisher, yarn (mosquito netting)
guides cotton yarn between heavy rollers which grease it slightly, remove fluff, and also polish it.
polisher winder
see polisher, yarn.
power machine weaver (fishing nets)
see braider, power machine.
preparer (cotton doubling) ; yarn preparer
minds a machine which gives lustre to doubled cotton yarn; places hanks of doubled yarn in position over two rollers, and moves lever causing tension to be thrown on yarn by the spacing of the two rollers; starts machine; removes yarn from rollers upon which it has been spread when operation is complete.
preparer, cotton preparer (lace) ; yarn preparer
passes cotton through rollers which have been treated with greasing or polishing composition, to flatten it and put a gloss on it, in preparation for lace making; guides yarn from bobbins through rollers to winding on bobbins or beam; replaces bobbins as empty or full; keeps machine clean.
preparer (textile printing)
prepares cloth with mordants preparatory to printing or dyeing; as for clearer.
preparer, yarn
(i) see preparer (cotton doubling);
(ii) see preparer (lace).
print filler (carpets)
causes moist colour on printed yarn to penetrate more deeply into it by pressing and rubbing it, by hand, with a small vulcanite tool, bevelled to a blunt edge; also scrapes away superfluous colour from yarn.
print filler (textile printing)
as for backer.
print winder
as for beamer, white piece.
process man (print works)
general term for any machine minder in a textile printing works, e.g., machine printer (383), mangler q.v.
gives out to workers, work to be done by them.
see jobber, loom.
ramie cleaner
minds a machine which, after winding process, cleans ramie yarn by rubbing.
ramie degummer
extracts gum from ramie fibre by chemical process; passes j fibre through washing machine, and thereafter through hydro-extractor, in preparation for combing.
ramie spinner's boiler ; boiler (ramie spinner's)
boils ramie fibre in open vats to de-gum and bleach it, in preparation for opening and carding processes.
ransacker (fishing nets), net ransacker ; examiner (fishing nets)
examines nets for holes; turns faulty nets over to beatster q.v. and re-examines net after it has been mended.
ratcher (hand plait)
see braider, hand machine.
reader, card reader, reader-off (lace) ; corrector (lace)
translates design for lace on special squared paper into columns of numbers to be used by jacquard puncher (396) q.v.; checks and corrects punched holes in pattern cards for lace making machines.
reader, curtain
a card reader q.v. who makes in string a pattern or copy of design for curtain lace from which pattern jacquard cards are punched on power press; checks and corrects holes punched in pattern cards.
rigger, net rigger
(Dundee district) attaches norsels to cork ropes on top side of net, and to sole ropes on bottom side, and ties or lashes corks on norsels on top side with twine; cf. rigger (Fleetwood district) (269).
rug brodder (Yorks. term), rug maker
makes rugs, by hand, on a canvas ground, by piercing canvas with an awl and inserting cloth cuttings.
safe lister
stitches protecting fabric on any part of material that is not to be dyed, to prevent its taking colour.
sample maker
puts together samples in books or on cards and fixes tickets with reference numbers.
semi-power machine weaver
see braider, semi-power machine.
setter (carpets) ; pattern setter
prepares loom by threading warp yarn through reed or sley, healds, and harness, taking care that yarn, if coloured, is in correct order for weaving.
setter, chenille
a setter q.v. preparing looms for weaving chenille carpets.
setter, dry ; yarn dryer (genapping)
fixes hanks or skeins of yarn on rods in drying chamber.
setter, yarn setter (genapping) ; last setter (genapping), yarn stretcher
(i) sometimes assists gasser (yarn) q.v. to set, or stretch, worsted yarn in frame, as it passes over burners, to prevent scorching;
(ii) stretches scoured, genapped yarn in frame to prevent cockling during drying.
shade getter
see blender (wool).
ship's fender maker
knots and coils and splices rope, by hand, to make a ship's fender; may weave a centre of special .rope in form of a bag or small sack, fill this with cork shavings and bind it with rope.
silk cord maker
a plaiter q.v. minding a machine which plaits silk cord from doubled silk yarn.
