A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Makers of Musical Instruments (not Piano, etc., Case Makers)

648.—Other Skilled Workers

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accordion maker
as for concertina maker.
adjuster (gramophones)
adjusts position of worm-drive of gramophone motor with a watchmaker's (or other) screw driver; starts motor, and listens whether it is running silently and efficiently; if not, readjusts worm-drive until it is in exactly right position, and motor is running perfectly.
assembler, case assembler (gramophones)
places zinc template on board forming inside top of gramaphone [sic] case; marks, with pencil, size and position of holes to be drilled therein; drills holes, either by hand or, more usually, by drilling machine; inserts motor in case; pulls four corner rivets of motor through holes drilled for them; puts on rivet heads and washers, and screws these on corner rivets, thus securing centre motor spindle (over which record is placed) in vertical position; puts on turn table, and makes it run true by tightening, if necessary, corner rivets.
assembler, motor (gramophones)
see gramophone fitter.
backer-up (gramophone records)
solders metal backs to matrix, to form solid plate for use in moulds.
banjo maker
(i) zither banjos , measures, saws off and shapes neck by planing, spokeshaving, sandpapering; chisels and saws out wood to form body joint or fiat scroll; cuts to shape and smooths with plane and sandpaper, ebony for finger board; glues to neck and cuts grooves for insertion of metal cross pieces to indicate fingering; planes ends of piece of steam-bent wood for lapping, and glues ends together to form a hoop for sides of banjo body; finishes it with sandpaper, etc.; places several layers of veneer together, to make arched back, and presses them to shape in a dry-heated metal hand press or mould; shapes, with hand tools, wooden support for arched back; glues veneer to this, and glues support to sides; ornaments body by cutting veneer or other inlay and inlaying; for processes, see cabinet maker (473);
(ii) ordinary banjos, receives metal body, complete, from brass finisher (224) q.v., and lines it with steam-bent wood, which ends for lapping and glues ends together to form a hoop; pushes hoop so formed into metal body when glue has set; makes neck of banjo, as for zither banjo, and connects neck with metal body, usually by boring hole in wooden lining to correspond with hole in wooden shell, inserting wooden stick therein and screwing it into position; is usually a specialised cabinet maker (473) q.v.
bellows fitter (reed organs, etc.)
fits bellows into reed organs with screws, etc.; sometimes also makes bellows.
bellows hand, bellows maker (pipe organs)
an organ builder q.v. engaged in making bellows for pipe organs; makes top and bottom framework of wood, with ordinary cabinetmaker's tools; cuts and fits leather valves and bellows, connecting them to top and bottom by cementing, gluing, etc.; varnishes or stains parts, as necessary; in some cases, glues leather on to wood inside bellows to keep out damp; great care is needed in wood work, to make joins perfectly sound, and in leather work, to cut leather perfectly true and cement it strongly, as strain on bellows is great; in most factories, is usually known as an organ builder q.v.
bellows maker (reed organs, harmoniums, etc.)
cuts wood to required dimensions with hand tools, and glues and screws pieces together to form frame of bellows; fixes leather, tosh (rubberised canvas) or other material to frame.
bellows mender
replaces worn or defective leather or other parts of bellows with new material, which he screws, nails, or glues on to framework.
concertina maker
general term covering all workers engaged in making concertinas, e.g. action maker (642), bellows maker (348), body maker (486), finisher (486), pan maker (486), reed frame maker (278), reed maker q.v.
drum maker
if shell is of wood, receives wood, for shell, which has been steam-bent and rolled up; planes it and scrapes it with steel scraper; cuts wood to required length, planes ends where they are to overlap and secures laps with glue, and sometimes with nails; if shell is of brass, receives shell, already prepared by coppersmith (227) q.v.; planes and scrapes wooden hoops so that they exactly fit over shell, and fits them on; drills holes in hoops (to receive cords) with brace and bit, and chars holes with a hot poker, to harden them, or screws on metal fittings to receive cords; soaks vellum in water until it is soft, then tucks it round hoop and leaves it to dry; when it has dried stiff, presses hoop and vellum over shell, and tightens vellum with cords or screws.
