A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Textile Workers

399.—Other Workers

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asbestos sifter
feeds shaking machine, which separates long fibres from short, with asbestos, after it has been opened by asbestos opener s q.v. (long fibres go to card sr (363) q.v. and short fibres to beater man (512) q.v.).
asbestos wadding hand
takes asbestos, after it has been carded, and passes it into rollers of a machine which applies a glutinous coating to one surface of fibre.
assistant draw frame tenter
see hack tenter (draw frames).
back ender, back minder (flax)
attends feed end of roving frames, and also delivery and feed ends of drawing and doubling frames; inserts fresh sliver; keeps up supply of sliver cans, and removes them when filled; helps to clean frames, and assists rover (363) q.v., or takes her place if she is absent.
back ender, back minder (jute)
back rover, rover feeder; stands at back of roving frame, which draws out, and imparts slight twist to jute fibre in form of sliver, converting it into roving; supplies machine with full cans of sliver, and removes empty cans.
back minder (calender)
takes off material at back of calender.
back minder (finishing)
a helper q.v. stationed at certain finishing machines; keeps even tension on cloth running into machine, reports faulty patches in cloth to machine minder, etc.; cf. guider-in (384).
back minder, stretching machine
takes off cloth, etc., at back of stretching or stentering machine.
back minder, back tenter, back draw frame tenter, (draw frames)
assistant draw frame tenter, tenter; an assistant to draw frame tenter (363) q.v. or a joiner tenter (363), working at back of draw frame, feeding it with slivers, mending slivers broken in process of drawing, and replacing empty sliver cans.
back tenter (cotton carding)
feeds first of two carding machines, known as breaker machine, with laps, and attends to automatic feed of second carding machine, known as finisher or condenser.
back tenter (felt carding)
assists carder feeder (363) q.v. by removing from carding machine, brat or lap, i.e. wool or hair in loose masses, formed thereon.
back tenter (fly frames) ; little tenter (fly frames), setter-on (fly frames)
a young girl assistant to fly frame tenter (363) q.v.; replaces empty bobbins; mends broken threads; helps to clean machines, etc.
back tenter, intermediate box; intermediate frame back tenter
(fly frames); removes empty bobbins from boxes at back of intermediate frame, second in series of fly frame or speed frame machines, and supplies full bobbins, to be inserted in frame by creel or q.v.
back tenter, roving frame; rover back tenter, roving back tenter ; roving frame little tenter
removes empty bobbins from back creel of roving frame, and inserts full ones, brought from intermediate frame.
back tenter, back tenter man, machine back tenter (textile printing) ; tenter (textile printing)
under direction of machine printer (383) q.v., guides cloth into back of printing machine; removes, cleans, etc., printing rollers, back greys, blanket washers, etc.
bagger, noil ; noiler (silk)
fills bags with silk noils, i.e. waste or short fibres removed by comb in silk dressing frame.
bagger (silk)
packs raw silk and cocoon waste in bags, in readiness for boiling process.
baker (curled hair) ; dryer, stover (hair)
places hair, previously steeped and curled, in oven to be baked; baking sets twist or curl; reads pyrometer and regulates gas by means of valves.
baler (coco-nut fibre)
packs finished coco-nut yarn in bales, which he sews up when full, ready for despatch.
ball drawer ; ball tier (twine)
puts by hand final winding round middle of machine wound ball of twine, and draws tight; tucks in end of twine and removes hall from winding-on tube.
ball sett maker (jute)
arranges sets of balls or laps of jute, after they have been weighed, to make np a specific weight for placing in finisher carding machine.
bander (bleaching) ; chainer (bleaching)
makes up hanks of yarn into a continuous chain, or plaits yarn in warp form into a chain, and ties end of one warp to beginning of another to make up a charge for kiers or bleaching vats.
bander (carding, spinning, doubling, weaving, silk throwing, etc.)
band jobber, band putter-on, band sewer, band tier, tape putter-on; fixes and repairs hands or belts which connect individual spindles or machines to main; driving shaft; cuts bands to proper length and sews them in place on the machine, with a special portable sewing machine; sometimes specifically designated according to type of machine, e.g. ring bander, spindle bander.
bander (dyeing)
puts bands round hanks of yarn to facilitate handling during dyeing process; links skeins of yarn in chains.
bander, piece bander (textile finishing)
sewer, sewer-down, sewer-in, stitcher, stitcher-on; sews together, by machine, ends of several pieces of cloth, so that they may go through machines as one piece.
bander-and-oiler (silk)
combines duties of bander (carding, spinning, etc.), and of oiler q.v.
barker's assistant, barker's labourer
fetches and carries for barker (398) q.v.
barrow boy, barrow girl, barrow man
takes material from place to place in or about works in a barrow; cf. carrier.
batcher, batcher-up (finishing)
rolls cloth on to rollers after stentering process, in readiness for further processes.
beam carrier
see giver-in (weaving).
beamer (finishing)
assists mangle man (384) q.v.; places cloth rollers in position before mangling, and removes cloth when finished, cf. beamer (367, 380 and 398).
beaming lad
assists beamer q.v.
bearer boy
inserts wooden brackets to support strands at intervals down rope-walk, as they are twisted and formed by rope making machine, which travels down the rope-walk on rails.
bit machine boy
assists bit winder (367) q.v. by sorting out bobbins and bits of yarn by colour, fibre and quality.
blower, blower-up
sends cotton, after it has been mixed in cotton chamber, to opening machine through an exhaust pipe, as distinguished from a lattice or conveyor; in old mills, feeds blowing plant with opened cotton by hand; cf. blower (362).
bobbin boy (jute) ; bobbin gatherer (jute)
gathers in and carries empty bobbins from winding fiat to spinning flat; sometimes also does work of bobbin setter q.v.
bobbin boy (rope and twine) ; machine boy (rope and twine);
cleans roving frames or spinning machines, and arranges empty bobbins on racks, ready for doffer q.v.
bobbin cart
as for carrier.
bobbin cleaner (worsted spinning) ; bobbin wiper
removes, from bobbins, unused rovings (combed wool before spinning).
bobbin laddie (flax and hemp) ; box boy (flax and hemp), yarn drawer
pushes box, i.e., basket or skip, containing full bobbins of flax, hemp, jute or yarn from spinner (365) to reeler, cop winder, spool winder, etc. (367); wheels back empty bobbins to spinning frame.
bobbin seeker
see creeler (worsted spinning).
bobbin sider (carpets)
stacks bobbins in appropriate crib or bin, according to colour, etc.
boiler, soap (wool preparing)
boils soap liquor in a tank, in preparation for wool scouring.
booker, cloth; cut booker
receives in warehouse cloth woven by each weaver, whose wages he calculates at current piecework rates.
booker, skep ; skep sider
keeps account of yarn as it enters and leaves warehouse.
boomer (flax and hemp)
carries wet yarn in hanks, after it has been bleached and washed, to boom yard, open-air drying yard, to dry; hangs hanks on booms (spare), and straightens them out; sometimes also does work of peaker q.v.
box boy (carpets, etc.) ; putter-in (carpets, etc.)
places washed, boxes in position at bottom of yarn colour-painting (or printing) frame.
box boy (flax and hemp)
see bobbin laddie.
box minder, box tenter (silk)
keeps weft (or shuttle) box of loom supplied with full bobbins.
see opener, bale.
brusher (camb, caulm, gear, havel, heddle, heald)
see heald brusher.
brusher (hosiery)
passes hosiery, or garments made therefrom, through rollers of a machine, which are covered with teazles or with wire, thereby brushing them and giving them a fleecy surface.
brusher, roller ; brusher (woollen spinning), roller picker
cleans rollers over which yarn passes in woollen spinning.
brusher (woollen spinning)
(i) see brusher, roller;
(ii) see waste boy.
buncher, yarn buncher
(i) ties several hanks of yarn into bunches, in readiness for succeeding processes, bleaching, etc.;
(ii) see crofter; cf.yarn buncher(943).
bundler, flax
see striker-up.
bundler, waste
makes waste from various departments of mill up into bundles.
takes full bobbins from spinning frames, and puts them in metal cages. i.e. on vertical rods fixed in base of a wooden or metal tray.
