A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
Go to Home Page


Sub-order 4.—Other Workers

688.—Other Skilled Workers

Back to List of Occupational Codes

albumeniser (photographic plates, films and paper)
covers plates, films or paper, before coating proper, with a mixture containing albumen, as a basis for coating emulsion; processes as for coater (photographic plates).
arrow featherer
cuts three slits in nock end of arrow, i.e. end which fits on bowstring, and sticks portion of feather in each, with glue; trims each feather when secure to ensure that arrow will fly true.
artificial flower maker
(i) (fabric flower making); receives petals, stamens and seeds ready mounted on stem, also fabric, in strip and in sheet form, wire and other materials, and pattern of flower to be made; makes up flowers from materials by either of following methods: (a) threads petals over wire stem in correct sequence as regards size and standing; threads on stamens and pastes centre of stamens and petals; binds strip fabric round covered wire stem under stamens and pastes down end of binding; (b) arranges, binds and pastes petals without threading them round stem; sometimes also makes stems by twisting strip material round wire in form of spiral and pasting down end of material; sometimes cuts to shape and pastes in position pieces of coloured cotton wool, as additions to centres and petals;
(ii) makes fabric flowers of inferior quality by sticking petals on to wire stalk with paste and gophering iron; often also makes paper flowers;
(iii) (paper flower matting) wirer; assembles paper petals to correct form and binds them with thin wire on to a stiffer wire forming stalk; also binds, with wire, leaves made by leaf sticker q.v.
artificial fly maker, artificial fly dresser ; fly dresser
sorts out feathers, wools, and tinsels of bright colour and ties them together in the form of a fly, round a fish hook, thereby concealing it.
artist (fans)
see fan painter.
bagatelle board maker
as for billiard table maker.
bait maker, artificial bait maker
(thin metal bait) cuts out, with shears, rough shape of bait from sheet metal and files to shape; pierces it with an awl and binds hooks thereto with gut; (cast or stamped metal bait) receives bait, cast and stamped by caster or stamper q.v., and files to finish it, binding it to hook with gut; (rubber bait) cuts rubber to shape, by hand, and inserts and threads hooks; (painted leather, etc., bait) cuts, by hand, leather or similar material in shape of a fish, binds it to hooks with gut or waxed silk and adds other decorations, e.g. bunches of coloured wool, by cutting up and bunching and binding it to shank of hook with gut or silk; in all cases, may also paint bait.
battledore maker
bends wood to shape of a bat by steaming it and by pressing with wedges, or procures wood ready bent; makes and affixes handle, stretches vellum, skin, etc., on either side of bat, and secures it firmly at side.
billiard table maker
general term for any person engaged in one or more of various processes of billiard table making, e.g. billiard table fitter, billiard table fitter-up, fixer-up (billiard tables) q.v.
blind fitter, blind fixer, window blind fixer
takes measurements for size of blind required; sets out and irons material prior to machining by blind maker q.v.; fixes exterior blinds, when made, by securing special boxing, to receive them, at top of shop front, with iron stays or bolts driven into brick or stone work; fixes interior blinds by screwing special fittings on inside of window frames, and attaching cords to blinds.
blind maker
makes interior and exterior blinds throughout to required design, shape, and dimensions; (i) prepares boxing for exterior blinds, by nailing or screwing together wood prepared for purpose; work sometimes done by carpenter (474), cabinet maker (473), joiner (473), or upholsterer (504) q.v.;
(ii) a machinist (419) q.v. who makes up material, by sewing machine, into blinds.
blind maker, shop
a blind maker q.v. who attaches stout canvas blind, which has been made to required size, to roller at one end and to wood beam at other end; screws iron supports on to beam.
block lapper, block wrapper
wraps, or covers with felt, blocks used for polishing plate glass.
boiler and steam-pipe felter
see coverer.
borer, brush borer, machine borer, brush boring hand, brush boring machinist ; brush driller, brush drilling hand, brush drilling machinist, driller (brooms and brushes), hand machinist (brooms and brushes)
bores holes in stocks or backs of any kind of brush, whether made of wood, bone, xylonite or erinoid, with a lathe or a boring machine; sets up machine, together with template; places stock in position under template for boring and switches power on or off as required; cf. borer (486).
borer, wide (tobacco pipes, not clay)
bores slit at end of mouthpiece, by holding it against a drilling tool on a horizontal drilling machine.
box maker (wooden fixture boxes)
makes fixture boxes with wooden bottoms and lids, and cardboard sides; receives wooden parts for bottoms and lids, already cut to size; erects sides round bottom piece, and secures them at edges and corners, by gluing strong linen strip thereon; makes lid in same way; covers with cloth, which he glues on; rubs cloth down firmly to obtain even surface; cf. frame maker (wooden fixture boxes).
braider (flexible tubing)
as for braider (cables) (319), covering rubber tubing with cotton.
buff and glazer maker ; glazer maker
makes throughout wheels, used by grinders (237) and polishers (238) in tool and cutlery trade, by cutting wood, arranging it cross-grained in layers, or by building it up in sections arranged radially, rimming it with leather, and facing it with glue and emery.
buff coverer
see mop maker, leather.
burner-off, mantle burner-off, incandescent mantle burner-off, mantle burning-off girl (gas)
(i) (upright mantles), see seasoner;
(ii) (inverted mantles) receives impregnated mantles in sets on metal grids so that bodies of mantles hang through grids; places a number of grids on bed of mantle-burning machine so that each mantle is beneath a gas jet; pulls lever which depresses the burners so that flames are inserted downwards into mantles, to burn away thread; when cool, removes mantles for seasoning.
carbon tissue maker (photographic)
weighs out gelatine, and soaks it until correct consistency is obtained; weighs out pigments, according to known formula, and mixes them with gelatine, matching mixture to required colour; coats carbon tissue with this mixture, as for coater (photographic paper).
carpet bag maker
cuts out pieces of cloth; stitches them together by palm and needle method, cf. palm and needle hand (419); sews on leather or metal fittings to make complete carpet bag.
catgut maker
see gut drawer.
catgut spinner
see gut spinner.
centreman (printer's roller) ; printer's roller coverer
has charge of set of mould guns in which printer's roller spindles are covered with composition, see composition maker (158); screws circular cap on each end of spindle, and pushes spindle into cylinder of mould gun, assisted by oiler (printer's roller) (689); pumps composition into mould gun and when full, admits cold water to water jacket round gun; when composition is set, unscrews caps and slides covered roller spindle from mould gun.