drum stick maker
for side drums, turns, on lathe, drum sticks complete from ebony, partridge, or lancewood; for bass drums, receives a ball of felt (for drum stick head) ready made, or makes it himself, by gluing together several layers of thick hard felt into a rough ball, and turns it to shape of drum stick head on a lathe; bores hole in ball, on a lathe, for insertion of stick; turns a lining of wood or metal, for hole, and fits stick into lining by gluing, wedging, or cementing according to material used; shapes stick, if necessary, on lathe.
examiner (gramophones), gramophone examiner ; gramophone tester
examines gramophones and records, at various stages of manufacture, to detect defects in material or workmanship.
felt maker (piano)
see hammer coverer.
finisher (harmoniums)
fits bellows into case; fits pan, i.e. reed wind chest, with pallets, i.e. mechanism fitted under reed to control passage of wind, stems, and reeds by screwing them in, and regulates them; fixes pan on top of bellows; fixes together remainder of case after mechanism has been fitted in case; has specialised knowledge of particular type of instrument on which he is working, and can make delicate adjustments therein.
finisher (pianos), piano finisher
(i) receives action parts in bundles, and assembles them into complete actions, as for action assembler (042);
(ii) receives actions ready assembled; screws assembled action into piano case over keys, chiselling, filing and otherwise trimming piano frame and/or action beam to make action fit exactly into frame; sees that proper contact is made between action and keys; cuts hammer shanks, if necessary, to correct length, with a small hand saw, and glues hammers into action; adjusts setting of action parts roughly and approximately to frame, by unscrewing wooden screw heads, called buttons, which are part of connecting and adjusting mechanism; prepares piano for final process of adjustment, cf. regulator (642); is sometimes known as action finisher, but must be distinguished from action finisher (642) q.v.
finisher (piano keys)
places individual keys on key frame, and regulates and adjusts each key with plane to ensure evenness and correct spacing.
finisher (wood wind instruments)
(i) where work is sectionalised, receives instrument, after it has been mounted by mounter q.v. and polished, and removes any polishing material that may be left by pulling threads through key bearings; fixes pads (made by other workers) with shellac or sealing wax, and screws in springs; fits keys, notched by mounter q.v., into instrument by inserting bearing pins into their pivots; cuts cork stops with hand knife, in order to fit and adjust them;
(ii) where work is not sectionalised, receives wooden or ebonite parts of instrument, which have been roughed bored, and turned by other workers, also receives keys; fits keys to wooden or ebonite parts and brings instrument to condition ready for use.
fitter, fitter-up (banjos)
receives banjos, banjolines, etc., complete, with body and. neck fitted together, and polished; also receives keys, i.e. pegs, for scroll, tail piece, peg and bridge, vellum, screws, and other attachments for tightening vellum, and strings; completes instrument, precise operations varying according to particular type of instrument; usually soaks vellum in water to soften it, stretches it over body and tightens it; cf. drum maker; drills holes for tail piece and inserts it; cuts wire to lengths, files it to shape, and presses it into grooves cut by banjo maker q.v. to indicate fingering; bores key holes in scroll, fits keys therein, and screws them and screw-plates to scroll; strings banjo.
fitter, matrix (gramophone); gramophone matrix fitter
takes matrix, i.e. a metal disc, on which depressions in original wax record, have been reproduced in relief, and stamps out hole in centre, by putting a circular guillotine knife over centre, and reciprocal part underneath, and clamping whole and screwing down in a hand press to pierce round hole in centre; takes matrix and fits it in a shallow circular bed or trough, called a mould, taking care that hole in matrix fits on to hard raised centre of mould; places a metal rim on outer edge of matrix and secures it to matrix and to mould with a number of screws set round edge.
fitter-up (brass wind instruments)
see maker (brass wind instruments).
frame marker (pianos)
see marker-off (pianos).