camb brusher, sizer, varnisher
see heald brusher, sizer, varnisher, respectively.
can boy (flax and hemp)
can tramper (flax and hemp), can walloper, sliver minder; attends delivery end oi a carding machine, and presses down sliver in sliver can; breaks sliver when can is full; replaces full with empty can; carries flax and hemp in can from one process to another in preparing room of spinning mill; removes empty cans to be re-filled with fibre.
can tramper
(i) (flax and hemp) see can boy;
(ii) (jute) see filler, can;
(iii) (rope and twine) see runner hand, can.
can walloper
see can boy.
see catcher.
card boy
(Dundee district) carries or trucks baskets of twine for skein in carding room man, card room man; a, labourer in card room, who holds himself at disposal of carrier or under carrier (353); fetches and cm lies, pushes truck, etc.
carrier, carrier-in, carrier-oft, carrier-out
carries or wheels raw material, yarn, cloth, dyestuffs, bleaching solution, etc., from one room or department to another; often also works lift or hoist; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., beam, bobbin, cloth, colour, cop, piece, weft, wool, yarn carrier; cf. barrow boy.
carrier, colour
see furrier.
carrier, roving
see fetcher, roving.
carrier, set ; yarn stocker
has charge of cases of cops, i.e. yarn wound on paper tubes, and of weft yarn coming to mill, and sees to their distribution.
carrier, skip
see dragger, skip.
carrier sliver
see runner hand, can.
carrier, wool
see packman (wool sorting).
cart boy
as for wheeler.
cart boy, top; top carter (rope and twine)
is stationed by top cart (carriage on rails carrying the top, a grooved wooden cone used in twisting rope or rope strands) in rope walk; places top in position before rope-making process starts, and removes top and cart when process is complete.
catcher ; capper
(Dundee district) stands at delivery end of softening machine, cf. softener hand, takes batched jute as delivered from fluted rollers and places on barrows for conveyance to drying room.
caulm brusher, sizer, varnisher
see heald brasher, sizer, varnisher, respectively.
cellar boy
assists conditioner (398) and store assistants (942) in cellars where yarn is stored, carrying cops, hanks, skeins, etc.
cellarman, wool (wool sorting) ; wool cellar packer, wool packer
has charge of wool cellars; packs wool upon its arrival, cleans cellars, and distributes wool for sorting as required.
chainer (bleaching)
see bander (bleaching).
chain minder
minds and loads chain transport belt, which conveys yarn, bobbins, etc., to and from spinning room.
changer, changer-off (flax and hemp)
see doffer.
changer (lace)
changes old for new bobbins, or old pattern for a fresh pattern, on lace-making machines.
changer, roller
putter-on (textile printer's), shifter (textile printing); fits and keys printing rollers on steel mandrels, ready for mounting in printing machine, and assists in changing patterns and rollers in machines; sometimes also fills and fits colour boxes.
(i) checks number of bobbins in spinning room before they are taken away;
(ii) counts or records number or quantity of material received or of goods produced, at any stage of manufacture.
china grass worker
general term for any worker engaged in preparation of china grass (ramie), including hackler (362), drawer (363) carder (363) q.v., etc.
see plaiter-down.
helps warper (367) q.v.; puts fresh bobbins into creels, and ties yarn ends.
cleans machines of accumulated waste, etc.; often also oils machines, or sweeps floors of rooms; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., bleach croft, guide, loom, roller, sieve cleaner.
cleaner, box
box washer, washer-up (textile printing); cleans colour boxes from printing machine, by washing them with a hand brush, and assists generally in machine room.
cleaner, lace
takes stains out of finished lace, under direction of overlooker (finishing) (359), using various stain removing agents and reagents.
cleaner, warp ; warp picker (silk)
winds warp from one beam to another, picking off slabs, or thick places in yarn, as she does so.
cleaner, yell (dialect)
see heald cleaner.
clipper (hosiery)
separates seamless hose, by cutting, with hand shears, connecting thread between toe of one and top of another.
coiler, asbestos
minds a machine for coiling asbestos packing; puts packing in machine and controls its running.
coiler (rope and twine)
line reeler, line roller, rope reeler, rope walk reeler, (i) attends to rope coiling machine; guides rope to reel and controls power-drive;
(ii) (Edinburgh district) coils sliver on to floor at delivery end of hackling machine.
collects cops (weft yarn), cloth, waste, etc., from various machines, and takes it to hoist, warehouse, cloth booker, etc.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., cloth collector, cop collector, waste collector, etc.
collector, box ; box emptier (card room)
empties carding waste from boxes, or troughs, of carding machine.
cooler (fustian finishing)
places singed fustian upon cooling rollers and regulates, by valves, cold air draught to rollers.
cooler piece
passes material through a bath of cold water after dyeing, to cool it and secure uniformity in dyeing.
cop doctor
inspects cops of weft yarn as they are taken from skeps to weaving shed, and, if any are out of order, puts them in correct shape.
cot box minder ; plucker (wool preparing)
minds a plucking machine, or cot box, which has a comb fitted with two rows of pins for disentangling long-fibred wool, in preparation for willeying, carding and combing; places wool into machine and clears therefrom as necessary.
cotton cake maker, textile cotton cake maker
operates hydraulic press, in which raw cotton or cotton waste is pressed into cakes, for use in making calender bowls.
counter, piece (dyeing)
keeps account of number of pieces arriving at works; allocates them to various workers, according to colour in which they are to be dyed, and checks number going back, to ensure that right number have been dyed in each colour.
counter, piece (textile printing)
counts lengths of cloth received from sewer for printing, as a check against pieces being lost between one department and another.
counter, yarn
counts skeins or hanks of yarn ready for bundler (943) q.v.
counterman (hosiery)
see folder (hosiery finishing).
counterman (wool warehouse)
see taker-in.
crabber, crab house worker ; steamer, wool steamer
guides cloth on to roller of crabbing machine, taking care to keep it level; then guides it on to other rollers, running in hot water, and finally over a steam-heated roller; regulates temperature of final roller, by means of steam cocks.
creeler (worsted spinning) ; bobbin filler, bobbin finder, bobbin layer, bobbin layer-on, bobbin lier, bobbin ligger, bobbin ligger-on, bobbin piler, bobbin seeker, bobbin setter, bobbin sorter, filler (wool spinning) layer-on, yarn piler
places bobbins full of yarn, or of rovings, on creel of spinning, winding, warping, or other machine or of loom; often also removes empty bobbins; sometimes also helps in keeping machine clear of waste; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., roving frame creeler.
creeler (Brussels, etc., loom)
see tier, bobbin.
crimper, fibre
feeds and attends electrically-heated machine which crimps fibre for mattress stuffing.
croft boy, croft lad
is employed in bleach croft, usually as a plaiter-down q.v.
crofter (dyeing) ; buncher, yarn buncher
unlinks skeins of yarn which have been linked by bander (bleaching) q.v. and makes them up into bunches.
crosser (fustian)
minds a cross brushing machine, which raises pile on fustian, after warp has been cut, so as to form rib; feeds cloth between rollers and watches machine for faulty work.
crusher, roller
attends machine which crushes, between heavy rollers, china clay to be used in cloth finishing; feeds and empties machine, and starts and stops by moving hand lever.
cutter, fly winch
see fly winch.
cutter, jute ; snipper feeder, snipping feeder (jute)
cuts off hard root-ends of stricks, lengths of jute fibre, by bringing them down upon edge of large stationary knife or by feeding into a snipping machine.
cutter, rag
see stripper, cloth.
cutter, ribbon
cuts ribbons, by hand, into short lengths, and winds them on to cardboard reels, also by hand.
cutter (twine)
works a guillotine cutting machine, in which bundles of twine are cut to lengths, according to order.
cutter-off (cotton mill warehouse)
minds a machine which cuts cotton cloth into short lengths for making up into bags, etc.; adjusts machine to fold cloth into lengths, as required, and controls power which governs movement of band knife along folds of cloth.
deliverer (grey room)
a labourer trucking grey cloth from grey room (or from outside merchant) to stitching room for marking and joining together of pieces, or, to croft for bleaching.
deliverer, weft
as for carrier.
dirt boy
see waste boy.
distributor, weft
a carrier q.v. taking weft yarn to weavers.
