A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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429.—Other Workers

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backgirl (Swiss embroidery)
see shuttle girl.
bag bundler
as for folder.
baister puller
pulls or takes out tacking stitches, after garment or part of garment has been finished.
bander (gloves)
pins paper bands round each half-dozen pairs of gloves when completed.
barrer, barring hand
sews, by hand or machine, a strong seam of locked thread where vamps of hoot or shoe uppers join, thereby strengthening part which bears greatest strain when uppers arc pulled on to last.
barrer-off (clothing)
makes, by sewing, a bar of twist or four-cord thread at one end of buttonhole to fasten off machine button holing; also stitches bars at each end of pocket slits, etc. for strengthening purposes.
beater-out (boots)
see hammerer-off.
benchman, bench-hand
(i) see getter-off;
(ii) putter-up; prepares boot impairing leather for sewing machine, by damping it, cutting to shape, skiving edges, etc., takes off worn parts of old hoot and shoe leather, i.e. part of old sole and top piece of heel; channels new soles ready for stitching, or inserts rivets if article is not to be stitched.
bitter (boots) ; plougher-out
levels welt of boot or shoe by hand with a welt plough, i.e. a specially shaped knife, or by machine, in preparation for edge trimming.
bitter, forepart
a bitter q.v. who specialises in levelling welts of foreparts of boots and shoes.
black edger (gloves) ; edge blacker
stains, with a blackened pad, as received from machinist, the white edge left on black kid gloves.
blacks edges and insteps of clog-soles, by hand, with a brush.
bobber, needle bobber
takes needles out of Swiss embroidery machine and hand pantograph machine, after use for a particular pattern, in readiness for re-setting.
touches up inside of hard felt hats, by painting it with dope, where proofing has not been properly done.
brander ; initialler, marker (tents, tarpaulins, etc.), stamper, stenciller
(i) one of two workers who together stencil names, trade marks, etc., on sacks and bags, by hand; stretches sack etc., holds stencil in place, and paints over it with stencil brush;
(ii) see printer.
brander, sole
see stamper, sole.
brush machine operator, brasher (boots)
see polisher, bottom.
brusher, straw plait brasher (straw hats)
brushes straw plait by hand after it has been bleached and dyed.
brusher, brusher-off (tailoring) ; cleaner (tailoring)
brushes finished garments before they are packed.
brusher-up ; cleaner, boot cleaner
removes stains or marks, produced on boots during manufacture, and puts final polish thereon, either by hand, or with a machine consisting of a revolving shaft, bearing cloth pads and soft brushes.
buffer, bottom buffer (boot, shoe) ; fine scourer
holds boot or shoe against revolving cylinder of a buffing machine, which gives an extra smooth scouring to sole bottoms by rubbing grain off leather; may scour boots by hand with sand paper and emery cloth.
buncher, straw plait buncher
ties, by band, with string, straw plait into bundles of certain numbers of lengths ready for despatch.
burnisher (boots)
rubs heels, or strips, i.e. back pieces of boots and shoes with wax ball and hot iron, to give a smooth bright (or burnished) appearance; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., heel burnisher, strip burnisher.
sews buttons by band, or sews or rivets them by machine, on boots, shoes, shirts, gloves, knitted underwear, etc.; usually specifically named according to article, e.g., collar buttoner, cuff buttoner, glove buttoner, shirt collar buttoner.
button hole cutter
cuts button boles in uppers of boots by band with chisel and mallet on a block; or holds front of upper under punch of buttonhole cutting machine.
calender girl
a presser (428) q.v. who smoothes finished embroidered articles with small calendering machine.
prepares canvas for use in coat making, by damping and drying, to ensure complete shrinkage before use.
capper (felt hats)
places paper caps over crowns of felt hats to protect nap after finishing process.
carder (velour hats)
combs nap of velour hats with a card (a brush like holder set with teeth of steel wire) by hand, after brushing.
cementer (boots)
see solutioner.
channel closer
relays lip of channel (see channel opener), i.e. rubs it down and then hammers it flat, after stitches have been made in it, which bind sole to welt; works either by hand, with a file, or by machine; often done by leveller q.v.
channeller, sole channeller
operates channelling machine which cuts a slit (or "channel ") round edge of inner or outer sole of boot or shoe, in which the stitches are run, the "channel" then being closed up round the stitches to protect them from wear; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. insole channeller, outsole channeller.
channel opener, sole channel opener ; rubber-up
takes channelled sole and applies lip of channel to whirl attachment of machine, which opens channel and causes lip to stand almost at right angles to sole; sometimes also cuts channel, cf. channeller; often further designated according to part of boot worked on, e.g., insole channel opener, outsole channel opener.