checker (penholders) ; examiner (penholders)
scrutinises finished penholders for defects.
chess board maker ; draught board maker
(i) (male operatives) cuts out and trims pieces of leather on a small power-driven saw; glues pieces together and places them under weights, where they are allowed to remain for a long period; mounts pieces of leather on a wooden base; squares sides of chessboard by planing; cuts out pieces of wood for border frame, and glues or screws them on; sometimes also inlays pearl or ivory or veneers, or does other decorative work; usually also makes cribbage boards, by processes generally similar to those used in making chess boards, and boxes for holding chessmen, draughts, dominoes, etc., cf. wood box maker (479);
(ii) (female operatives) pastes a paper "race" on a strawboard base, by hand, with a brush and paste, or cuts cloth for padding and leather for covering and pastes leather over padding on a strawboard base; outlines squares, and disguises joins between leather pieces with thin strips of gilding, which she lays on board with a hand roller, containing a supply of liquid gilt which flows out as roller is pushed over leather.
cigarette holder maker
makes cigarette holders or mouthpieces from vulcanite, horn, bone, metal, etc., by turning on lathe.
coater, boiler
see coverer.
coater, celluloid coater (photographic films)
as for coater (photographic paper), except that film-coating machine is narrower than paper-coating machine.
coater, emulsion
general term for coater (photographic paper), coater (photographic films), and coater (photographic plates) q.v.
coater, paper coater (photographic paper)
adjusts speed of rollers, governing flow of emulsion, by turning a regulating screw; adjusts brushes and rollers which distribute emulsion in coating machine, to ensure that emulsion is spread to required thickness; moves lever to start machine; guides end of paper through various rollers; watches paper as it runs through machine and regulates rollers, taps, brushes, etc., if coating does not go on satisfactorily.
coater, plate coater, dry plate coater (photographic plates)
turns tap to regulate flow of emulsion; turns governing screws to regulate speed of rollers of machine; raises or reduces heat of emulsion by turning on or off supply of heat; sometimes places plates, edge to edge, on travelling band which carries them through machine, unless this is done by feeder (689) q.v.
colourer (artificial flowers)
see shader.
coverer, boiler coverer, boiler and steampipe coverer, pipe and boiler coverer, steampipe coverer ; boiler and steampipe felter, boiler coater, boiler logger, logger, pipe logger
mixes wet paste of non-conducting material (asbestos, silicate of cotton, etc.) and spreads with a trowel over outer surface of boilers, steampipes, etc., to prevent radiation of heat, when dry; may wrap lengths of heat-resisting fabric round pipes; secures covering either by wrapping wire netting round it or by including wire netting with the composition as reinforcement; screws brass or copper bands into position round pipes to support them; paints pipes or boiler after covering.
coverer, box coverer (wooden fixture boxes)
receives box and lid from frame maker q.v.; turns down corner of strawboard lid, already cut and scored; glues strips of linen round corners to secure them; cuts paper for inside lining and cloth for outside covering and pastes paper inside and glues cloth on outside and on lid; usually also screws on handles, hinges and plates; cf. coverer (cardboard fixture boxes).
coverer, bust
receives bust from bust fitter (689) q.v. and (i) sews together, on a sewing machine, parts of covers cut out by forewoman;
(ii) draws cover, after it has been sewn together by machine, over bust; pads bust with cotton wool or other padding; draws cover tightly over padded bust, leaving no wrinkles, and sews up cover by hand.
coverer, case (brush, jewel, pipe, etc., cases)
covers, by pasting or glueing, exterior of brush, jewel, pipe, or other similar cases with pieces of leather or leather substitute, previously cut to shape by foreman or cutter; sometimes specifically designated by kind of case, e.g. brush case coverer, cabinet case coverer, camera case coverer, jewel case coverer, pipe case coverer.
coverer, pipe
as for coverer, boiler.
coverer, printer's roller
see centreman (printer's roller).
coverer and liner, case (brush, jewel, pipe, etc., cases)
combines occupations of case coverer and case liner q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. jewel case coverer and liner, pipe case coverer and liner.
cricket ball centre maker
see quilt maker (cricket balls).
cricket ball maker, cricket ball sewer
cuts sections of leather to shape by hand, or receives sections ready cut by machine; sews two quarters together, on inner side of ball, thus making half-covers; fits these halves over quilt or centre as received from quilt maker q.v.; sews together halves on outer side of ball, using curved or bent needles; clamps ball in a heated cup press to depress external seam; cf. tennis ball sewer.
cricket glove maker
general term for any worker engaged in manufacture of cricket gloves, e.g. cutter (411), machinist (411), and table hand (cricket gloves) q.v.
cricket pad maker, cricket leg guard maker
cuts prepared and dyed leather, cane stiffeners, and packing to size, and stitches them together to form pads or leg guards.
cutter-out (work basket lining)
cuts cardboard, to shape for lining work baskets, using rule and hand knife; pierces cardboard with stiletto, or a large awl, to make holes for reception of buttons when basket lid is being lined by work basket liner q.v.; measures up and cuts satin, with scissors, for lining basket; passes basket, cardboard, and fabric to work box liner q.v.
cycle saddle repairer
cuts out old rivets and removes worn leather and/or broken spring; refits new parts and cold rivets, by machine, into place; may also remove dirt and old enamel and prepare saddle frame for re-enamelling or re-plating.
designer (soft toys)
sketches, with paper and pencil, designs for soft toys of new shapes or colours; makes new toy throughout as a pattern; is often done by proprietor or manager of establishment.
diamond setter (diamond tool making)
see diamond tool maker ; cf. diamond setter (jewellery trade) (284).
diamond setter, glazier's
examines diamond, which is usually smaller than that used by shaped diamond tool setter q.v., and, judging by experience, selects best cutting edge; drills a piece of wire, inserts diamond therein, with cutting edge uppermost, and secures it in position by pressing metal on sides of stone; trims setting with a file, taking care to leave cutting edge exposed; files or turns off end of wire; polishes cutting edge of diamond; inserts diamond, in setting so prepared, in a wooden handle so that selected edge is in correct position for use in glass cutting; solders setting and diamond in position; finally polishes tool, when complete; in shops where work is subdivided, performs one or more of above operations, e.g. polishing. setting.