dobby cabin boy
assists dobby harnesser (398) q.v.
see plaiter-down.
doffer, doffer-off, bobbin doffer ; bobbin taker-off, changer, changer-off (flax and hemp), shifter (flax and hemp twine)
removes full bobbins from roving, spinning, winding, doubling, etc., machines, and replaces with empty bobbins; usually also does work of bobbin tier q.v.; sometimes specifically designated according to type of machine, e.g., double or doubler doffer, ring or ring frame doffer, roving frame doffer.
doffer, card
clears strips of loose cotton from front of carding machine.
doffer (jute)
see shifter, bobbin.
doffer major
see head doffer.
dolar, doler
folds cotton yarns in hanks of skeins, for dyeing or for transport.
dolly man, dolly minder
see dunger.
see drawer-off (loom).
see wirer-down.
dragger, set
draws or pushes a frame on wheels carrying a set of full bobbins from one machine to the next in order of process.
dragger, skip ; skip carrier, skip runner
carries large baskets (skips) containing bobbins from spinning or winding frames to hoist.
drammer, silk drammer
see sizer (silk throwing).
drawer, card ; pouce man
draws out and removes dust and rubbish from carding machines.
drawer, yarn
(i) see bobbin laddie;
(ii) see wheeler.
drawer-off (loom) ; downer
removes woven cloth from looms in weaving room and places on trucks; sometimes carries or pushes to warehouse; cf. taker-in.
dryer, fibre
minds a stove or oven in which fibre obtained from husk of coco-nuts is dried, after husk has been soaked and crushed.
dryer (hair curling)
see baker (curled hair).
dryer, rag
places carbonised rags, either in drying room or over hot stoves, and attends to drying of them.
dryer, wool
(i) minds drying machine, and regulates its temperature; removes wool when dry;
(ii) places scoured wool on netting surface of a drying table, through which hot air is blown;
(iii) minds a wool drier and carboniser, in which wool is dried and vegetable particles carbonised.
dryhouse man (felt)
stretches felt on seams, or drying frames, in drying room.
dunger, dungbeck minder, dunging machine minder ; dolly man, dolly minder, maggie minder, maggie worker (slang)
feeds and minds a machine in which cloth, in open or rope form, is passed through a trough, bath or heck, containing a chemical solution (formerly cow dung), to remove gum and other thickening and to fix mordant.
see opener, piece.
emptier, box (card room)
see collector, box.
ender, snipper; snipping ender
takes off stricks of jute from snipping machine, after roots have been cut away, and places them in barrow or on stool for removal to batching or softening machine.
ender, softener
see twister, jute.
enterer, cotton
as for booker, cloth.
feeder, feeder-in (finishing)
general term for operative who feeds, i.e., passes material into, any machine.
feeder, snipper; snipping feeder (jute)
see cutter, jute.
feeder (textile printing)
see guider, cloth.
fenter (finishing)
cuts away with shears fents, short damaged lengths, from ends of a piece of cloth.
fetcher, roving ; rove cart (slang), roving carrier
a carrier q.v. who carries roving from one machine to next in order of process.
fetcher, single
carries spools of single yarn to doubling or twisting machine.
fielder (dyeing)
fetches and carries rolls of material for dyer (381) q.v. in a dyeing establishment where fabrics are dyed in the piece.
fielder, printer's
as for fielder (dyeing).
filler, bank (jute)
puts bobbins of yarn in bank of dressing machine, where it is starched and dried.
filler, battery
keeps battery, or weft-wheel, of automatic loom supplied with shuttles, cops, or pirn bobbins.
filler, bobbin
see creeler (worsted spinning).
filler, box (card room)
fills box or hopper of scribbling machine with wool, by hand, from can; pushes cans from one machine to another; cf. can box minder, card feeder (wool) (383).
filler, box (textile printing) ; box putter-in
fills colour boxes or cisterns with colour, and puts them in printing machine.
filler, can ; can tramper (jute)
pushes "sliver" as it emerges from carding machines into sliver cans, replaces full cans with empties and passes-on cans to next carding, etc., machine.
filler, cop ; skewerer, cop skewerer (dyeing)
places cops of yarn on perforated wooden pegs, or skewers, ready to be put in dyeing vats.
filler, drum filler (carpets) ; drum layer (carpets), winder (yarn printing)
winds yarn from bobbins on to printing drum; attaches ends to a triple thread of worsted stretched across width of drum; passes threads through guides and switches on power, which causes drum to revolve and wind threads side by side round face of drum.
filler, magazine (loom)
keeps looms clean, and replaces empty weft bobbins with full ones.
filler, needle (fishing nets)
fills with twine, bobbins used in hand braiding; places bobbins in shuttles (needles) and attaches end thereto; winds twine on a treadle-driven or on a power-driven machine.
filler, scroll weaver's
keeps scroll weaving looms supplied with baskets of full bobbins of weft yarn.
filler, shuttle ; shuttle threader
replenishes shuttles of weaving loom with yarn; takes out empty bobbin, inserts full one and threads end of yarn through holes and slides in shuttle.
filler, tin (card room)
fills tin boxes with bobbins or pirns of cotton, to be transferred from one machine to another.
filler, twist
fills baskets or other receptacles with cops or pirns of twist (warp yarn) for winders, or for making into warps.
filler (wool spinning)
see creeler (worsted spinning).
filler boy (flax and hemp) ; gripper, machine boy (Crewkerne and Somerset)
fills clamps or grippers with flax or hemp, and inserts grippers into slide rail at one side of hackling machine; sometimes also receives filled grippers and releases hackled flax or hemp therefrom.
finder, bobbin
see creeler (worsted spinning).
finder, worsted (carpets)
a creeler q.v. assisting worsted winder or worsted filler (367) q.v.
finisher, yarn
shakes and straightens out hanks of yarn over a horizontal post with a stick; sometimes also brushes them while holding them tight with stick; afterwards twines them up and places in press.
fleecer (wool combing)
takes fleeces from, bales and hands to wool sorter (360) q.v.; obsolescent.
flock worker
general term for any person engaged in picking, preparing, or handling flock; includes flock picker, flock sorter, card feeder (363).
cleans fluker rod, used to collect loose waste from rollers of spinning mule, with a hook or picker.
flywinch, flywinch man, flywinch minder ; flywinch cutter
operates a flywinch, which passes bleached or dyed cloth in rope form through a small tank to tone or finish surface; hand-plaits, i.e., folds backwards and forwards, into a wagon or stacks cloth on floor as cloth leaves tank.
folder (hosiery finishing) ; counterman (hosiery)
folds socks and stockings and other hosiery into sizes, etc., in preparation for tying them up.
folder (silk)
folds finished cloth in pleats, alternately backwards and forwards, to facilitate work of examiner (379) q.v.; cf. plaiter (943).
folds cloth, etc., into convenient size for packing; sometimes, e.g., in quilt weaving, is one of a pair of workers.
folding machine minder
a folder q.v. who minds a folding machine; cf. plaiter (943).
follower, follower-up (rope), rope follower ; machine boy (rope and twine), runner-up (rope)
stands near traveller machine where strands are twisted into rope; loosens, brakes, or otherwise adjusts rope with an iron bar, as required; holds on to end of rope in ropewalk after rope has been laid and while it is being reeled and coiled; and assists rope maker (373) q.v. generally.
forker, wool
lifts wool, with a fork from soaking or steeping vat in which it is soaked; before scouring, to remove excessive dirt.
frame changer (carpets)
removes frame containing empty bobbins from sizing trough, and substitutes a frame of full bobbins for sizing.
gaiter, gaiter-up
follows after doffer q.v. has removed bobbins, and sets frame going again for spinner (365) q.v.
gatherer, bobbin (cotton)
gathers full bobbins from spinning frames, ready to be carried or wheeled away.
gatherer, bobbin (jute)
see bobbin boy (jute).
gatherer (wool)
as for carrier ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. bobbin gatherer, quill gatherer, spool gatherer.
gatherer, fly
sweeps up and bags waste and fly (fibre dust) in spinning room.
gatherer, rag
gathers together rags, fents, etc., from various departments of mill.
gatherer, weft
gathers baskets of empty weft bobbins from looms.