chopper (boots)
places rough or scrap leather on upturned shape-knife, strikes leather with mallet and so cuts out a small section of leather which is used for building up cheaper heels.
clasper, clog
affixes clasps to clogs by means of machine; sometimes done by clog seatsman (415) q.v. or by packer and stacker (949) q.v.
clasper (gloves)
see domer.
cleaner, bag ; duster, duster girl, shaker girl
feeds second-hand sacks (inside out) into power-driven dusting machine, which (i) takes them over a roller between brushes, removes dust by suction, and returns to front of machine, or
(ii) revolves them in polygonal cage; stacks bags after cleaning.
cleaner, boot cleaner
see brusher-up.
cleaner, copper
scours, with sand, brushes, etc., copper boilers used in straw hat making processes.
cleaner, dye vat (straw plait dyeing)
as for cleaner, copper.
cleaner, hat
see scourer (hats).
cleaner, sprig ; sprig polisher
removes paint (or ink) from heads of sprigs (rivets), with a blunt knife, after boot and shoe soles have been painted or inked and rubs smooth with polishing rag.
cleaner, stitch (boots)
cleans stitches of welted or stitched boots and shoes with a bone tool which has a partly corrugated surface and a solution of gum-arabic and oxalic acid (for natural coloured welts) or of gum only (for black welts).
cleaner, straw plait
cleans straw plait which has been soiled in transit or storehouse, by washing in tanks of water and drying in hot air chambers.
cleaner (tailoring)
see brusher (tailoring).
clips, with scissors, loose threads from embroidery.
clip puncher and fastener
see fastener.
collar stamper
stamps size, initials or devices on inside of collar, by hand or machine, using indelible ink.
copper minder (straw plait) ; dye rut watcher
attends to copper boilers, or vats, in which straw plait is dyed.
coupler (clogs)
see tacker.
assists planker (409) q.v. by opening and refolding "form" of felt hat each time it passes through multi-roller pranking machine, or while it is being planked by hand, to prevent felting of seams and to ensure uniform shape.
cutter, applique (embroidery)
cuts away surplus material, with scissors or power-cutting machine after pattern has been embroidered.
cutter, fourchette; forget cutter
cuts side pieces for fingers of glove (called fourchettes or forgets) from odd pieces of leather, by hand with shears .and pattern; cf. glove cutter (411).
cutter, linen
cuts linen lengths into small round pieces for linen buttons, using hand or machine press.
cutter, lining ; puncher (glove lining)
a puncher q.v. who places punch on fabric and releases press which punches-out several layers of glove lining fabric at one operation; cf., press cutter (403).
cutter, thumb
cuts glove thumb pieces (fabric gloves) by hand or power press or (leather gloves) by means of shears.
see parer (embroidery).
damper (boots) ; wetter
soaks leather bends in clean soft water; drains them in racks, and places them in dark, or subdued light, until mellow and ready for making into boots, etc.
damper-down (boots)
smooths bottom j of sole of a boot or shoe with a pad . of clean, white flannel, damped with special solution, as a finishing touch, to bring out grain.
domer, glove domer ; clasper, fastening riveter
attaches, by machine riveting, domes (clip fasteners) to gloves; places fastener on glove in position in machine, and pulls lever.
duster, duster girl
see cleaner, bag.
dyer's labourer
stirs bats in dyeing vats with a pole, and assists dyer (428) q.v. generally.
dye vat watcher
see copper minder.
edge blacker
see black edger.
errand girl
see matcher ; cf. errand girl (758).
eyelet hole maker
see eyeletter (corsets).
pierces, by band with stiletto, or by hand machine, small holes or eyelets in tailor's cloth, or other textile material, to be worked round with strengthening stitches by button holer (419) q.v.
eyeletter (boots) ; hooker, puncher
(i) puts eyelets, studs or hooks in boot uppers, by hand, with punch and hammer;
(ii) feeds top and bottom parts of eyelet to hoppers of automatic machine; places boot or shoe upper in position in machine and releases lever.
eyeletter (braces)
operates press which fastens leather tabs to metal parts of braces by means of eyelets.
eyeletter (corsets) ; eyelet hole maker
operates a hand or power-driven press, which carries corset automatically under two punches; these cut circular holes in cloth, insert metal eyelets therein, fold eyelets over, and press them down tightly.
eyeletter (felt hats) ; perforator
stamps, by hand machine, vents and perforations in crown after hat is made.