diamond tool maker ; diamond setter (diamond tool making)
ii) (abrasive wheel dressing) makes tools containing diamonds used for dressing abrasive wheels; mounts diamond in any way that may bo most suitable; either drills hole in end of a steel bar, on a drilling machine; makes two saw cuts, at right angles, across hole; inserts diamond in hole; presses peaks of metal, formed by saw cuts, on to diamond with pincers or other hand tools and brazes metal setting of diamond, or drills hole in copper rod on a drilling machine; inserts diamond in hole, and secures diamond in position by punching metal round diamond with punches and a hammer to form a setting;
(ii) general term for makers of diamond tools, including glazier's diamond setter, and shaped diamond tool setter q.v.
diamond tool setter, shaped
prepares steel holder to receive diamond, which is usually larger than that used by glazier's diamond setter q.v. and which he receives from polisher q.v.; method of preparation includes drilling of holes in holder, cutting of slots, or otherwise preparing a bed; works at bench fitted with a vice, using lathes and similar machines; sets diamond in holder, and fixes it in position either by making and inserting small wedges, or by forming small beads of metal round diamond, or in some other way; finally brazes metal setting; sometimes done by glazier's diamond setter q.v.
see dyer (raffia, grasses, etc.).
doll maker
fixes eyes in position with glue or other adhesive, or, for movable eyes, or eyes which shut, fixes eyes on to bent wire pivot and glues mechanism into position inside head; sews stuffed fabric parts, received from doll stuffer q.v. to parts made of china, wax, or other material through holes in shoulder provided for the purpose; sometimes makes up and fits on wig.
doll wigger
makes up, arranges, and glues hair on heads of dolls.
domino maker
cuts domino blanks with small circular saw, holding wood against gauge; cuts bone and casein in similar manner; prints spots by feeding blanks into printing machine, altering die from time to time; fastens a black wooden or bone back to white bone or wooden front with a brass rivet in a riveting machine.
draught board maker
see chess board maker.
driller (brooms and brushes), brush driller, brush drilling hand, brush drilling machinist
see borer.
dry plate maker (photographic plates, etc.)
mixes gelatine, silver salts, etc., in solution, according to formula, to form emulsion for coating photographic plates, etc.; also coats plates, cf. coater (photographic plates).
dry plate worker
general term for any worker engaged in producing photographic plates, including glass washer (089), coater, racker (689), plate cutter (138), etc., q.v.
dyer (raffia, grasses, etc.) ; dipper
stokes fires under vats to keep dye liquor boiling; immerses raffia in dye liquor, or in case of grasses, holds hunch of grass in liquor; stirs liquor containing raffia, from time to time, to ensure even dyeing; judges when raffia or grass is dyed to match pattern; takes raffia or grass from dye liquor and hangs it up to drain; suspends it on hooks attached to an endless band, which carry it into drying machine; stokes boiler of drying machine.
dyer (photographic plates, films, &c.) ; film stainer (photographic films)
immerses photographic plate or film, by hand, in a dish containing dye or stain solution, to make it more sensitive to red or yellow light, as required in certain processes.
examiner (penholders)
see checker.
examiner (photographic plates, etc.), plate examiner, paper examiner
examines finished photographic plates, films, papers, etc., for defects, e.g. air bubbles, uneven distribution of coating.
factory hand (sports goods)
general term for anyone employed interchangeably in a sports goods factory, e.g. in covering tennis balls or wrapping them up, in trimming feathers for shuttlecocks or in making shuttlecocks, etc.
fan maker (lady's)
receives feathers in heaps, or lots, ready graded in sizes and quality, and curled, from feather dresser (632) q.v. and glues them with great care on to ivory or bone mounts of fan, using small brush; presses down feathers until they adhere firmly to mount.
fan painter ; artist (fans)
paints decorative designs upon feathers and upon ivory or bone framework of fans; sometimes also, if employed by dressmaker, paints designs upon textile fabrics.
feather trimmer (shuttlecocks)
a factory hand q.v. who cuts feathers for shuttlecocks in a particular way, as required to ensure correct balance and flight of shuttlecock.
ferrule fitter (fishing rods)
pares end of fishing rod to fit ferrule; fits ferrule on rod and hammers it all round to make it grip; drills hole through ferrule and rod, inserts metal pin and rivets it home; work sometimes done by fishing rod maker and fitter (fishing rods) q.v.
filer (tobacco pipes, not clay)
files mouthpiece, by hand, to give final shape, taking care that it is correctly balanced.
film assembler (film producing)
arranges, ready for film joiner q.v., lengths of films of separately photographed scenes in sequence according to "book" of the production; cuts away rejected or faulty sections.
film joiner (film producing)
joins ends of assembled new films, received from film assembler q.v., or repairs damaged films by carefully overlapping and applying transparent adhesive solution.
film repairer (film producing)
repairs torn or scratched films by cutting out spoiled length and inserting new film; sometimes done by film joiner q.v.; affixes new slotted edging to worn film.
film stainer (photographic films)
see dyer (photographic plates, films, etc.).
finisher, case (brush, jewel, pipe, etc., cases)
completes decoration of brush, jewel, pipe and other similar cases; puts on gold lining by transfer, or brush, glues on metal monograms, etc.; sometimes specifically designated according to kind of case, e.g. pipe case finisher.
finisher (fishing rods), rod finisher, fishing rod finisher ; fishing rod polisher, maker-up, polisher
receives sections of fishing rod from fishing rod maker q.v.; binds porcelain or metal runners to rod, by band, with thread; also binds rod in various places to give extra strength; varnishes whole rod, by hand.
finisher (soft toys)
sews up soft toys, by hand, after they have been stuffed by stuffer q.v.; decorates them with paint or with coloured stitches; sews on ears, eyes, tails or other parts.
finisher (tobacco pipes, not clay) ; second mopper
a mopper q.v. who polishes pipe bowls, after staining.
fish hook tier
binds fish hook on to a short looped length of catgut with silk thread; applies varnish to joint with a brush and hangs to dry.
fishing reel maker
makes wood, wood and brass, or aluminium reels throughout; turns wood or metal parts of reels on a lathe; fits parts together, by riveting, and mounts brasswork.
fishing rod examiner
examines finished rods to detect faults in material or in workmanship.