silk oiler
passes silk through troughs containing oxidising oil, and over drying rollers, to render fabric waterproof.
silk staffer
stretches skeins of silk with wooden staff, by hand, to ensure fitness before placing in loom.
singer, singe man, singeing man, singeing machine tenter ; dresser (bleaching), firer (bleacher's), singer-firer
operates engine which drives pulleys and rollers of singeing machine; passes cloth through machine, where fluff or loose fibre is removed by passing over a system of bunsen gas burners, or over a heated copper bar, pipe, or plates; regulates heat of gas system or of heated copper bar, pipe, or plates, and speed of delivery of cloth through machine.
singer (fustian)
see gasser (fustian).
singer (velvet)
as for gasser (fustian).
see singer.
sizer (twine and cord)
f(i) see finisher, drum;
(ii) see twine dresser.
see hydro-extractor.
slop padder
runs cloth through solution to tint as base for printing; as for clearer.
softener (tow), yarn softener
minds a machine for softening yarn or tow, by passing it between rollers; yarn is then ready for treatment by yarn header (399) q.v.
sorter (flax and hemp)
classifies flax or hemp after it has been machine hackled; splits up inferior fibres by breaking them on touch pin; straightens fibres over band hackles; makes bunches (laps) of fibres, and builds these into bundles according to quality and cleanliness of fibre.
sorter, cloth sorter, sorter-out (grey room)
piece sorter, grey man, grey room man (dyeing), layer-out; sorts cloth, as received from weaving department in grey (unbleached) state, by grades and stamps with special marks 'according to quality, etc.; puts together pieces which are to receive similar treatment in bleaching, dyeing, or textile printing department.
sorter, hair ; hair frater, picker
sorts hair into grades, according to fineness, colour, soundness, etc.
sorter, hank
as for sorter, yarn.
sorter, piece
see sorter (grey room).
sorter, fibre sorter (raw silk)
separates different qualities of raw silk contained in imported bale as it comes from shipment; divides moss (series of hanks) into bundles of regular weight and classifies by grade.
sorter (silk throwing)
sorts weighed thrown silk thread according to size and quality, in preparation for skeining to uniform length.
sorter, skein
as for sorter, yarn.
sorter (worsted, for dyer)
as for sorter (grey room).
sorter, yarn
(i) separates various grades or types of yarn, in preparation for their treatment in weaving and other departments;
(ii) sorts yarn according to count (fineness), colour, etc.
splicer, rope
unites two rope-ends, by unravelling strands at both ends, and twisting them together to form one continuous length; sometimes also inserts eyelets, thimbles, and rings, or forms loops in rope.
splicer, yarn splicer (silk)
joins together end of yarn broken in cleaning frame; passes yarn to be spliced through two mandrels on hand machine; turns two hand wheels in same direction to take twist from yarn; splices broken ends, by hand, and twists hand wheels in reverse direction to restore twist to yarn.
splicer, thread splicer
joins ends of thread by splicing; opens out opposing ends of thread; twists separated threads, making a join in echelon; re-twists strands, by machine; cuts off projecting ends, and smooths join; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. coir yarn splicer.
splitter (raw silk)
places large skeins of silk, called moss, on a revolving frame and divides, by hand, into smaller skeins for convenience in subsequent winding; cf. winder (371).
starch boiler
starch mixer, starch maker, starch preparer, stiffener; mixes a solution of starch or size, used for dressing yarns and for filling (stiffening) and finishing piece goods; boils it at a high temperature in boilers or pans, heat of which he regulates.
starcher, back
see backer.
starcher (carpets)
gathers yarn ends from bobbins, placed on a stand, into sheet-like form, and guides them through a series of rollers, which he lowers into troughs of hot size; starts machine; guides yarn from size troughs to drying cylinders.
starcher (textile printing)
as for mangler, filling (384); in small establishments, done by mangler (textile printing) q.v.
starcher (twine)
see finisher, drum.
starch maker, starch mixer, starch preparer
see starch boiler.