frame worker, iron frame worker (pianos)
prepares cast iron frame of piano for bronzing or gilding, by filling up uneven surface of casting with iron "filler" (iron cement), and applying one or two coats of body paint to give it a smooth surface.
glockenspiel maker
saws steel bars to required length with a hand or machine saw; sets up lathe or drilling machine, and drills holes in bars, ready for insertion of screws in mounting; files ends or back of bar with a hand file, to reduce length or thickness, thereby altering pitch of note (tuning); strikes bar with a wooden hammer, and compares note given out with that of a standard glockenspiel; continues tuning until note is in perfect accord with standard; saws and planes wood, and screws pieces together to form a wooden frame; mounts glockenspiel, by screwing down tuned bars of metal in correct arrangement for scales.
gramophone fitter, gramophone erector ; mechanic (gramophones), motor assembler
assembles clockwork mechanism and sound-boxes of gramophones, ready for putting into cases.
gramophone maker
general term for any worker engaged in making or assembling component parts of gramophones.
gramophone soundbox examiner, gramophone soundbox tester
turns soundbox over in hands, and looks for bad turning or planing or other faults in workmanship, or for faults in assembling; if no such defects are observable, puts soundbox on an instrument, and plays a standard record; listens carefully to playing of record, with special reference to detection of overtones (a common fault), etc.; if there are no overtones, etc., passes soundbox.
gramophone soundbox fitter
as for gramophone fitter.
gramophone soundbox maker
general term covering millers (200), turners (200), drillers (200), metal polishers (238), nickel platers (282) and assemblers q.v., engaged in making or performing one or more operations upon, gramophone soundboxes, or parts thereof.
gramophone tester
see examiner (gramophones).
hammer coverer (pianos) ; felt maker (pianos)
covers piano hammers by glueing on prepared strips of felt, graduated in thickness according to position of hammers in piano action; either covers and trims each hammer head separately, or, more usually, puts a number of hammer heads together in a clamp, on bench; coats them with glue; covers them with a sheet of felt and cuts hammers apart again, unless this is done by cutter-up (649) q.v.; tapers felt, if necessary, by paring.
hammer finisher
performs any or all of operations involved in finishing hammers after they have been covered by hammer coverer q.v.; includes trimmer, shanker (649), stitching hand (649), machine hand (486), hole borer (486), paper hand (499) q.v.
hammer maker (pianos)
makes wooden portions of hammers by hand and wood-shaping machine; tapers off, with a sharp knife or chisel, and parts (or cuts) felt covering; sometimes performs all operations of hammer coverer and hammer finisher q.v.
harp maker
general term covering any workers, other than polishers (478) and gilders (485) q.v., engaged in making either wooden or metal parts of harps; if a wood-worker, is usually a specialised cabinet maker (473) q.v. who cuts and shapes wood, with saws, planes, chisels, gouges, and other cabinet maker's tools, to make wooden frame of harp; in repair work, cuts away defective parts and makes fresh parts, and glues or screws fresh parts into position; if a metal worker, may be a brass finisher (224) q.v. or any other machine tool worker; ordinarily, he drills and clamps together double plates, and screws in movable steel connecting rods; screws this entire apparatus, which controls pitch of strings, into position on harp.
inside hand, general inside hand (pipe organs)
an organ builder q.v. engaged in workshop where organ builders specialise in different branches; makes and fits up action controls, soundboard and similar work appertaining to inside of pipe organ as distinct from organ case making or specialised work, such as wooden pipe making; in most factories, is usually known as an organ builder q.v.
instrument maker
general term tor any person engaged in making musical instruments; usually either a wood wind instrument maker q.v. or a brass musical instrument maker q.v. but occasionally combines both occupations.
key and action maker (barrel organs)
tempers small steel points by heating, on gas apparatus; drills, by hand, specified holes in wooden levers; inserts and adjusts steel pins in levers, taking care to make them even; drills, by hand, holes at top of lever into which iron or steel legs are fitted; glues calf skin to hammer, and screws hammer on to other end of steel leg.