fishing rod maker
(i) (cane rods) splits lengths of cane, by cutting with hand knife, into six wedge-shaped portions; planes, fits and glues together strips to form hexegonal rod [sic], and binds with silk thread to dry; cuts rod, so formed, to length of section of fishing rod and actions it, by fine planing, sandpapering or filing, to give balance and strength; files ends of sections to receive ferrules for socket joints and makes ferrules by cutting length of thin metal tubing with hand metal saw or machine cutter; shapes rod by cutting, grooving, abrasing, etc., on a lathe; inserts and secures ferrules on ends of sections; hinds sections with silk threads at intervals along section and attaches metal runners by binding; varnishes rod and binding; makes butt by (a) winding and glueing strips of sheet cork round butt sections of rod, (b) turning solid cork to form cylinder and boring hole through length of cork large enough to admit cane rod; glues cut sections of cork on to rod and affixes other metal fittings;
(ii) (wood—other than cane) receives rods trapped, i.e. roughly turned, and performs one or more of the various operations described above.
fitter, billiard table; fitter-up (billiard tables), billiard table fitter-up ; fixer-up (billiard tables) (North of England)
takes component parts, already completed, and erects framework on legs, screwing and bolting parts into position; lays supports for slate bed, and lays bed, cutting and smoothing slate, if required, and using a spirit level to get a perfectly level surface; stretches, puts on, and marks cloth; puts on cushions, and screws on pockets; often also fits up entire billiard saloon, and instate marking board, cue racks, and overhead lighting; often also executes repairs to billiard tables and to billiard saloons, e.g. sews up rents in cloths, cuts or stuffs cushions, cuts out and sews on leather for pockets, cuts and smooths slate beds round pockets; is usually a cabinet maker (473) q.v. who has been trained for fitting up by passing through the different workshops, e.g. frame making, slate masonry, brass finishing, cushion making.
fitter, briar fitter (tobacco pipes, not clay)
(i) (hand) puts mouth piece or bowl in lathe, and sets lathe in motion; applies and guides tool, by hand, while mouthpiece or bowl revolves in lathe, thus drilling hole in stem of bowl and turning rebate in bowl end of mouthpiece; when mouthpiece is of composition or amber, makes mouthpiece from solid block by cutting with special care and drilling it throughout; fits mouthpiece in bowl of pipe;
(ii) (machine) holds bowl or mouthpiece against revolving tool, but does not cut out mouthpieces from solid block; other operations as for hand worker.
fitter, case (brush, jewel, pipe, etc., cases)
glues, tacks, or otherwise fits metal fittings to interior and exterior of brush, jewel, pipe, and other similar cases; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. brush case fitter, jewel case fitter, pipe case fitter.
fitter (fishing rods)
cuts and fits the two parts of ferrule sockets, on a lathe, and grooves ends of rod sections to receive ferrule.
fixer-up (billiard tables) (North of England)
see fitter, billiard table.
fly book maker (fishing tackle)
cuts piece of leather, oiled skin, etc., into shape of pocket-book; turns in edges and secures by sewing in lining; stitches in squares of flannel, etc., on which artificial fishing flies may be hooked; attaches elastic or other bands to keep book closed.
fly dresser
see artificial fly maker.
frame maker (wooden fixture boxes)
receives sets of frames, i.e. side pieces of wood, top and bottom of strawboard, ready cut to size; by another worker, and nails them together, leaving lid unattached.
frazer (tobacco pipes, not clay)
levels briar stem and mouthpiece, fitted together, by holding them against a revolving carborundum disc, to bring them to same diameter, carefully shaping stem and mouthpiece about join.
furnished line maker (fishing tackle)
ties on hook and float to gut, and pinches-on split shot by means of pliers; winds line round spool; attaches swivels and artificial bait.
gimp hook tier (fishing tackle)
a fish hook tier q.v. who ties hook on to gimp, i.e. wire wound silk, for heavy pike fishing, etc.
glazer maker
(i) see mop maker, leather;
(ii) see buff and glazer maker.
gluer (lead pencil making)
receives halves of sticks of pencils with edges ready glued by wood worker (lead pencil making) (486) q.v.; fits in leads and closes them together to form complete pencils.
golf club maker
receives golf club head, already turned by wood turner (486) q.v.; cuts off, with hand saw, projections on head left by lathe; drills, by machine, hole in golf club head to admit shaft; files club head to obtain correct lie or loft; makes holes in club head with an awl or similar tool; pours molten lead into holes through clay funnels; screws on metal butt for sole of club head; planes, files and sandpapers end of shaft until club fits tightly on shaft; glues in shaft; balances club by filing and sandpapering shaft, to get correct poise; sometimes also varnishes and polishes shaft; binds grip on handle of club, and then binds with leather, securing them with tacks; winds waxed string on end of binding, to cover it; of. golf club forger (190).
gut drawer, gut maker ; catgut maker, tharme maker
splits and cleanses animal gut, usually lamb's gut for strings of musical instruments; first cuts gut into thin strips with knife and then seeks, i.e., cleanses gut by pulling it across edge of special tool and between tool and thumb so that superfluous matter is squeezed out, steeps membrane in potash and draws it through holes in metal plate or thimble, which ensures circular section and regulates size of strands; in hot drying rooms may secure length of gut to supports in bench and pulls gut to stretch it, giving it a slight twist in so doing; sometimes also does work of gut spinner q.v.
gut finisher
receives gut string from gut spinner q.v. and further twists it by means of pegs and hand-wheel, while still wet; polishes and smooths surface of string by rubbing it with a leather hand pad, dressed with oil and pumice; leaves string under tension in drying room till dry.
gut hook tier (fishing tackle)
a fish hook tier q.v. who ties fish hooks on silk worm gut.
gut spinner ; catgut spinner
selects with care gut strands prepared by gut drawer q.v. and fastens a number (varying from four for a violin string to four hundred for a half inch gut band) of these thin strands while still wet on a frame to two pegs; inserts one peg into geared spindle and turns wheel by hand to twist or spin strands into a string or band.
hair hook tier
a fish hook tier q.v. who ties fish hooks on to horse hair for finest, e.g. roach, etc., fishing.
hand machinist (brooms and brushes)
see borer.
hockey stick maker
bends wood to shape of hockey stick blade by steaming it and forcing it into required shape with clamps; cuts it in two, and splits it down centre to form four blades; glues pieces of cane together, turns them on lathe, and cuts them to shape and size of handle; splices and glues handle to blade; sandpapers and polishes the whole, and binds waxed hemp round handle with a foot or power lathe.
jacker-up (lead pencil making)
places a number of glued pencils together in a clamp, and screws down clamp to make glueing secure; removes pencils when clamping is complete.
jig-saw puzzle maker
see wood puzzle cutter.
kite maker
(i) cuts fabric, from patterns, into shapes for kites; sometimes also designs patterns, having regard to lifting power of various types and sizes of kites; cuts eyelet holes in fabric or makes other provision for attaching fabric to frame; steams bamboo to straighten it, and sometimes joints lengths of bamboo, cf. ferruler (fishing rods);
(ii) receives fabric from machinist (419) q.v. and wooden or cane strips from sawyer (481) or kite maker (i); if necessary, steams strips and bends them to shape for framework of kite; tacks fabric to frame, with hammer and tacks; in case of large kites, inserts bamboo rods in hem of fabric and binds fabric, where necessary, to framework.