steamer, cop
a conditioner q.v. in charge of machine which moistens cops of yarn by exposing them to steam. .
steamer (finishing)
see ager ; cf. steamer (384 and 399).
sterilizer (flock factory)
prepares a scouring solution containing sterilizing agent; supervises soaking and sterilizing of flock therein j determines temperature of solution and duration of soaking.
see starch boiler.
stove finisher
see stover (brimstone)
stover (brimstone), brimstone stove man, sulphur stover ; stove finisher
attends to a stove, i.e., an air-tight chamber in which yarn, cloth, or knitted goods, are exposed to sulphur fumes, to dry and bleach them; (in woollen trade) hangs goods in stoving chamber; (in other textile trades) minds a stoving machine, which passes goods continuously through chamber; also attends to burning of sulphur; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. hosiery stover, white piece stover, woollen sulphur stover, yarn stover.
stover, stoveman (cotton cloth)
is in charge of stoves in which finished cloth is steam-dried to give it a cockled, wrinkled or puckered effect; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. fustian stover.
stover, yarn stover, stoveman (cotton yarn)
is in charge of a stove in which cotton yarn, in hank form, is dried on rails suspended in a frame, either by drawing it through stove with endless chains, or by placing it in chambers of a differential stove in sequence, beginning in coolest and ending in hottest chamber; frame is moved from chamber to chamber mechanically; regulates stove temperature by turning on and off steam, as required; cf. dryer.
stover, warp; warp yarn stover
a yarn stover q.v. engaged in stoving warp yarns.
stretcher, yarn stretcher
(i) see setter (genapping);
(ii) see tester yarn; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. silk stretcher.
stricker, striker-up (jute), jute stricker
see batcher (jute).
stricking drum finisher
see finisher, drum.
stripper (hosiery)
removes shaped hosiery from shaping boards.
stuffer (dyer's)
weighs out prescribed quantity of mixed dye or colour known as stuff in dyeing trade, under directions of head dyer (359) q.v.; puts it in a lawn hag, dissolves it in boiling water, and takes stuff, so prepared, to dyers, for use in dye vessels.
surgical bandage maker
see finisher, surgical bandage.
swealer, sweeler
see gasser (yarn).
see hydro-extractor.
tanner (ropes, etc.)
see barker (ropes etc.).
taper, tape sewer, tape sewer-on
see band sewer-on .(wool spinning).
teasel (teazle) clipper, teasel (teazle) setter
clips tracts or stalks of teasles, prickly flower heads of a plant resembling a thistle, to required length, and sets teasles in raising gig, gig-rod, or metal frame for use in raising pile of fabric; presses teasles close together with metal kicker or ram; resets teasles in gig-rod by turning them round when one side is worn in use.
teaser (horsehair)
(i) see curler, soft;
(ii) is in charge of machine which uncurls or opens out horsehair, after it has passed through curling room, reducing it to a loose frizzy condition, in which condition it is put in sacks for use in manufacture of bedding.
tester (thrown silk)
tests "throw," i.e. amount of twist, in thrown silk, by counting number of twists in a given length; fixes given length of thread in jaws of twist testing machine, turns hand wheel until twist is removed and reads number of revolutions on dial.
tester, yarn ; stretcher, yarn stretcher
tests quality of yarns by taking a given weight and winding it on a frame to ascertain its tensile strength; maintains constant given tension on thread and records breaks in yarn, which is weighed a second time, to ascertain invisible loss, i.e. loss during test due to loss of fibre, moisture, dressing, etc.; cf. weft weigher.
threader (lace)
see bobbin threader (lace).
thread spinner, gold and/or silver; gold thread maker, thread maker ; tinsel maker
spins in a machine, gold, silver or plated tinsel wire into thread by twisting it around a fillet or body of silk or cotton for convenience of subsequent weaving into lace or cloth, cf. gold and/or silver weaver (370), or twisting into cord, cf. gold and/or silver corder (370).
thrum weaver
inserts small pieces of rope yarn or spun yarn in canvas, producing a rough surface, or mat, which can be wrapped round rigging to prevent chafing.