key maker, metal key maker (wood wind musical instruments)
(i) takes wire of German silver, and forges it, cold, to as near shape and size of keys as possible; files it, and rubs it with emery, to bring it to shape of finished pattern; solders on cup (made by other workers), on which finisher (wood wind instruments) q.v. afterwards fixes pad;
(ii) in lower-grade work, receives rough casting of key, which he hammers lightly to harden it, then files, etc., and solders on cup, as described above.
maker, maker and fitter (brass wind instruments), brass instrument maker, brass musical instrument maker ; fitter-up (brass wind instruments)
receives brass tubes (unbent), bells, i.e. bell-shaped ends of tubes, and valves; heats lead in furnace to melt it, plugs ends of tubes, pours molten lead into 'tubes, and allows it to set; puts tubes, filled with lead, in holes in bench, and bends them to approximate shape required; works tubes by hand or with crowbars, into iron blocks, placed in position to shape them; smooths bends with small hammers; heats tubes and runs off lead; removes fine surface abrasions from tubes by rubbing them through holes; saws tubes to required lengths; fits tubes together, and joins them with solder and blow-pipe; places valves in position, and solders connections which connect valve tubes to main instrument tubes; cuts brass sheet to required shape, and shapes it, by filing and by rubbing over mould, to make flange of stay; cuts brass wire rod to required lengths for stays, and solders them to tubes and also to protection caps, used for strengthening exposed parts of instrument.
maker (wood wind instruments)
in small workshops, combines work of setting-out, mounting and finishing, which would be sectionalised in larger shops; takes wooden parts, which have been roughly shaped and bored by other workers, and bores holes in them for notes; then mounts and finishes instruments; cf. mounter and finisher (wood wind instruments).
marker-off (pianos) ; frame marker
carves bridges, i.e. beams between which strings are stretched, by hand, with chisels, and fits bridge pins; fixes iron frame in position on soundboard; marks off position of pins to form scales, and drills holes for wrest pins in wrest pin plank, either with an ordinary hand drill or with an electric hand pistol drill.
mechanic (gramophones)
see gramophone fitter.
mounter (wood wind instruments)
receives wooden or ebonite sections or joints of body of instrument, which have been roughed, bored and turned by other workers; also receives keys (not completed), saddles, lengths of pivot tube and pillars, etc.; screws pillars into sections of body; sets up rills on lathe, and pierces therewith pillars for insertion of pivots; notches keys, either by drilling on lathe or by hand filing; fits pivot tube by cutting and filing down ends, or by reducing in lathe; fits and silver-solders lengths of pivot tube in instrument to match spaces between pillars; cuts away pieces from wooden or ebonite sections of body of instrument, with small chisels, gouges, etc., to make room for key work.
mounter and finisher (wood wind instruments)
combines work of mounter and of finisher (wood wind instruments) q.v.
music marker (barrel organs)
clamps cartridge-covered roller in a machine, and, reading from musical score, interprets music for barrel organ by pressing levers which cause pin-pricks to be made in roller, ready for insertion of steel pins; work requires great accuracy and a competent knowledge of music.
organ builder (pipe organs)
general term for any worker capable of performing all duties in processes of organ building, including action fitter (pipe organs) (642), bellows maker, general inside hand, inside hand, organ erector, organ fitter, soundboard maker q.v.; makes and fits up actions of organs i.e. all mechanism connecting keys with pipes such as touch boxes, connections from touch boxes to keys, coupling chests, intermediate, primary actions; receives specifications from foreman and orders wood from timber yard; prepares drawings, if necessary, and marks out on paper all large cutting, planing and boring work to be done in machine shop; constructs parts of organ actions from prepared timber, with saw, chisels, plane, hand drills, and other hand tools; sometimes also uses machine fret saw or small band saw; cuts, to size, leather parts and fittings and glues them on; makes, in same way, small subsidiary parts and glues them on; stains or varnishes action parts; joints, rivets, couples up, and adjusts parts until all connections are working smoothly; frequently also (i) makes organ case (by sawing, planing, chiselling, screwing and jointing) and ornaments it with simple carving,
(ii) constructs wooden pipes, to specified dimensions, by cutting out and joining up sides, marking and cutting out orifice and inserting cross-piece above languid; in small workshops, makes, with assistance, organ throughout, including organ case, and may also' assist in tuning and in voicing; in large workshops, often specialises in one or more processes of manufacture.