(i) see coverer, boiler;
(ii) covers refrigerating plant, by same process as that used by boiler coverer q.v. to exclude heat from plant.
lagger, boiler; pipe lagger
see coverer, boiler.
lamp shade maker
binds lamp shade frame with thread or other material; stretches material over frame, and stitches or glues it to frame; sews on beads or other trimmings; cf. lamp shade maker (silk) (428), lamp shade maker (paper) (568).
lead pencil maker ; pencil mill worker
general term for any worker engaged in manufacture of lead pencils, including machine hand (lead pencils) (099), mill hand (lead pencils) (099), wood worker (lead pencils) (486), gluer, jacker-up and polisher (lead pencils) (499) q.v.
leaf worker, leaf maker (artificial flowers)
(i) makes leaves and petals throughout by folding and twisting, by hand, stamped out pieces of material, and fixing them with wire;
(ii) general term for the sectionalised workers in artificial leaf making, e.g. mounter, picquetter and sticker, veiner (689) and waxer (689) q.v.
liner, cabinet case
receives cabinet case or show case, made by cabinet case maker (473) q.v., and takes out shelves, partitions, brackets, etc., made by cabinet case fitter (473) q.v., therefrom; removes any irregularities from wooden surfaces with a chisel; measures surfaces to be covered, and also lining material, i.e. velvet, plush, satin, or other textile fabric, or paper, and cuts it to best advantage; coats inside of cabinet case with paste or glue, and inserts and presses down first back piece and then side pieces of lining; lines shelves, partitions and struts in same way; if case has lid, cuts out piece of cardboard for inside of lid, lays a quantity of cotton wool thereon, covers it with satin, and glues cardboard inside lid.
liner, case (brush, jewel, pipe, etc., cases)
lines, by glueing or pasting, interiors of brush, jewel, pipe and other similar cases with velvet, plush, silk, etc., using as little glue as possible, so as not to saturate padding or fabric; sometimes glues cotton wool for padding on to supports inside cases, taking care to distribute cotton wool evenly; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. brush case liner, jewel case liner, pipe case liner.
liner, table; table and cabinet liner
lines tables, bureaux, etc., with textile material or with leather, leatherette, baize, etc.; operations similar to those performed by cabinet case liner q.v., but work must be of higher finish, e.g. glueing down must be smoother and fitting better; sometimes also decorates leather border of lining, (i) by pressing metal dies round border to produce an impressed design, (ii) by gilding; sprinkles brickdust on a block of stone to prevent gold leaf adhering, and lays gold leaf thereon; cuts gold leaf into small pieces; heats metal die on a gas ring, and picks up gold leaf, piece by piece, on bottom of die, then presses on leather lining, leaving a gilt pattern thereon; wipes die with a cloth to collect surplus gold; same worker sometimes also cuts and gilds leather linings for bookcase shelves.
liner, work basket
receives work basket, satin cut to size and shape required, cardboard cut to size and pierced, for top piece, and buttons; lines work basket by inserting cardboard over bottom and sides of basket, and stretching and sewing down satin thereon; in lining lid, places pierced cardboard on inside of lid, superimposes cotton wool for padding, stretches satin lining over this and fastens by placing buttons over holes in cardboard and stitching them to basket; arranges folds in satin lining during stitching; makes and attaches, by sewing, satin pouches or other trimmings.
liner, work box
as for liner, work basket except for making of lid, which is made by cutting out piece of cardboard. to size of lid, laying a quantity of cotton wool thereon, covering it with satin and glueing cardboard inside lid.
luggage maker (for bonbons)
rolls up, in small bundles, fancy paper caps or masks, mottoes, trinkets, etc., for enclosing in body of bon-bons (cosaques).
lyncher (soft toys)
fastens movable limbs of soft toy animals, to body, with wire.
machine worker (fishing rods)
general term for any worker engaged on machine work, lathe, etc., in making of fishing rods; traps wood for rods, i.e. turns it from the square to rod form; also does any lathe work in connection with ferrules.
maker-up (fishing rods)
see finisher (fishing rods).
map globe maker
makes globe frames of wood and cardboard; applies plaster of Paris and turns in lathe against a gauge to requisite dimensions.
see template maker.
meerschaum enameller (tobacco pipes)
soaks meerschaum in warm spermaceti, and waxes it over with hot wax to obtain a polish.
meerschaum pipe maker (tobacco pipes)
shapes block of meerschaum roughly by hand; soaks it in water, and chips it into shape of pipe; turns it on lathe; files it with esparto grass; may also soak in. spermaceti and wax it, see meerschaum enameller.
modeller (shipbuilding)
makes, by hand, wax models of ships' hulls for use in experimental tanks.
model maker, ship's model maker, model yacht maker
makes, with various hand tools and machine lathes, detailed models to scale of ships and their fittings; work usually done by skilled cabinet makers, joiners, pattern makers, watch makers, etc.
mop maker
(i) (male) performs, interchangeably, any of the heavier operations in connection with making of mops, e.g. stamping out cloth mop shapes on stamping machine, riveting together cloth shapes on riveting machines, attaching leather washer at each side of mop;
(ii) (female) employed, interchangeably, on any of the lighter work in connection with mop making, e.g. assembling stamped shapes for riveting to form calico mops, tapering and shaping compressed felt, for jeweller's finger mops, by holding if against revolving tool on a lathe, glueing mops to wooden handles or bases, threading cotton or worsted thread, by hand, through holes in wooden core, and in twisting wire round thread to form brush mops; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. calico mop maker, jeweller's mop maker, polishing mop maker, rag mop maker.