eyeletter (tents, tarpaulins, etc.) ; grummetter
(i) cuts holes in canvas and sews with thread round edge by hand;
(ii) sews round eyelets with special machine;
(iii) inserts brass eyelets with a hand press machine.
fastener, fastener fixer, clip fastener ; clip puncher and fastener
attaches press studs or clip fasteners to peaks and fronts of caps, using a hand punching machine.
filler, bottom (boots)
fills in cavity that would otherwise be formed between sole and insole, before sole is attached, with some kind of filling such as leather, leather scraps, tarred felt, sheet cork, ground cork and cement, ground leather waste or cement; in very common work, may fill with cardboard.
filler (down)
(i) (hand) stuffs down, feathers, or kapok into made-up pillow or quilt covers, and packs it into place with filler-pipe or stick;
(ii) (machine) guides funnel or filling machine and regulates amount of down or kapok put into made-up quilt covers.
fingerer (gloves)
closes, i.e., sews up, finger pieces by hand or, more usually, by treadle machine.
general term for any worker engaged in any final process of making up textile goods, e.g., sewing on of buttons, eyeletting, belt finishing.
folds finished articles in preparation for packing; sometimes specifically designated according to work handled, e.g., bag folder, belt folder, scarf folder.
folder (gloves)
folds tranks, fourchettes, and thumbs in half-dozens and bands them ready for sewing.
front girl (Swiss embroidery)
threads needles at front of Swiss embroidering machine while it is working, using a small hook.
fudger, stitch fudger
a wheeler (boots) q.v. who works round edge of sole.
getter-off ; bench hand, benchman
examines boots when completed and performs final finishing operations, e.g. fills defective channels; polishes off and pairs up finished articles, ready for stock room; also does diggering and marking; cf. marker and diggerer (414).
glosser, boot ; boot polisher, boot stainer
applies polishing wax, paint, or stain to a boot with a brush, rubs it over with a sponge dipped in gum-solution, and polishes it up with a revolving power brush.
see eyeletter (tents, etc.).
hammerer-off (boots) ; beater-out
hammers upper of a boot all round, after it has been stitched together, to improve its appearance.
hammerer-out (boots)
hammers leather, which is to be used for soles of boots and shoes, to condense fibres, make leather firm, and reduce liability to stretch.
hat leather flanger
places hat leather in position in blocking press and pulls lever so that edge of hat leather is pressed into shape, a flange being formed for use in attaching to hat.
hat leather gas liner, hat leather liner
passes hat leather through gas-heated machine, which impresses a mark on edge of leather.
hat leather turner
turns up edge of leather or imitation leather bands for men's felt hats, in readiness for stitching or cementing down.
heel roll machine man
feeds and operates a machine which covers edges ("rolls") of heels with heated wax or cold waxed ink after they have been built up, and gives final polish by means of a brush.
hobber (boots)
drives in hobnails round rims of soles of heavy boots, by hand with a hammer.
hooker, hooker-up ; layer-up, pegger-up (shirts)
folds cloth to required size for multiple cutter by hooking cloth first one side then the other of a frame; cloth is then creased at folds and cut; cf. layer-up (428), hooker (943).
hooker (boots)
see eyeletter (hoots).
inflator, glove
removes creases from fingers and thumb of glove by fitting glove on to an iron hand, heated by steam or electricity.
see brander.
inker (boots) ; bottom painter, painter, slosher (slang)
applies waxed ink or paint, with brush, to soles, edges, or eels of boots, by hand; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., edge inker, heel inker, strip inker, waist inker.
ironer (clogs) ; tipper
nails irons on to sole of clog, by hand with hammer or by holding clog sole in place on nailing machine.
an inker q.v. who specialises in coating bottoms of boots and shoes with japan.
knocker-up (boots) ; pounder
cuts or grinds down flat, by machine, edges of uppers of boots and shoes, after they have been attached to insoles by laster (414) q.v.
knotter (sacks, bags)
ties or knots ends of threads, after bags and sacks have been sewn by machinist or overhead machinist (419) q.v.
knot-tier (boots)
see lacer.
sews padded labels on centre of inside of unlined caps, by hand.
lacer (boots) ; knot-tier, tier-over, tier-up
laces up boots or shoes with a lacing instrument, and ties a knot, to prevent boot gaping open while it is being lasted and sewn.
lacer, corset ; threader
(i) threads corset lace or cord through eyeletted holes in corsets and stays in readiness for boxing and packing;
(ii) in Lancashire, threads lace with ribbon, by hand or machine, before it is put on corset for trimming; cf. lacer (Portsmouth) (406).
lashes, i.e., oversews, by hand, leather linings into felt hats; obsolescent.