gear brusher, sizer, varnisher
local on dialect terms, see heald brusher, sizer, varnisher, respectively.
see reacher.
giver-in (weaving) ; beam carrier
a carrier q.v. who carries warp beam, when completed and ready for loom, from looming or dressing room to weaving room.
collects waste from looms, and puts it in a sack to await removal.
grease man (wool) ; greaseworks man
superintends recovery of wool fats and oils from spent scouring liquors.
lubricator, machinery oiler, oiler, oiler and greaser, shafting minder; oils and greases shafting and mill gearing.
greaser, ring
see lapper-on.
grease works man
see grease man (wool).
grey room hand, grey room man
general terms for any worker, male or female, in grey room, i.e. room where grey, or unbleached, cloth is received for bleaching; includes receiver, taker-in, deliverer, marker, stamper, sewer (419); cf. grey man (369).
see filler boy (flax and hemp).
guider, cloth (textile printing) ; feeder, tenter (textile printing)
guides cloth into various machines, other than printing machines; cf. hack tenter (textile printing).
works as creeler q.v. or in other similar light employments, for half day, and attends school rest of day.
halsher (worsted)
(Yorkshire term) secures loose ends, after yam has been spun on to paper tubes, by means of halshes or loops, to prevent its unravelling.
hammerman, jute
beats pressed heads of jute, as taken from bale, with large sledge hammer, or under steam hammer.
hander (wool finishing)
see raiser, hand.
handler, handle holder
see putter-on.
hanger, piece (cotton dyeing)
hangs goods which have been treated with mordant, i.e.. colour fixing agent, in room, humidity of which is regulated to allow of slow oxidisation of mordant.
hanger piece (textile printing)
hangs cloth in festoons over rails in lofty room for conditioning purposes.
hanger, piece (woollen dyeing)
hangs piece goods, after dyeing, in open air or in stoves to dry.
places load sinkers in position at intervals round bottom of fishing nets, and secures them by hammering together cleft ends.
hanker (flax and hemp)
opens out tangled bundles of cloth after they have been boiled, in bleaching process; lays open cloth on barrow.
hard hand (silk)
general term for any worker engaged in treating silk while still hard, i.e., before it is degummed.
havel brusher, sizer, varnisher
dialect terms , see heald brusher, sizer, varnisher, respectively.
head doffer ; doffer major
directs and controls doffers q.v.; is often also winder-down q.v.
header, yarn header ; shaker, shaker and header, yarn shaker and header
straightens out and evens hanks of yarn ready for handler (943) q.v.; hangs hank on a pin or cross bar; inserts stick through loop, held in both hands; shakes and strikes hank while turning it round on pin.
heald brusher ; heald cleaner, yell cleaner (dialect), (local or dialect synonyms :—camb, caulm, gear havel, heddle brusher)
applies heald to a revolving brush, to clean loose fragments of size therefrom.
heald cleaner ; yell cleaner (dialect)
(i) see heald brusher;
(ii) cleans healds; also coats healds, if made of cotton, with varnish to preserve them.
heald comber
combs healds with a single comb, to ensure that each thread and eyelet is perfect.
heald picker
picks or separates finished knitted heald threads into single healds, and gathers ends, in preparation for bundling or packing.
heald sizer
see heald varnisher.
heald varnisher ; heald sizer, polisher (heald making); (local or dialect synonyms:— camb, caulm, gear, havel, heddle, sizer or varnisher)
varnishes healds (i) with a hand brush,
(ii) by applying them to a circular brash, revolving in a bath of varnish,
(iii) in a machine, which carries healds, on a travelling hand, past brushes which are kept supplied with varnish.
heddle brusher, sizer, varnisher
see heald brasher, sizer, varnisher, respectively.
assists operative in charge of any machine; sometimes cleans machine, mends broken threads, etc.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., dryer's helper, twister's helper; cf. helper (cotton weaving) (370).
hoist man, hoist tenter
attends to working of hoist; is often also a bobbin carrier q.v.
see reacher.
paints or colours specks of cloth, or burrs, not dyed to same tint as rest of cloth, using a brush and suitable coloured inks or dyes.
jacker-off (lace)
takes off from bobbins, waste lengths of unused threads, and winds them on to large wooden bobbins, using a small winding machine.
jag-about (slang)
see waste boy.
adjusts and repairs machines, under direction of overlooker (351/359) q.v.; sometimes also fixes driving bands, belts, etc.; cf. card room jobber (364), loom jobber, spinning room jobber (398); sometimes specifically designated, e.g. band jobber, (see bander), ring jobber.
jobber, dyehouse
cleans dye vats and keeps them in good condition, and does other unskilled work in dye house.
jobber lad
assists jobber q.v., by holding materials, tools, etc., and by fetching and carrying.
jobbing hand (rope and twine)
as for labourer.
kapok worker
general term for any operative engaged in widowing or preparing kapok, i.e., vegetable down used for filling mattresses, etc.
labourer, mill labourer
fetches and carries, and does other general unskilled work in and about factory; sometimes minds one of the simpler machines, usually under supervision of skilled worker; sometimes specifically designated according to type of factory where employed, or according to work done, e.g., flax labourer, rope walk labourer, colour mixer's labourer, printer's labourer.
labourer, tape; taper's labourer, slasher's labourer
carries sizing materials or yarn; assists taper (369) q.v., in running yarn through sizing machinery; sometimes operates parts of machinery, under direction of taper.
lapper-on (cotton doubling and thread mills) ; ring greaser
assists doubler (366) q.v.; pieces broken ends of yarn; starts and stops machine, and removes full bobbins from doubling frame.
see opener, piece.
layer, bobbin
see creeler (worsted spinning).
layer, drum (carpets)
see filler (carpets).
assists finisher (384) q.v. on starch mangle and on drying cylinder following it.
layer, hosiery
presses hose in Pegge type of press as distinct from hydraulic press, cf. pressman (hydraulic, hosiery finishing); lays hose on boards in tray of machine and pulls down top of press.
layer-on, bobbin layer-on
see creeler (worsted spinning).
layer-on, ring frame ; setter-on (ring spinning)
(i) as for creeler;
(ii) (cotton doubling) puts empty bobbins on frame, for use by doffer q.v. who removes full bobbins.
layer-on, roving ; roving lier, roving ligger, roving putter-in, roving setter-on
(i) as for creeler (worsted spinning);
(ii) places wool, in form of rovings, in feeding boxes of drawing machines.
layer-out, yarn
lays bundles of yarn in small stacks, ready for removal.
letterer, piece letterer
see marker (grey cloth).
lier, bobbin
see creeler.
lier, roving
see layer-on, roving.
lifter, cloth
as for carrier.
lifter (hair curling)
fetches and carries hair; feeds and cleans carding machine, and helps teaser (362) q.v. generally.
lifter (rope and twine)
lifts fibre from floor on to spreading table.
ligger, bobbin; bobbin ligger-on
see creeler (worsted spinning).
ligger, roving
see layer-on, roving.
ligger-on, rag
a labourer who, among other duties, places rags on feed sheet of any machine for treating rags; cf. rag blender, rag grinder (362).
see lingo tier.
lingerer (silk)
as for lingo tier.
lingo tier, lingo burner ; linger, weight tier-on
ties small weights (lingos) on healds or short harness used in jacquard frame, to keep them and warp threads taut, when pattern is to be introduced in cloth being woven.
feeds flax into machine by hand, where it is scraped into a soft and fluffy lint; controls machine by lever.
liquor man, liquor carrier, liquor wheeler
carries or wheels on trucks, vessels containing chemicals used in making up dyestuffs; transfers made-up dye solutions to dyeing vats.
little tenter (fly frames)
see back tenter (fly frames).
little tenter, roving frame
see back tenter, roving frame.
loader (finishing)
loads trucks or baskets conveying cloth from one. machine or department to another.
loom attendant
carries beams of prepared warp from warping room to looms.
looses off cloth from drying machine; pulls out stitches which hold pieces of cloth together, and folds and piles cloth.
see greaser.
lumper (nets) ; lump picker
takes away with fingers or snips off with scissors, lumps, slubs or thickened places on yarn, and other foreign matters from nets; also unravels tangles in readiness for net examiner.
lurrier, lurryman ; colour carrier
as for carrier.