mop maker, leather ; huff coverer, glazer maker
receives wooden centre ready turned; heats glue and spreads it evenly upon surface to be covered; cuts chamois, sheepskin, or other leather to correct size, rubs glue into cut strip, and presses it upon glue-covered surface of wooden centre; hammers wooden pegs, which must be carefully selected and accurately placed, through leather into wooden centre, to tighten wood and leather and to hold glued covering securely in position.
mopper (tobacco pipes, not clay)
holds pipe bowl against revolving calico mop, covered with polish, before and/or after staining; cf. mopper, hard and finisher.
mopper, hard; first mopper (tobacco pipes, not clay)
a mopper q.v. who polishes pipe bowls, by holding them against revolving mop, before staining.
mopper, second
see finisher (tobacco pipes, not clay).
mounter (artificial flowers), artificial flower mounter ; picquetter
receives flowers and leaves, wire, sheet fabric, strip fabric (for binding), paste, etc., and pattern of spray to be mounted; makes up sprays from these materials, varying methods as required in each particular case; pastes end of triangular piece of fabric over a length of wire, bends wire to shape of ellipse and gathers up bunched fabric with needle and thread, to form artificial leaf; arranges a number of flowers and smaller leaves along stalk of larger leaf so made, selecting flowers and leaves so as to reproduce pattern as nearly as possible; binds strip fabric round wire stalks to form one main stalk, pasting down strip as it is rolled.
painter (artificial flowers), leaf and fern painter
(i) paints natural leaves by hand;
(ii) see shader.
paper maker, cyanotype; architect's photographic paper maker, engineer's photographic paper maker
weighs or measures out, according to formula, constituents of ferro-cyanide solution, with which paper used for making blue prints, etc., for architect's or engineer's drawings, is sensitised; mixes constituents in a vat or other receptacle to form solution; places rolls of paper in supports in machine; guides end of roll to first rollers and so through machine; turns screws to adjust speed of rollers and thereby regulate flow of solution to paper; catches end of paper as it comes off heated roll on which it has been dried, after coating, winds it on a reel, and engages reel in automatic reeling attachment of machine; cf. coater.
pattern maker (artificial flowers)
an artificial flower maker q.v. making sample flowers or inventing new designs.
pencil mill worker
see lead pencil maker.
photo frame coverer
stretches and glues or tacks cloth, leather, velvet, paper, etc., over padded photograph frame; sometimes specifically designated according to material, e.g. photo frame plush coverer.
photo frame maker, photograph frame maker
makes photograph frame from pieces of wood, which he saws, by hand or machine, and shapes with chisels, gouges, and other tools; fastens pieces together, with glue or screws, to make complete frame; cuts out leatherette, velvet, or other material and glues it on to frame; cuts glass to fit frame.
see mounter (artificial flowers).
pipe maker (tobacco pipes, not clay)
general term for any worker engaged in any process of pipe making, including fitter, frazer, filer, fine finisher (689), pumicer (689), stainer (598), mopper, wide borer q.v.
pipe repairer (tobacco pipes)
is usually a fitter (tobacco pipes) q.v. having a general knowledge of pipe-making, who specialises in repairing pipes, principally by fitting new mouthpieces and replacing burnt bowls; selects required part, of approximately correct shape and size, from stock, and adapts it by turning, filing, drilling, etc., on a lathe, or cuts composition or amber mouthpieces from solid block, cf. fitter (tobacco pipes); sometimes also cuts out new wooden pieces, and glues them to broken stems, or cuts out metal bands and fits them in, cf. band maker (288).
plate dryer (photographic)
is in charge of hot air drying room where coated photographic plates are placed to dry; regulates taps and valves governing volume and temperature of air which is allowed to pass through drying rooms to dry plates after coating.
polisher (fishing rods), fishing rod polisher
see finisher (fishing rods).
polisher (for shaped diamond tools)
mounts diamond in holder, called a dop, which, in turn, is held in a tong, suitably adjusted, so that portion of diamond to be shaped or polished comes in contact with a disc, charged with diamond dust and revolving at a high speed; decides how much stone must be removed, and angle of clearance from cutting edge, etc.; cf. polisher (285), diamond polisher (638).
powder puff maker
sews together two circular pieces of down-covered goose skin, as received from cutter (342) q.v., over a padding of cotton wool to make powder puff; also sews on ribbon or other trimming.
puller-up (artificial flowers)
works at bench on which a hundred or more cotton threads are arranged in parallel to dry after having been passed through a. trough of liquid starch; sets up apparatus by threading each thread from its bobbin under roller in starch trough and through holes in two sets of reeds on bench; when starched thread is dry, pulls up each thread and stretches over an adjacent part of bench through a third reed; clamps parallel threads in position by means of a number of wooden rods placed across and fastened together in pairs, i.e. one roil above and one below threads, by means of metal wedges; when seed maker q.v. has cut threads with knife, between each pair cf. clamping rods, assists him to place rods on racks; when seeds, berries, etc., have been made by seed-maker by dipping, unclamps rods and makes up bundles of seeds, etc., tying them together with thin wire; may also box seeds, etc.
quilt maker, quilter (cricket balls) ; cricket ball centre maker
wraps worsted thread, by hand, round a cork to make quilt, or core, of cricket ball, taking care that thread is evenly distributed; when large enough, places quilt in a cup, equal to half shape of cricket ball, sunk in a bench, and strikes it with a hammer or mallet to harden it; while hammering, turns quilt round from time to time.
racquet finisher, tennis racquet finisher
binds tennis racquet frame, by hand, with silk or gut where it joins handle, work usually done by racquet stringer q.v.; cute leather and tacks strip round rim at end of handle; sometimes also polishes racquet; cf. polisher (498).
racquet maker
turns handle on a lathe, glues it on to racquet frame, and clamps the whole in a frame to dry; trues and smooths racquet with knives, rasps, and files; drills holes and cuts grooves for gut; drives screw through sides of frame and handle; and cleans up racquet with sandpaper; sometimes also strings, polishes, and finishes racquet, see racquet stringer, tennis racquet polisher (498), and racquet finisher; sometimes specifically designated according to type of racquet, e.g. tennis racquet maker, squash racquet maker.