see hooker.
leveller, bottom leveller, levelling machine operator, sole levelling machine operator
(i) pounder; levels, or flattens, bottoms or welt leathers, of boots or shoes; places bottoms on iron foot and releases lever causing another foot to descend with great pressure upon the first;
(ii) clamps shoe or boot in machine and starts-up eccentric rollers which exert pressure on boot and so rub it smooth; in both cases above, often also does work of channel closer q.v.
maker-up (clogs)
see nailer-on.
marker (boots)
(i) strip marker, tracer; marks, by hand or machine, facing of upper where a row of stitching is required to be made by sewing machinist (414) q.v.;
(ii) marks a plain line across bottom of sole, for ornamental purposes, with a hand knife; usually done by getter-off q.v.
marker, fiddle (boots)
marks out with blunt knife on fiddle or waist, i.e., narrow part of bottom of a boot or shoe, between sole and heel, part to be polished by fiddle polisher q.v.; obsolescent.
marker, lining
see marker, size.
marker, size ; sizer, size stamper
(i) lining marker, lining stamper; marks sizes, with hand stamp, on pieces of leather, linings, etc., or on finished boots and shoes;
(ii) measures and stamps corsets with size and style number;
(iii) marks sizes of hats on inside, prior to insertion of special labels, etc.
marker, strip
see marker (boots).
marker (tents, tarpaulins, etc.)
see brander.
matcher, matcher-up ; errand girl, messenger, room girl, trotter
finds colours, linings, thread, buttons, etc., to agree with colour of garment, and runs errands generally.
matcher, colour (straw plait)
a dyer's assistant, who, during dyeing process, lifts, by means of loops of string in ends of plait, small pieces of straw plait from vat, dries ends, and takes plait to dyer (428) q.v. to see if dye dries correct colour.
see matcher.
minder (embroidery)
threads needles and fills shuttles on power pantograph machine; puts needles in hand pantograph machine, etc.
nailer (boots)
see riveter.
nailer, loose (boots)
a riveter q.v. who operates an automatic "loose-nailer" riveting machine, which loosely attaches' middle sole, or sometimes whole sole, to insole, with brass or iron rivets to keep heavy work in place pending permanent attachment by nailing or sewing.
nailer-on (clogs) ; maker-up, putter-on
nails upper on to clog sole, either by machine or by hand; usually done by seatsman (415) q.v.
see scourer (boots).
nickeller ; overlocker
cuts away, by hand or machine, surplus fabric from edge of scalloped design, embroidered on fabric or garment.
oak liner, oak-aliner (boots)
see painter.
see nickeller.
padder, bottom padder, heel padder
see polisher, bottom.
painter, bottom painter ; stainer, bottom stainer, oakaliner, oak liner
applies paint or stain to bottom of a boot or shoe with a brush, by hand; cf. inker.
parer, edge
see trimmer, edge.
parer (embroidery) ; cutter-out, trimmer (embroidery)
finishes off article by hand; trims edges and cuts away surplus material; removes loose threads, etc.; usually done by apprentices.
parer, fore part (boots)
an edge trimmer q.v. who specialises in trimming fore-parts of boots and shoes.
parer, heel (boots) ; heel trimmer
shapes heels of boots and shoes by removing superfluous leather from edge, usually by holding heel against revolving cutters of paring machine; sometimes by hand with knife.
parer, piece sole
pares pieces of leather called piece-soles, or sole pieces, which are added to soles of men's boots to extend their length, the heel, when affixed, hiding join; holds sole piece in paring machine against revolving cutters.
parer, seam (boots) ; boot upper trimmer, edge trimmer
pares away, by hand or machine, surplus material behind line of stitching, when lining is attached to upper of boot; operation usually done automatically by knife set in sewing machine and watched by machinist.
paste fitter (boots)
pastes parts of uppers together to Keep them in position while they are being sewn.
paster (boots)
(i) joins together by applying paste with a brush, two thin pieces of leather together to form material from which insoles and stiffenings are cut;
(ii) general term for anyone who pastes any part of boot or shoe, e.g., socks, stiffenings, half-lifts; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., heel paster, sock paster; may paste toes of uppers, before they are lasted, to harden them, or linings to vamps, or fancy toe caps on vamps, ready for machinist; or may do other pasting work.
paster, heel
joins together with paste pieces of leather (called "heel-lifts") from which a boot or shoe heel is built up by heeler (414) q.v.; obsolescent operation, now usually done by heeler q.v.
pegger (boots)
attaches soles to heavy boots intended for use under wet conditions, by driving in wooden pegs with mallet and cutting off level on both sides with knife or by holding boot in pegging machine.