organ erector (pipe organs)
an organ builder q.v. who, with other workers to assist him, is sent from factory to erect organ in situ; fixes case in position, lays down sound boards and bellows; sets up pipes and connects action and key work by bolting, screwing and otherwise securing parts which have been previously fitted together in factory and do not require further adaptation; in most factories, is usually known as an organ builder q.v.
organ finisher
see tuner and regulator (pipe organs).
organ fitter (pipe organs)
an organ builder q.v. who fits together, in factory, parts of pipe organs, which are usually made by other workers; sometimes makes, wholly or partly, one or more parts himself, using fret-saw, band-saw or lathe; fits parts by riveting) jointing, glueing on leather strips, varnishing, adapting by chiselling, etc., using a hammer, saw, chisel, rule, square and other hand tools; in most factories, is usually known as an organ builder q.v.
percussion instrument maker
general term for any person engaged in any process of making percussion instruments, including drum maker, xylophone maker q.v.
pinner (barrel organs)
inserts, with pliers and pressing machine worked by treadle, steel pins in positions marked by music marker q.v. on revolving cylinder or roller of barrel organ.
piston, maker (brass musical instruments)
see valve maker.
player fitter (player pianos)
fits pneumatic actions (top and bottom) into player pianos; cuts parts to receive rails; pushes rubber tubes into position, and links up with top and bottom action by screwing and clamping.
player mechanic (player pianos)
general term for any person who makes and assembles parts of player pianos, including player assembler (642), player fitter, bottom action maker (642) and top action maker (642) q.v.
pneumatic hand (player pianos)
makes, by hand, from rubberised cloth, wood, and leather, with glue, "pneumatics" (small bellows, one for each note) to be fitted in player pianos by top action maker (642) q.v.
preparer (barrel organs)
fits roller, or revolving cylinder, of barrel organ and key frame action into organ case; examines and adjusts eccentric change-tune machine to ensure that various tunes marked on barrel are correctly divided, and that pins work correctly with key points.
presser, record
press man (gramophone, etc., records); picks up piece of thermoplastic composition, cut to appropriate size by rollerman q.v., and weighs it to ensure that it is of exact weight required; places it on a steam-heated table and rolls it until it becomes plastic and heated evenly and to correct temperature, under influence of heat of table; selects correct label from a supply before him, and places it over centre portion of mould, into which matrix, i.e. a metallic disc, has been fitted by matrix fitter q.v.; secures label with a metal pin; scrapes up all heated composition with a metal scraper, and puts it on matrix; superimposed another matrix, into which he has also fitted a label; places these two matrices, in juxtaposition, in hydraulic press, which he sets in motion with a lever; when composition has been pressed out to shape of record, removes it from mould, tapping mould sharply on table to loosen record.
reed board fitter (reed organs)
a finisher q.v. specialising in fitting of reed boards in large shop where work is sectionalised, or a partially skilled workman, not fully qualified as a finisher, engaged in fitting reed boards; glues stems to pallet; slips pallets, with steins attached, into grooves in reed board, and screws reed board into position in case of reed organ.
reed maker (concertinas) ; concertina tuner
cuts strip steel, with hand tools, roughly to size of reed tongue; files tongue to exact shape and size required, and screws it in; tests reed in a tester, i.e. an instrument resembling a concertina, comparing sound of each reed with that of a standard reed; continues filing tongue and testing reed until it is true to pitch.
reed maker (harmoniums, etc.)
screws in small tongue of sheet metal, which nearly fills aperture in metal holder, so that one end of tongue is free to vibrate; tunes reed by scraping its open end.