ticket marker (jute weaving)
see billet marker.
tin man
see drying cylinder man.
tinsel maker
see thread spinner, gold and/or silver.
tipper (pile fabrics)
a hand cutter (fustian, velvet, etc.) q.v. employed in tipping plush, i.e. cutting surface pile of plush.
trawl mender
as for beatster.
trawl net fixer
as for net mounter.
trawl net maker
as for braider, power machine.
trimmer (carpets)
removes superfluous material from back of carpet with knive and clippers, and remedies defects in weave with needle and thread.
trimmer (fishing nets)
see net mounter.
tuft cutter, wool tuft cutter (carpets)
using hand knife, cuts carpet yarn into lengths, or tufts, for hand loom weaver (carpets) (370) q.v., working under direction of designer (carpets) q.v. as to quantities, lengths, etc.; boxes tufts for conveyance to weavers.
tuner's assistant ; machine man
makes minor adjustments to loom, under direction oif tuner (356) q.v.
turner (hosiery)
turns hosiery inside out, in readiness for certain finishing operations; pulls sock or stocking leg downwards over a bar having projecting lip which grips sock, etc.; reverses hose along bar.
turner-off (hosiery)
turns down, and presses in a steam press, edges of knitted garments, in preparation for finishing processes.
twine dresser
finisher-and-reeler (twine), sizer (twine and cord), twine polisher; minds a bobbin-to-bobbin polishing machine; guides twine or line through a washing trough, squeezing rollers, and sizer trough to drying cylinders, and thence to polishing roller and to winding-on-spools; controls power-drive of machine.
twist cellar worker
general term for any operative employed in cellars where twist (warp yam) is stored, conditioned, and distributed for weaving; includes conditioner, damper, cellar boy (399), storeman (941), store assistant (942).
twist spinner, gold and/or silver; gold and/or silver twist maker
minds a machine which twists two, three or more threads of gold, silver or plated tinsel, into what is known as twist, for use in embroidery work; places bobbins of different threads on spindles, threads ends of threads through machine to winding-on bobbins; controls machine by levers.
underlooker, under-overlooker, under-tenter
see assistant overlooker.
velvet machine man
see cutter, velvet.
warp loom knitter
see harness gaiter.
warp tier (carpets)
ties ends of new warp, by hand, on to ends of warp which is nearly finished.
washer, print (carpets)
see washer, yarn (carpets).
washer, silk; silk yarn washer ; boiler, boiler-off (silk), copperman (silk), silk discharger, wash-houseman (silk)
boils silk waste in a cistern of boiling water and soap; turns it about until all gumming matter is discharged; puts silk, after boiling, in a hydro-extractor, or through rollers of a wringer or mangle, to remove liquor.
washer, yarn (carpets) ; print washer (carpets);
hangs yarn for tapestry carpets, after it has been printed and steamed, on a rocking arm in water; removes it when washing is complete.
wash-houseman (silk)
see washer, silk ; cf. wash-houseman (silk) (309).
waterproofer (canvas)
general term for any worker engaged in waterproofing canvas, e.g., mixing waterproofing solution, or operating machine which spreads solution over canvas, or calendering or drying it after it has been waterproofed.
waterproofer, line
minds machine which applies waterproofing solution to lines; guides line through machine to bobbins on which it is wound; controls power-drive of machine, and fills troughs with dressing solution.
wax printer (dyer's, bleacher's)
brushes, by hand, wax preparation on cloth; cracks set wax and immerses cloth so covered in dye hath so that cloth is dyed where wax is broken, i.e., in irregular lines.
weigher, weft
dries samples of weft yarn, in a small oven, and takes weight before and after drying, in order to ascertain amount of moisture in it from weight per bobbin.
weight puller
attends to weights on back of looms, used for regulating tension of threads in warp.
whizzer, whuzzer
see hydro-extractor.
wire sharpener (carpets)
sharpens, with a revolving grinding roller, blades fitted.at end of wires in looms weaving Wilton and other cut-pile carpets.
see hydro-extractor.

Back to List of Occupational Codes

From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.