machine boy (flax and hemp)
(Crewkerne and Somerset term), see filler boy.
machine boy (rope and twine)
(i) see bobbin boy (rope and twine);
(ii) see follower (rope).
machine man, machine minder (dye house)
general terms for any worker minding a dyeing machine, of whatever kind; sees that material passes steadily through dye vessels, from one roller to another; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. black dyehouse machine man, colour dye- j house machine man, dyeing machine man; includes dye grinder (381), hank dyer (381), jig dyer (381), padder (381), danger, fly winch minder.
machinist (rope works)
assists skilled worker, e.g., line maker (373), on any rope making machine; sees that rope is coiled straight, oils machine, operates starting and stopping levers.
maggie minder, maggie worker (slang)
see dunger.
mangle hand (jute)
(Dundee term), see softener hand.
marker, piece marker, marker-off (grey cloth) ; cloth stamper, letterer, piece letterer, piece marker, stamper, tally man (yarn), typer
puts a distinguishing mark on cloth received for bleaching, dyeing, etc., to ensure its return to proper owners, and to facilitate calculation of workers' piece-work earnings, either in a piece goods stamping machine, or by placing cloth and a colour box beneath a hand operated stamp.
marker, tape measure
minds machine through which long lengths of tape are run under inked marking cylinder engraved in inches, halves, quarters, eighths, etc.; places spool of tape in machine, starts and stops machine by engaging and disengaging pulley lever, keeps ink supply replenished, etc.
measurer, braid (fishing nets)
measures length of net by counting meshes, dimensions of which are known, thus checking work of braiders (398) q.v.
mill hand (hair washing)
fetches and carries hair for hair washer q.v. and helps him generally.
minor (lace)
a youth who, after gaining experience in factory, works under direction for three years in plain net department, and for two years in other departments.
mixer, clay
feeds clay mixing machine with china clay and water, and takes out paste made of this clay, for use in filling mangles; cf. backer (398).
motion minder
either feeds or takes off from one end of a motion belt or automatic conveyor, used for conveying cloth from one department to another; cf. motion minder (398).
pulls off ragged ends left in skeins or hanks of wool.
nipper (slang)
see waste boy.
noiler (silk)
see bagger, noil.
norsel (nossel) maker ; orsel (ossel) maker; snood maker (rope and twine)
makes norsels or snoods by twisting twine on hooks of norselling machine; cuts through strands separating each norsel length, and binds ends.
numberer, cloth; piece numberer
stamps or stitches reference numbers on material received from other firms for finishing, for purposes of identification.
odder, beetler's ; beetler's porter, odder (finishing)
conveys cloth on wagons to beetling machine and assists beetler (384) q.v. generally.
odder (finishing)
(i) see odder, beetler's;
(ii) assists calender man or mangler (384) q.v.
oiler, oiler and greaser, machinery oiler
see greaser ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., loom oiler, spindle oiler.
oiler, rag
pours oil, from a locking can, on layers of rags during blending process, to facilitate their passage through machines.
oiler, wool
a boy who assists willeyer (362) q.v. by sprinkling oil over the wool from a kind of can under his instructions to prevent danger of fire from heat generated during process of willeying woollen rags.
opener, bale ; breaker-up
releases metal bands which bind bales, and breaks open contents, e.g. wool, silk, etc., using a pickaxe or other tool.
opener, dyed piece
as for opener, piece.
opener (felt)
assist miller (384) q.v. by opening out pieces during milling operations, to prevent folding and damage.
opener, piece; edger ; lasher, scutcher
feeds and minds scutching machine, which restores cloth, from spiral or rope form for convenience in bleaching, dyeing, or printing, to open or full-width form.
opener, sheet (wool sorting)
opens packs, or sheets, of wool.
opener, silk
as for opener, bale.
opener, white piece
as for opener, piece.
orra man
does any odd jobs in a textile factory.
orsel (ossell) maker
see norsel maker.
packer, cotton spool
packs spools or bobbins of yarn in. cases for despatch.
packer, noil ; tare man (wool), wasteman (wool)
packs noils, i.e. short wool fibres removed in combing, in bags or bales for despatch.
packer, waste ; wasteman (wool)
collects and bags waste from various departments of mill.
packer, wool; wool cellar packer
see cellarman, wool.
packman (wool sorting) ; wool carrier
a carrier q.v. who carries bales or woolpacks, opens them, etc.
painter, engraver's (textile printing)
paints copper roller with varnish to prepare it for etching.
parter, hank (carpets)
splits up bundles of chenille fur into separate skeins for fur filler (367) q.v., taking care to keep each skein in its proper order, according to its intended position in carpet.
paste maker (dyer's)
a labourer who mixes colours into a paste for use in dyeing.
paste maker (textile printing) ; size maker
makes, from grain or from gums, paste or size used as a medium for applying colour in calico printing.
paster, calico
as for paster (finishing).
paster (finishing)
places end of cloth on hot plate, and applies starch paste with a brush; lays end of another piece of cloth over pasted portion, so as to fasten them together in preparation for calendering.
paster (pattern cards)
pastes paton pattern cards, which are afterwards made up into pattern books.
pattern card maker
cuts samples, and fastens them by adhesive to cards.
straightens out banks of wet yarn on spars, or booms in drying yard (boom yard), or in drying shed; shakes yarn even, with a short peaking stick put through loop of hank.
pegger, bobbin
places weft bobbins on weaver's board, on which are fixed a number of pegs to hold bobbins.
pegger, wood; pegger-on (dyeing)
puts cops, after they have been skewered, on plates, in preparation for dyeing.
removes stains and faults from cloth by pencilling them over with special chemicals.
picker, bag (cotton room)
carries bags or bales of cotton to mixing room in readiness for bale breaker (362) q.v.; takes away empty bags when cotton has been emptied out for mixing.
picker, bobbin (silk spinning)
as for carrier.
picker, flock ; flock sorter
sorts cotton or woollen flocks or waste over gridded or perforated table, in preparation for willowing; picks out therefrom dirty rags, greasy waste, bits of sticks, scraps of wood or metal, and other foreign matter.
picker (genapping)
inspects reeled yarn and picks off by hand adhering motes and other impurities.
picker, lap (card room)
assists comber tenter (363) q.v., carries laps away from machines, and cleans off short fibre waste combed out from cotton.
picker, lump
see lumper (nets).
picker, oakum
untwists strands of rope, and picks out yarn therefrom.
picker, rag
sorts rags which are to be torn up for shoddy or mungo; cf. rag picker (waste reclamation) (964).
picker, reel (silk)
as for carrier.
picker, roller
see brusher, roller.
picker, silk picker (silk throwing)
picks motes, lumps and foreign bodies from raw silk and takes out worst faulty places in thread; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. gum silk picker, lap picker (silk).
picker, sweeping picker (cotton mixing, silk doubling)
collects fallen waste and fly, and does other odd jobs in cotton mixing or silk doubling room.
picker, tare (cotton room)
packs waste cotton from mixing room in tares or bags.
picker, warp (silk)
see cleaner, warp.
picker, waste ; picker-up
collects waste material from various departments of factory, and puts it in bags; sometimes also does work of waste sorter q.v.
picker (wool sorting) ; picker scraper
picks out soundest and cleanest portions of fleece rejected in sorting.
see picker, waste.
pickler, cloth
assists cloth carboniser (361) q.v. in attending to vats in which cloth is soaked.
piecer, flax
see striker-out.
piecer, little (cotton)
mends, or pieces, yarns broken in spinning; cleans parts of spinning mule, scrapes floor, fetches water and meals, and runs errands generally for mule spinner (365) q.v.; sometimes also acts as creeler q.v.
piecer, gum silk piecer, soft silk piecer, throwing mill piecer, throwing room piecer, throwster's piecer
assists silk thrower (372) q.v. by joining ends of silk, broken in throwing.
see striker-out.
piler, bobbin
see creeler (worsted spinning).
piler (grey room) ; strapper
arranges fresh consignments of cloth in piles, ready for layer-out (398) q.v. piler, roving, as for layer-on, roving.
piler, yarn
see creeler (worsted spinning).
pin boy
pins together broken ends of warp in loom, till weaver is free to mend them.