reed maker (musical instruments)
makes reeds for wind instruments, e.g. melodians, flutes, piccolos, etc., either in metal, by drilling and screwing stamped metal tongue to stamped metal reed block, or soldering them together, or in cane by cutting with hand tools, and binding with treated cotton and cement.
reed maker (pipe organs)
assembles parts of reeds, metal tongue, wooden wedge and shallot; fixes tongue firmly in cylindrical metal shallot by means of wedges, so that when open end of shallot is blown, vibration of free end of tongue emits required tone.
regulator (organs)
see tuner and regulator (pipe organs).
regulator (player pianos)
checks and adjusts pneumatic work and mechanical action of player pianos.
repairer (pianos and organs)
effects small repairs to pianos or organs, e.g. applies new felt coverings to hammers of pianos; repolishes, restrings and sometimes tunes pianos; or carries out small repairs to reeds and bellows of harmonium or organ.
repasser and finisher (barrel organs)
plays organ after revolving cylinder has been pinned, see pinner, to see that it is in order; corrects any false notes, by adjusting mechanism, or if position of pins is faulty, returns instrument to be re-pinned.
rollerman, roller mill hand (gramophone records)
adjusts valves, i.e. screws, to regulate heat of hot and of cool (not cold) rolls; watches temperature constantly and keeps rolls at correct temperature throughout rolling operations; adjusts interval between rolls by means of screws; throws between rolls, with a scoop or shovel, material, in powdered form, which is supplied to him by labourers, or throws in broken records, which are pulverised between rolls; material is reduced to plastic consistency, and adheres to cool roll in form of a continuous sheet; sets a fixed knife in position, which scrapes sheet of plastic material, i.e. composition, off roll; throws composition, without breaking it, on to a long metal table, where it is cut up by labourers into approximately equal quantities, each enough for one record.
soundboard hand, soundboard maker (organs)
an organ builder q.v. engaged in making soundboards for pipe organs; receives instructions respecting the number and type of pipes that are to be fitted over the soundboard; inspects organ action, and spaces out soundboard by measuring and marking accordingly; drills, files and shapes (usually with hand tools only) holes in soundboard which allow wind to pass to pipes, making size and shape of holes to correspond with position and requirement of each particular pipe, and with organ action working in conjunction therewith; in most factories, is usually known as an organ builder q.v., cf. soundboard hand (pianos) (498).
stringer (pianos)
cuts piano strings to length, with hand clippers; screws in wrest pins, and attaches piano strings thereto.
tambourine maker
takes a piece of steam-bent wood, and saws it to required length; bores holes, for insertion of jingles, with hand brace and bit; planes ends and glues them together to form shell of tambourine; soaks calf skin, to soften it; when it has dried to proper condition, stretches it over shell and nails it thereto with small brass nails; places jingles in position in holes bored for them.
tester (brass wind instruments) ; tuner (brass wind instruments)
tests instrument by playing scales and chords, and judging whether notes are true or not; if instrument fails to pass test, returns it to be dismantled, with a view to defect being remedied.
tester (wood wind instruments) ; tuner (wood wind instruments)
tests instrument by playing scales and chords, and judging whether notes are true or not; if any note is faulty, scrapes larger hole producing that particular note, holes having been made slightly smaller than eventually necessary to allow for extension.
toner (pipe organs)
see voicer (pipe organs).
trimmer (piano hammers)
trims, with a chisel, rough edges of piano hammers after they have been covered with felt.
tuner (brass and wood wind instruments)
(i) see tester (brass wind instruments);
(ii) see tester (wood wind instruments).
tuner, concertina
see reed maker (concertinas).
tuner (pipe organs)
tunes, i.e. varies pitch of, organ pipes;
(i) metal pipes, bends metal tuning slot at top of pipe so that gap made by slot is increased in length from top of pipe to raise pitch or decreased to lower pitch of note; makes small changes in pitch by slightly opening or closing top of pipe by means of conical wedge and hammer;
(ii) wooden pipes, drives in stop in top of pipe to raise pitch or pulls it out slightly to lower pitch of note.