racquet stringer, badminton racquet stringer, squash racquet stringer, tennis racquet stringer
pierces holes in frame of racquet with an awl, and threads gut through holes, beginning with the longitudinal strings; tightens these strings, beginning at centre and working towards sides; decides when correct tightness is reached by repeatedly vibrating strings, and noting their pitch or tune, taking care that tension is not unequal at different points; threads horizontal strings, and makes them as tight as possible; watches frame of racquet while stringing, and, if it shows signs of warping, adjusts tension of gut accordingly; binds frame where it joins handle of racquet with tape, or silk thread; sometimes also varnishes frame and strings and polishes frame, but usually passes to tennis racquet polisher (498) q.v.
racquet string maker
as for gut drawer.
razor case maker
general term covering all makes of razor cases, including cabinet case maker (473), fancy leather worker (348), razor case maker (papier mache) (558) q.v.
rocking horse maker
builds together wooden parts of child's rocking horse, and carves it into semblance of a horse, paints it in colours, glues or nails on mane, tail, etc.; cuts out and nails on leather harness fittings; sets up horse on rockers.
saddle maker, saddle worker (cycles and motor cycles)
cuts and dresses leather for bicycle or motor bicycle saddles; blocks to shape; fits together, rivets, and adjusts parts of saddle.
salmon fly maker
as for artificial fly maker.
seasoner, mantle; gas mantle seasoner, incandescent mantle seasoner
(i) (upright mantles) burner-off, mantle burner-off, incandescent mantle burner-off, mantle burning-off girl (gas); suspends mantles, in sets of 5 to 25, by loop, under gas jets on burning-off machine; brings lighted jets in touch with mantles and allows flame to burn down mantle from top to bottom; inserts a gas jet on flexible tubing inside each mantle and slowly withdraws flame; allows mantles to coot and removes mantles, one by one, to adjacent seasoning machine and suspends by loop over a gas jet; lights gas jets and operates levers, causing gas flames to move upwards inside mantle;
(ii) (inverted mantles) places grids of burned-off mantles on supports in seasoning machine; operates a lever, which causes the gas burners and flames to move downwards inside mantles, and a tap which regulates pressure of gas and heat of flame; watches operation through green screen and stops process of shrinkage and shaping when complete; when cool removes grids for dipping.
seed maker (artificial flowers)
makes artificial seeds, small berries, stamens, and flower centres, by hand, from wood, paper, or papier mache, and paints them by dipping or with a brush; takes cotton threads, prepared by puller-up q.v., and slits them between each pair of clamped rods, leaving short pieces sticking out stiffly on each side of rods; prepares paste, made of gum, dextrine, farina (i.e. potato flour), starch and colouring matter, unless this is done by manager, and pours it in a long shallow metal trough; dips ends of threads, still clamped between rods, in trough of paste, and stands them on rack to dry; re-dips ends of threads many times, allowing them to dry after each dipping until a clot of hard paste has formed thereon resembling article, e.g. stamen, seed, berry, which is being imitated; finally varnishes berries, by dipping in varnish.
shader (artificial flowers, etc.), flower shader, leaf shader ; colourer, painter (artificial flowers)
mixes colours with spirit until desired shade is obtained; paints a number of petals or leaves with main or basic tint, using a brush; when this has dried, applies second tint, and continues process; also paints on veins of leaves or markings on petals; sometimes marks veins with a placque, i.e. stencil; work sometimes done by sprayer q.v.
shuttlecock maker
a factory hand q.v. who cuts corks, and bores holes therein; stamps out leather covers by placing cutter on a sheet of leather upon a sliding table, and sliding both under an automatic power press; sews on leather covers, and sticks in feathers, securing them with glue; weighs and measures cork, leather, feathers, etc., during and after manufacture. to see that they comply with requirements of Badminton Association.
spectacle case maker
(i) controls and feeds machine which automatically moulds spectacle cases from specially prepared papier mache;
(ii) cuts out, by hand, cardboard case and bends it round to required shape and glues it; cuts out leather or leatherette cover, by hand, and glues it on to case;
(iii) a case coverer and liner q.v. who works upon spectacle cases.
spinner (musical instrument strings)
see string coverer.
spout maker (miller's)
a millwright (212) q.v. or a carpenter or mill-joiner (474) q.v. who makes and repairs wooden and/or metal spouts, used for conveying grain, flour, or meal, from one department to another; is responsible for seeing that spout valves, slides, etc., are in proper position and for uninterrupted flow of flour through spouts; cf. spoutman (449).
sprayer (artificial flowers and leaves)
fills container of spraying apparatus with basic colour; pulls trigger, setting apparatus in motion, and sprays leaves or petals therewith; fills container with second colour, and sprays edge or other part of leaves or petals therewith; places leaf or petal in position so that colour shall fall upon it at correct angle, and in correct quantity; work sometimes done by shader q.v.; cf. sprayer (689).
sticker, leaf sticker (artificial leaves) ; wirer (artificial flowers)
lays wire along back of leaf, and sticks leaf to it with paste and a thin strip of fabric; rolls protruding end of wire in strip fabric to form stalk of leaf.
stiffener (artificial flowers)
stiffens material, before it is cut, by dipping it in starchy liquid or by painting it with preparation of starch; mixes ingredients, e.g. starch, isinglass, glycerine, gum, for stiffening medium, boiling them, if necessary, and taking care to get stiffening agent to exactly right consistency and strength; hooks material to be stiffened on pins placed round edges of a rectangular frame, exposing hack of material for stiffening; in stiffening velvet, or similar material, pastes a kind of gauze, with starch, on back of material to strengthen it; in stiffening lawn, dips it in boiling starch, wrings it out, and bangs it up to dry.
stocker (whips), whip stocker
(i) (steel-lined whips) cuts canes on circular saw for whip bandies to required length, straightens them by hand, and fixes into wood-turning machine which tapers them; splits them down middle and grooves them by machine, inserts steel wire into groove, and glues split parts together by band, binding them temporarily with cotton, by machine, until set; removes cotton binding and planes smooth when set;
(ii) (whalebone lined whips) heats square section strip of whalebone and pulls or bends it straight by hand; squares it up and tapers it with hand file; waxes and binds with flex (tow) by band; splits long canes and shapes four flat and four V-shaped strips by hand with knife; waxes them and places round whalebone centre; ties in place with string; places stock in cording machine and, assisted by a boy, covers stock' with fine whip cord wound on very tightly; fixes cord with special knot.