pinner, pinner-on (bleaching, finishing)
pins edge of cloth on to pins of a pin stentering machine, and assists stenterer (384) q.v. generally.
pirn boy, pirn barrow boy
carries pirns or oops from weft winder (367) q.v. to weft store.
pitch cutter (wool or worsted)
using shears, cuts away pitch or tarry markings from sorted fleeces, resulting from animals rubbing against fences or from identification marking cf. wool sorter (360).
plaiter, calico
folds calico backwards and forwards, in folds of a given length, for convenience in passing it through calico printing machines.
plaiter-down ; cincher, dodger
folds wet cloth, in rope state for bleaching, by hand into barrows, or in piles on floor; or folds cloth into kiers or cisterns; sometimes also treads it down in kiers, etc.; cf. plaiter-down (943).
plucker (wool preparing)
see cot box minder.
polisher (heald making)
see heald varnisher.
porter, beetler's
see odder, beetler's.
porter, wool ; wool store man (Scotland)
carries bales of wool in and about warehouse.
pouce man
see drawer, card.
preparer for dyeing
feeds cloth received from bleaching into machine where it passes through trough of caustic solution to remove lime; keeps trough filled with solution.
presser, oil (sponge cloth); sponge cloth presser
operates a hand or power press which squeezes oil out of greasy waste, or out of sponge cloth, in preparation for further process or cleaning.
presser (yarn)
takes long length of yarn, and compresses it into a small compass in a mechanical press.
presser's devil
assists hot pressor (384) q.v. by carrying cloth and hot plates to and from hot pressing machine.
puller, mixing ; puller-down (cotton)
pulls down mixing, i.e. stock of cotton mixed in cotton chamber in definite proportions; and sends it to opening machine, either on a lattice conveyor or through an exhaust pipe.
puller, rag
feeds and minds a machine winch tears rags into small fragments, in readiness for . manufacture into shoddy, mungo, etc.
puller (silk)
works with bale opener q.v.; takes a mass of matted fibre from opened bale, hitches it on to a peg on a wall, and pulls at it to loosen its matted state, in preparation for subsequent process of degumming.
puller, waste (press cloth)
levels-up, by hand, using necessary tools, press cloth before final finishing.
puller-down (cotton)
see puller, mixing.
(i) pulls cloth or other goods off rollers, or takes goods off at delivery end of any machine and loads oil to trucks;
(ii) removes chain stitching which joins fabrics for convenience in passing through continuous running machines;
(iii) (cop dyeing) pulls cops of yarn off plates after dyeing and drying, and pulls out skewers.
puller-out (hosiery)
under direction of pressman (384) q.u., removes hosiery goods from steam heated hydraulic press.
putter-in, box
see filler, box (textile printing).
putter-in (carpets)
see box boy (carpets, etc.).
putter-in, roving
see layer-on, roving.
putter-on ; handler, handle holder
assists at spinning frames, and sometimes at preparing frames, holds starting handle and sets machine in motion, under direction of spinner (365) q.v.
putter-on, band; tape putter-on
see bander (carding, etc.).
putter-on (textile printer's)
see changer, roller.
raiser, hand ; hander (wool finishing)
raises nap of cloth by hand, using a teazle, i.e. prickly flowerhead of a plant resembling a thistle; generally done on short cloth lengths; for usual method, see Moser machine tenter (384).
raker-in, warp
see reacher.
reacher, reacher-in, drawer's reacher, enterer's reacher, end reacher-in, warp reacher-in ; giver-in, in-giver, warp raker-in
takes threads from warp, and hooks them singly on to hook held by drawer or drawer-in (368) q.v. who draws them through heald-eye and reed.
reacher (heald knitting)
assists heald maker (397) q.v. who makes or finishes off healds by hand, by holding end of thread or cord and passing it to heald maker q.v., to make a knot in it.
receiver (grey room)
see taker-in.
reeler, line; rope reeler, rope walk reeler
see coiler (rope and twine).
reeler, twine
attends machine winding twine on reels; threads twine through guiding eyes to reel; stops machine when required amount reeled, or to piece broken ends; doffs filled reels and replaces with empty.
reeler-up (braids, etc.)
minds a reeling-up machine which i eels tape into hanks or skeins, ready for dyeing or bleaching; controls power-drive of machine, and guides and attaches tape ends to winding-on reel in frame.
remover, waste
see scavenger.
remover, yarn
as for carrier.
ripper, rag; waste ripper
see stripper, cloth.
roller, piece roller (carpets)
is in charge of rolling machine, which rolls carpets into convenient lengths, and brushes them with a stiff brush as they enter rollers.
roller, line
see coiler (rope and twine).
roller (silk finishing)
stands at back of machine and makes necessary screw adjustments to rollers to ensure that silk cloth, which may have shrunk in finishing processes, comes through of desired width.
roller (wadding)
(i) see sizer (wadding manufacture);
(ii) rolls finished wadding into roll and wraps it in brown paper.
rove cart
slang for roving carrier; see fetcher, roving.
rove lad
a barrow boy or carrier q.v. who wheels baskets containing full roving bobbins from roving to spinning frames, and returns with empty bobbins.
rover, back; rover feeder (jute)
see back minder (jute).
rover, rover-out (tape)
disentangles and straightens lengths of tape on small hand machine in preparation for reeling and blocking it, or, more usually, after it has been bleached and dried; then also winds, by hand, on to small wooden disc and pins down end, for despatch.
attends a rubbing machine, which consists of a knife blade reciprocating across travelling cloth to even up surface; guides cloth into machine; starts and stops machine by hand lever; adjusts knife blade as required.
as for carrier or wheeler; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. bobbin, chute, shoot (silk weft), skip, wool runner.
runner hand, can ; can tramper (rope and twine), sliver carrier
a carrier q.v. who conveys cans full of sliver from carding engine to drawing frames, and empty cans to delivery end of carding engine.
runner, skip
see dragger, skip.
runner-in (wool weaving) ; taker-off (wool weaving)
conveys woven cloth to warehouse for booking, or carries and trucks bobbins, etc., in weaving room.
runner-up (rope)
see follower (rope).
scale hand (silk)
weighs silk before and after various processes, to guard against undue waste, and to ensure that silk is being made to specification.
scavenger ; waste remover
sweeps, cleans, removes waste, runs messages, etc.; sometimes combines this with work of little piecer q.v. or of creeler q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. mule scavenger.
scraper, picker
see picker (wool sorting).
scraper (tape)
passes tape through a scraping machine, which removes creases and straightens it before it is calendered.
see opener, piece ; cf. scutcher (362).
seamer (waste), rag seamer
cuts off or rips open, seams of old garments, by hand or machine.
server (silk)
general term for unskilled assistants in spinning room, e.g. carrier, creeler, doffer, q.v.; cf. server (wool) (363).
setter, bobbin
(i) see creeler (worsted spinning);
(ii) sets empty bobbins in creel of spinning or roving frame; cf. bobbin boy (jute, rope and twine).
setter, handle; setter-on ; frame starter, handle starter
sets, on wet spinning frame, special attachment holding bobbins in readiness for wet spinner (flax or hemp) q.v.
setter, tube ; spinning tube setter
as for setter, bobbin.
setter-on (fly frames).
see back tenter (fly frames).
setter-on (ring spinning)
(i) see layer-on, ring frame;
(ii) restarts ring frame after full spools have been removed and empty spools inserted.
setter-on, roving
see layer-on, roving.
sewer, sewer-in, sewer-down
see bander (textile finishing).
sewer, band
see bander (carding etc.).
shafting minder
see greaser.
shaker, silk
shakes silk, by hand, to straighten it before it goes to winders (371) q.v.
shaker, shaker and header, yarn shaker and header
see header.
shaker attendant, dust
feeds and attends machine which shakes floor sweepings of textile mill or shed thus separating dust and fibre, and putting them into separate bags.
shifter, bobbin ; doffer (jute)
removes full bobbins from roving or spinning frame, and replaces them with empties; places loose yarn ends and temper cords correctly, ready for starting of frames.
shifter (flax, hemp twine)
see doffer.
shifter (hackling)
assists machine hackler (362) q.v. by reversing grippers or clamps which hold flax or hemp fibre.
shifter (textile printing)
see changer, roller.
sider, skep
see booker, skep.