tuner (reed organ)
see voicer and tuner (reed organs).
tuner and regulator (pipe organs) ; organ finisher, regulator
a tuner q.v. who also regulates strength of tone of organ pipe by blowing, i.e. by altering size of orifice, an operation requiring great exactness; in case of metal pipes, either cuts or scrapes away metal from rim of hole at loot of pipe (to give more wind), or taps and works metal (to give less wind); in case of wooden pipes, either enlarges hole by chiselling, or narrows it by adding a strip of wood of appropriate size, and screwing it or gluing it on.
tympani maker
as for drum maker.
valve maker (brass musical instruments) ; piston maker
(i) sets up drilling machine, and bores holes in brass tubes for pump, i.e. moving piston, of valve, taking care to get holes in exactly right position; if necessary, finishes off holes by filing; drills, fits in, and secures in position, with blowpipe and silver solder, cross tubes into holes previously bored in body of valve pump; bends connecting tubes, through which wind passes from valves to main tubes of instrument; bores holes in piston, i.e. outside case of valve, to correspond with connecting tubes, and solders connecting tubes to piston; also solders several pistons together, with blow-pipe and silver solder; pickles soldered parts in vitriol to remove flux; 'trepans surplus ends from cross tubes fitted in pump, and also ends of connecting tubes protruding inside pump; turns and grinds pump and piston on a lathe, to make them work smoothly together; smooths parts of valve by applying them to a revolving stick and mop, coated with pumice and oil, and fitted into a lathe; sets up lathe, in all cases where lathe is used;
(ii) a less skilled worker, making one of valve parts but not fitting them together.
voicer, flue voicer (pipe organs) ; tuner (pipe organs)
voices, i.e. varies tone of, organ pipes (varying in length from a few inches to thirty feet), by inserting and pressing into position, and adjusting at correct angle, a projecting tongue at top of orifice, known as a languid, using a hand tool called a languid lift; serrates and cuts nicks in edge of lip in small aperture of windway, thereby making a "comb," to split and regulate wind; files and bends lip, as may be necessary, to control size and angle of opening; files off superfluous material from projecting ears at orifice, to bring them to correct length; from time to time tries all pipes on a voicing machine, i.e. a kind of small organ used for testing purposes; cf. reed voicer.
voicer and tuner, reed voicer (reed organs, etc.) ; tuner (reed organs)
cuts tongue of reed out of a thin sheet of brass with a hand guillotine; files it to required thickness; puts it upon an arc-shaped stand, and rubs it to required curved shape with a hand tool; cements a piece of piano felt on tip of reed tongue and a circular piece of lead foil on top of felt; fits tongue into place on body, or challis, of reed against V-shaped wind opening; inserts whole in a metal tube, which he fits into foot of metal pipe; voices reed, i.e. varies its tone, by sliding a metal rod along tongue of reed, allowing more or less space, as may be required, for tongue to vibrate; uses voicing machine, a kind of small organ used for testing purposes; if reed is then found to be faulty, files, cuts, re-makes and re-fits defective parts until defect is removed; cf. flue voicer.
wood wind instrument maker
general term for any person engaged in any process of making flutes, clarionets, or other wind instruments of wood, including rougher and borer (486), turner (486), keymaker, and mounter and finisher q.v.; sometimes specifically designated according to instrument made, e.g., bassoon maker, clarionet maker, cor anglais maker, flageolet maker, flute maker, oboe maker, piccolo maker.
xylophone maker
saws rosewood to approximate length for making xylophone notes; chisels and planes it to shape, flattening base and rounding side of wood to be struck by hammers, in form of an arc; cuts off ends of notes to shorten them, or chips, planes, etc., notes to reduce thickness, thereby tuning them; length and thickness required depend on varying properties of wood treated; bores holes for cords or gut binding; saws and planes wood for frame and screws pieces together to make a complete frame; bunches straw, and lays it in frame or inserts rubber supports; binds wooden notes, in proper order, to straw and frame, or threads cords through rubber supports and binds to frame.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.