string coverer, musical string coverer ; musical string maker, spinner (musical instrument strings), string maker (covered strings)
secures end of metal, gut or silk string to be covered, also end of covering wire, on hook of twisting machine; places covering wire in a creel and secures other end of string on another hook, making string taut; switches on power so that hooks revolve and covering wire is spun spirally upon gut or metal string; stops machine and cuts covering wire at end of string length.
string coverer (piano), covered string maker ; piano string maker
covers steel piano wires, by machine, after eyes have been put on ends by eye maker (279) q.v., with copper wire of various thicknesses graduated according to tensile strain required; fixes steel wire on to machine and feeds machine with copper wire.
string maker (gut), gut string maker ; musical string maker
general terms covering makers of gut strings for musical instruments, including gut drawer, gut spinner, gut finisher.
string maker, musical
(i) see string maker (wire, for musical instruments);
(ii) see string maker (gut);
(iii) see string coverer, musical.
string maker, piano
see string coverer (piano).
string maker (wire, for musical instruments) ; musical string maker
(i) places coil of wire in creel; pulls end of wire and cuts it into measured lengths with pliers or wire-cutting shears; bends end of wire over hook to form loop and switches on power, causing hook to revolve; grips end of loop with pliers so that short end of wire is twisted spirally about the main length of wire for completion of loop; switches off power and repeats operation;
(ii) (covered strings) see string coverer.
stuffer, doll
rams sawdust, or other stuffing, tightly, in body or limbs of dolls, with a rammer, i.e. a short wooden stick, and sows up body, limbs, etc., by hand, with needle and thread.
stuffer (soft toys)
fills covers, sewn by machinist (419) q.v., with flock, vegetable down, or other packing, by hand, and presses it tight with a stuffing rod, moulding shape with hands to resemble animal, etc., to be represented.
surgical gut maker, surgical gut worker, surgical string maker
as for gut drawer.
table hand (cricket gloves)
puts layers of tow, or substitute, between front and lining of wicket-keeping gloves; or pads back of wicket-keeping or batting gloves; sews on fastenings.
tackle tier (fishing tackle)
ties bait and hooks, or hooks only, on to gut and binds with silk; waxes silk in binding it by rubbing wax on silk; exercises great care in tying and arrangement of hooks and bait to regulate strength of pull; poorer quality tackle is prepared by furnished line maker q.v.
target maker
makes archery targets or toy targets, either of straw, by binding it and forming it into rolls in shape of target, or of cork or wood, by turning on lathe; paints bull's eye and coloured concentric rings on target.
template maker
(i) marker-off; makes patterns or templates by nailing laths together to required shape and size, for marking off plates in shipbuilding, etc.;
(ii) cuts wood, tin plate or other sheet metal to shape, according to drawings supplied, for use in cutting out copper, brass, etc., articles, or in marking off plates; cf. plater (222).
tennis ball coverer
(i) smears glue on rubber balls, and works it into rubber with hands; when rubber is worked to correct state, presses on felt cover; clips off overlapping or ragged scraps of felt; sometimes also does work of tennis ball sewer q.v.
tennis ball sewer, tennis ball stitcher
receives ball, from tennis ball coverer q.v., with seams already stuck down, and stitches seams with needle and thread, taking care not to pierce rubber with needle; places ball in a heated cup press, where two halves of cup enclose ball, and moves lever to operate press; applies steam jet to ball to remove ridge left by press.
tester, plate tester (photographic plates, etc.)
a skilled workman employed on routine tests of finished photographic plates, under direction of specialised chemist; exposes plates to light of standard illuminating power and at a specified distance from plate; prepares developing and fixing solutions, and develops and fixes plate; examines developed and fixed plate to see that it conforms to requirements as regards appearance, evenness of tone, etc., and reports any defects to chemist.
tester (printers' rollers)
places rollers when trimmed by trimmer (689) on small V-shaped trestles and examines them for correct alignment, smoothness of surface, etc.
tharme maker
see gut drawer.
theatrical property maker
constructs animals, furniture, architectural fittings and other stage properties of wood or sometimes of papier mache; if working in wood, marks out shape of object with pencil; cuts out parts with band saw or circular saw, and nails, screws or glues parts together; if working in papier mache, pours flour and water paste into a plaster of Paris mould, and drops small pieces of paper into paste, or uses papier mache powder to make required composition; turns out casting, so formed, when it is dry enough; sometimes also makes mould, cf. papier mache hand (558).
thong maker (whips)
braids cotton, by machine, on to strips of calico to form separate thongs for attaching to whip handles; cf. whip thong maker (348), and whip braider.
tong coverer
covers handles of tongs used by furnacemen, etc., by winding them round by hand with asbestos or other heat insulating material.
toy maker, soft
general term for any person engaged in making soft dolls, animals, etc., including designer, cutter (403), machinist (419), stuffer, finisher, lyncher q.v.; often also makes tea cosies, hot water bottle covers, etc.
whip braider
places bobbins, filled alternately with cotton and gut, in braiding machine; suspends stock over centre of machine and attaches weight to end of stock to pull down slowly as braiding proceeds; fixes ends of cotton and gut to whip stock; pulls lever to set machine in motion; if cotton or gut breaks under strain, repairs it by hand.
whip finisher
fixes brass or white metal mounts on whip handles by means of heated powdered rosin, and nails them in position with small tacks; draws on stitched leather sheath and fixes it on handle by glueing; cleans up and polishes whip ready for packing.
whip maker
general term for workers engaged in making and assembling whips, including whip stocker, whip braider, whip finisher, paperer-on (whips) (689)whip handle stitcher (348), and whip handle coverer (348) q.v.
wirer (artificial flowers)
(i) see sticker (artificial leaves);
(ii) see artificial flower maker (paper flower making).
wood puzzle cutter ; jigsaw puzzle maker
cuts jigsaw puzzles with jig or fret saw; sometimes stencils outline, or draws outline freehand in pencil, on hack of puzzle, to guide him in cutting outline, but often cuts puzzle without first marking it in any way.
work basket fitter
affixes metal catches and fastenings, by screwing, clamping, or sewing, on interior and exterior of a lady's work basket.
work box fitter
as for work basket fitter.
wreath maker (artificial flowers), artificial wreath maker
(i) an artificial flower mounter q.v. who makes up wreaths or sprays of artificial flowers;
(ii) builds up, usually on wire foundation prepared by wire frame maker (278), funeral wreaths of artificial flowers, leaves, grasses, etc.

Back to List of Occupational Codes

From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.