size maker
see paste maker (textile printing).
sizer (silk throwing) ; drammer, silk drammer
weighs a certain length of thread on a spring balance, to ascertain its weight and thickness.
sizer (wadding manufacture) ; roller (wadding)
runs cotton from carding engine through rollers of another machine, which are kept supplied with gum (size); regulates supply of size to rollers.
skewerer, cop skewerer (dyeing)
see filler, cop.
skewerer, cop (rope and twine) ; tuber
removes empty paper tubes from metal rods (skewers) in creel of line spinning frame, and replaces with full tubes of yarn (cops).
sliver minder (flax and hemp)
see can boy ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. line sliver minder (rope).
snood maker (rope and twine)
see norsel maker.
soaker, bobbin ; bobbin wetter
steams or wets bobbins of weft before weaving, for conditioning purposes; places bobbins for specified time in steam chamber or sprays water on a set of bobbins with a hose.
soaker, husk (coco-nut fibre)
tends an open vat containing boiling water in which he soaks coco-nut husks, to facilitate separation of fibre therefrom.
soaper, soaping machine minder, (bleaching, dyeing, printing) ; print washer
minds a soaping machine or mangle, in which cloth is run through a trough containing a soap solution, to remove impurities, and then either squeezed by rollers, if machine is of mangle type, or wound on to a batch or beam; guides cloth through trough and rollers; starts and stops machine, by lever; sometimes makes-up soap solution; sometimes specifically designated according to form in which cloth is passed through machine, e.g. open soaper, rope soaper.
soaper (cotton waste)
pours soft soap dissolved in water in mixing or blending of cotton waste to soften it.
softener catcher
see twister, jute.
softener feeder, softener hand ; mangle hand (jute) (Dundee)
places batched jute upon travelling apron feeding fluted rollers of softening machine; regulates oil and water drip feed to complete softening process.
sorter, bobbin
(i) separates and arranges according to size, empty bobbins collected from various machines, into baskets, etc., ready for use on their proper machines;
(ii) sorts full bobbins, according to kind of material used, and fineness (count) of yarn;
(iii) see creeler (worsted spinning).
sorter, flock
see picker, flock.
sorter, mat
separates coir and fibre mats into lots similar as to size, quality and colour.
sorter, print; print sorter-out
examines and sorts-out cloth for different processes or, after colour printing, for despatch, guided by colour, design or by merchants' marks.
sorter, spool
as for sorter, bobbin.
sorter (tape)
sorts tape, after it has been folded by lappet- (943) q.v., in readiness for boxing or bundling.
sorter, tube
as for sorter, bobbin.
sorter, waste
examines and separates textile waste, scraps of yarn or cloth, etc., picking-out dirt, pieces of cotton from wool waste, etc.; sometimes also does work of waste picker q.v.
sorter, weft
looks out weft yarns for winders, according to their various kinds, or counts.
spooler, twiner
sorts out for twining machine, spools or bobbins, from baskets containing miscellaneous bobbins returned from various machines.
splicing hand (hosiery)
draws hose over splicing cutting machine and sets in motion knives inside machine which cut away splicing threads stretching across upper half of foot; occasionally cuts away threads by hand with scissors.
spreader, yarn
straightens out hanks of yarn by shaking them and pulling them over a horizontal post; places them on a rail, spreading each one out; then places rails and yarn spread thereon in a stove to dry.
squeezer, squeezing machine minder (dyeing) ; wrencher
parses dyed fabrics through rollers, which squeeze out most of liquid.
stamper (felt)
stamps dimensions on felt goods.
stamper (flannel mill)
as for marker (grey cloth).
stamper, cloth stamper (grey room)
see marker (grey cloth).
starter, frame; handle starter
see setter, handle.
steamer (woollen and worsted), wool steamer
see crabber ; cf. steamer (ager) (398).
stenciller (carpets)
(i) paints trade mark, etc., on back of carpet, with aid of stencil, brush and paint or ink;
(ii) stencils name of consignee and destination on bale of carpets.
stenciller (textile printing)
working from pattern, cuts stencils, usually celluloid, for aerographer (textile) (382) q.v., using hand tools.
stitcher, stitcher-on
see bander (textile finishing).
stocker, yarn
see carrier, set.
store man, wool (Scotland)
see porter, wool.
stover (hair)
see baker (curled hair).
strainer, colour strainer (textile printing)
passes mixed colour through strainers to separate undissolved lumps and grit.
see piler (grey room).
striker-out (flax) ; flax piecer, piecer-out
divides scutched flax into small lots ready for hackling.
striker-up (flax) ; flax handler, tippler (flax)
arranges flax, combed by machine hackler (362) q.v., in bundles of even length, either for storage or for spreader (363) q.v.; twists ends of flax into a knob at each end of bundle (Dundee district).
(i) a bander (spinning) q.v. working in connection with ring spinning frames; examines and repairs by tiling or replacement, driving bands or strings connecting each spindle to driving pulleys; sometimes specifically designated according to kind of spinning frame, e.g. mule stringer, ring stringer;
(ii) (silk) after dyeing, places silk hanks, i.e. skeins, on peg and stretches down, by hand, to produce tension and to add lustre.
stripper, bobbin ; yarn stripper
removes short ends of yarn remaining on empty winding or spinning bobbins, and winds them round a large bobbin.
stripper, cloth ; rag cutter, rag ripper, waste ripper
strips lining, buttons, etc., from old garments or other rags, and rips up scams, using knife or shears.
stripper, cop (carpets)
as for stripper, bobbin.
(i) empties bobbins of unused thread, which is sent for waste, after completion of pattern, or before a fresh adjustment is made;
(ii) (lace finishing) removes lace with a small stick from dressing frame, when dressing process is complete.
stripper, tube (carpets)
removes tin tubes encasing chenille fur weft from loom after completion of woven pattern.
stripper, yarn
see stripper, bobbin.
see waste boy, waste girl.
sweeper, loom
as for cleaner.
swinger, velvet
places velvet, after it has been scoured, on to a drying machine, by means of a swinging motion.
taker-away, yarn
as for carrier.
taker-in, piece taker-in ; counterman (wool -warehouse), receiver (grey room)
(i) books in cloth received for finishing;
(ii) receives cloth from loom, and carries or trucks it to warehouse.
taker-off, bobbin
see doffer.
taker-off (wool weaving)
see runner-in (wool weaving).
tally man (yarn)
see marker (grey cloth).
tare man (wool)
see packer, noil.
tarrer, tarring hand
(i) tars small ropes, or rope yarns, by immersing them in solution of hot tar, which he previously prepares;
(ii) tars twine, cloth, or sacks, with a hand or machine brush.
tear boy, tearer, teerer ; tierer
spreads colour, with brush, over sieve, or pad, on which block printer (382) q.v. presses Block; also pulls cloth along table as pattern is printed.
tenter (textile printing)
(i) see back tenter (textile printing);
(ii) see guider, cloth (textile printing).
tenter, top (textile printing)
assists machine printer (383) q.v. by guiding fabric through guides and rollers at top of main cylinder of colour printing machine.
thread coupler
assists harness builder (398) q.v. by coupling mails, metal or glass eyes, to lingoes, i.e. weights, in setting-up harness for jacquard looms; by means of a wire hook, threads lingoes through mails and through comber board.
threader (carpets)
threads ends of pile yam from spools through tin tubes into tufting carriage, which inserts pile yarn into body of Axminster carpet.
threader, shuttle
see filler, shuttle.
thrower-over (bleachworks)
passes end of unbleached cloth through pot hooks, i.e. guides, and thence passes it to rollers conveying it to bleach croft.
tier, ball (twine)
see ball drawer.
tier, band
(i) see bander (carding, etc.);
(ii) assists bander (carding, etc.) q.v.;
(iii) ties in knots, bands which have been passed round tin rollers of ring spinning frame.
tier, bobbin
(i) ties or hitches yarn end round filled bobbin, after spinning or winding, to prevent unravelling; sometimes also ties number of full bobbins in bundles, to save breakages and to separate different qualities of thread; usually done by doffer q.v.;
(ii) creeler (Brussels, etc., loom); a creeler q.v. engaged on Brussels carpet or Moquette cloth looms; in particular joins, i.e. ties, yarn ends from full creel bobbins to old yarn ends in looms.
tier, brush fibre (coco-nut fibre)
makes up and ties up bundles of coconut fibre, for use in brush making.
tier, jute
ties up selected stricks (fibre lengths) of jute before and after batching.
see tear boy.
tier-on, weight
see lingo tier.
tier-up (hosiery finishing)
ties up bundles of hosiery with twine.
tippler (flax)
see striker-up.
topper (healds)
assists hand heald knitter (397) by making loops of cotton for top of heald.
tow boy, tow carrier
attends at hackling machines; presses down, by hand, bulky tow into boxes under machine; carries graded tow from hackling room to carder (363) q.v.
see wheeler.
treader, treader-at-croft
(i) wearing wooden clogs, treads down damped banded cloth in a vomiter, kier, or vat, in preparation for boiling, first process in bleaching;
(ii) treads down in a heap, cloth which has been soured, cf. sourer (380), for soaking or draining purposes; sometimes also does work of plaiter-down q.v.
trolley boy
as for wheeler.
see wheeler.
trucker, can
carries or wheels sliver cans, i.e. cylinders containing carded fibre, about card room.
tuber, spindle tuber (cotton)
as for creeler.
tuber (rope and twine)
see skewerer, cop (rope and twine).
twister, jute ; softener catcher, softener ender
receives oiled stricks, or portions, of jute from softening machine, cf. softener hand, and lays them on barrow or wagon to condition, at same time giving each strick a twist.
see marker (grey cloth).
warping boy (rope and twine)
assists warper (rope yarn) (367) q.v. in placing and removing bobbins and in removing warped yarn from warping mill.
washer, blanket (textile printing)
feeds and minds a blanket washing machine which cleans printing machine blankets, and removes colour deposit from them; usually a back tenter (textile printing) q.v.
washer, box (textile printer's)
see cleaner, box.
washer, brush (carpet sizing)
washes, by hand, brushes used in carpet sizing.
washer, hair
(i) prepares solution of soap and water, and fills tanks or boilers therewith; puts handfuls of hair in tank, opens out and washes it, takes it out, and hands it to another worker to dry;
(ii) places hair, usually mixture of horse hair and pig hair, in a machine, which is fitted with disintegrators and half filled with hot water; forks out hair when cleansed, passes it through wringers, and dries it in a stove; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. horse hair washer.
washer, hand
washes yarn or cloth by hand, with soap solution in a bath of warm water.
washer, print
see soaper (bleaching, dyeing, printing).
washer, roll; roller washer
washes copper rollers used in textile printing, either with a hand brush over a trough, or in a machine.
washer-up (textile printing)
see cleaner, box.
wash-house man (silk)
carries bags of silk waste to and from boiling cisterns in wash house.
waste boy ; brusher (woollen spinning), dirt boy, jag-about (slang), nipper (slang), sweeper
collects waste from various machines, sweeps it up, and puts it in bags; does other odd jobs in any department of mill.
waste girl
as for waste boy.
waste house hand
takes waste out of sacks and delivers it to machines for opening of fibres.
wasteman (cotton room)
divides waste from various departments of mill into kinds, e.g. comber waste, card strips, roving waste, hard ends; packs i't into separate bags.
wasteman (wool)
(i) see packer, noil;
(ii) see packer, waste;
(iii) (mungo making) carries rags and waste from stacks to machine.
waterer (silk)
passes two silk fabrics, of similar texture, face to face between heated rollers, temperature of which he adjusts, producing a wavy surface, known as watering, on them.
weft boy, weft lad, weft carrier
carries cops or bobbins of weft, and does various jobs in weft warehouse.
weft girl
as for weft boy.
weft man
(i) see weft room man;
(ii) as for weft boy;
(iii) moves boxes or skips of weft from one part of the warehouse to another.
weft room man ; weft man
is in charge of weft room, and is responsible for proper weft being given to each weaver; weighs cases of yarn from spinners (365) q.v. and keeps counts, i.e. grades of fineness, in correct places; checks delivery of goods.
weigher, ball sett (jute)
weighs laps or balls of jute, and marks weight thereon; sometimes also does work of ball sett maker q.v.
weigher, bobbin (carpet manufacture)
weighs bobbins of wound yarn to ensure' that correct amount has been wound on each.
weigher, cloth; cut weigher ; piece weigher
(i) places given lengths of cloth on scales to ascertain whether it is up to specified weight; also to ascertain invisible loss, loss of material in manufacture;
(ii) weighs cloth in grey room, to ascertain weights in grey state, i.e., before bleaching, dyeing, finishing, etc.
weigher, dollop; jute weigher
weighs dollops, i.e. bundles of batched jute from batcher. (jute) (398) q.v., and hands required amounts to breaker feeder (363) q.v.
weigher (flax and hemp)
weighs short lengths of hackled fibres and passes them to spreader (363) q.v.
weigher, piece
see weigher, cloth.
weigher, set (cotton)
weighs set of finished bobbins or cops of yarn for workers engaged in winding, reeling, etc.; books weight, from which workers' wages are calculated.
weigher, set (flax and hemp)
weighs cans as they are filled with sliver; marks weight on them, and arranges them in sets ready for drawer (368) q.v.
weigher (silk)
weighs boiled silk to ascertain loss of gummy matter in discharging process, also to ascertain weight of silk before it undergoes subsequent processes.
weigher (silk waste)
weighs silk waste from drawing or from dressing frames, to ascertain loss in drawing or in dressing process.
weigher, twist
weighs cops, bobbins or pirns of twist (cotton warp yarn) before they are put in skips or boxes weigher, wool; wool weighman; wool weigher-in, wool weigher-off, wool weigher-on, wool weigher-out; weighs wool before and after sorting, to ascertain weight of each sorted group and of collective groups.
weigher, yarn; yarn weigher-out (for winder)
weighs yarn supplied to or received from winder.
wetter, bobbin
see soaker, bobbin.
wetter (grey cloth)
a plaiter-down q.v. who packs cloth as received from singeing or from sewing machine in steeping cisterns, in preparation for bleaching.
wetter-out (cop dyeing)
prepares cops of yarn for dyeing by impregnating them with water; cf. wetter-out (silk) (384).
wheel boy (rope making)
(i) in old-fashioned rope walks, where strands are drawn taut between a post and hub of a wheel, assists in tying up strands, and turns wheel to twist strands, under supervision of rope maker (373) q.v.;
(ii) stands by traveller machine, used for forming strands and laying ropes, and assists generally in this part of rope making process, under direction of rope maker (373) q.v.
wheeler, wheeler-out ; trailer, trucker, yarn drawer
takes yarn, cloth, materials, bobbins, etc., from one machine or department to another in a truck; sometimes specifically designated according to article wheeled, e.g., beam, bobbin, cloth, cut, colour, liquor, set, wheeler (or wheeler-out).
white room man
general term for any man employed iii white room, where bleached cloth is prepared for finishing; cf. white room man (359).
wincer (wincher), wince (winch) man (printer's dyer's)
adjusts and repairs rollers and winches over vats.
winder (yarn printing)
see filler (carpets).
winder-down (spinning frames)
winds down bobbin-rail of ring or throstle frame to allow doffers to remove full bobbins or spools, and insert empty ones in their place.
winder-on (finishing)
minds a winding-on frame, which winds cloth on to beams, largo bobbins with metal flanged ends, in preparation for finishing operations; guides end of cloth over tension bars to beam, which revolves and winds cloth upon itself.
wiper, bobbin
see bobbin cleaner.
wirer-down ; down-wirer
fastens together tab ends of pieces of cloth with a wire rod, so that they can pass through dye bath as one piece.
see squeezer.
wringman (finishing)
runs cloth through a wringing machine, after any wet process, to squeeze out moisture.
yarn boy, yar lad
carries or trucks yarn from place to place in mill or warehouse.
yarn lad, reeling room
brings bobbins of yam to operatives on reeling frames, and removes completed hanks.
yarn leader (rope and twine)
walks down rope walk and passes twine etc., being spun, over leaders, i.e. guides, throughout length of walk.
yarn man
conveys baskets of yarn on bobbins to hoist, for storage or despatch.

Back to List of Occupational Codes

From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.