pegger-up (shirts)
see hooker ; obsolete.
perforator (boots) ; puncher
operates a machine which stamps out ornamental holes in upper edges of toecaps, edges of vamps, or other parts of boots or shoes.
perforator (embroidery) ; pricker
perforates design, in preparation for tracing, by working special perforating machine, hand or power-driven, in which needle either pricks along outline of design automatically or is made to do so by operator; or by running Comely machine over design, with no cotton in needle.
perforator (felt hats)
see eyeletter (felt hats).
perforator (gloves)
see preener.
picker (wool felt hats)
(i) extracts carefully, with tweezers, pieces of proof or bits of fur which have missed dyeing operation;
(ii) picks seeds out of bodies of wool light shade hats with a fine bradawl;
(iii) picks tar or paint spots from wool "forms" with tweezers.
see rodder-off.
plaiter, plaiting straw cutter
weaves or plaits by hand and machine, using a splitter fitted with radially set cutters, single strands of straw into various widths, if necessary splitting straws and cutting them into lengths.
plaiting straw drawer
arranges straws of similar length from straw trusses as received in factory in bundles all tapering in same direction.
plougher-out (boots)
see bitter.
polisher, boot
see glosser, boot.
polisher, bottom (boots) ; padder, bottom padder, brusher, brush machine operator, heel padder
polishes bottoms of boots and shoes,, after they have been inked or painted, by holding them in a machine having a revolving shaft carrying pads (cloth or leather) and brushes.
polisher (clogs) ; sizer
finishes leather surfaces of clog uppers with size by hand with a sponge; usually done by packer and stacker (949) q.v.
polisher, fiddle
a bottom polisher q.v. who polishes "fiddle" or "waist " of boot or shoe (middle part of bottom, between sole and heel) by smoothing it with sandpaper, rubbing it over with paste or gum, and when dry, rubbing it with a bone tool.
polisher, sprig
see cleaner, sprig.
(i) see knocker-up;
(ii) see leveller.
preener (gloves) ; perforator
punches holes in backs of gloves, by means of a preen, or stamp, and wooden mallet, ready for hand embroidering of points by tambourer (411) q.v.; obsolescent.
preparer (boots)
prepares material for skilled workers in any department, but most commonly for laster (414) q.v., for whom he may perform any or all of the following operations:— tacking on insoles and inserting stiffenings; skiving (trimming), by hand, uppers and bottoms to remove roughnesses or irregularities; assembling bottoms and uppers; opening channels, etc.
preparer (clogs) ; puncher and eyeletter
prepares uppers for machinist by punching holes, fixing eyelets, and slaving (trimming).
preparer (hats)
sorts, and puts together, ready-cut linings, canvas, peaks, etc., ready for machinist (419) q.v.
see perforator (embroidery)
printer, bag printer, sack printer ; brander
marks bags or sacks with owner's name or other distinguishing marks, by laying them on bed of a sack printing machine; sometimes also does work of block cutter (608) q.v.
protector (gloves)
sews small pieces of leather at tops of slits, by hand, to prevent tearing, puffer (boots); prepares puff, i.e. a stiffening, and inserts in toe of boot under toecap, to give solidity and to ensure that toecap retains its shape; (swansdown puffs) prepares by smearing rubber solution on down; (leather puffs) first smears with gum or glue; (felt puffs) heats on hot plate to soften tar or pitch filling and quickly inserts under toecap.
puffer, glove
sows a gather into gauntlet of glove at wrist; may also insert a piece of elastic to tighten glove round wrist.
puncher (boots)
(i) see perforator;
(ii) see eyeletter; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., fancy puncher, toecap puncher, vamp puncher.
puncher, puncher of tranks (gloves) ; shaper, Webber
lays trank (oblong strip of leather) on die in machine, and operates press which punches out parts of gloves; variously named according to work done, e.g., fourchette puncher, thumb puncher; cf. tranker (411).
puncher and eyeletter (clogs)
see preparer.
puncher (glove lining)
see cutter, lining.
putter-on (clogs)
see nailer-on.
putter-up (boot repairs)
see benchman.
receiving-room assistant (tailor's)
removes to warehouse, finished garments which have been passed, and generally assists passer (401) q.v.
reeler (straw plait)
winds straw plait into hanks of specified sizes; places metal spool on a spindle and winds plait thereon by turning a handle.
riveter, shoe riveter ; heel sprigger, nailer, sprigger
(i) attaches bottoms to boots and shoes with rivets or screws, either by hand with hammer on last or by placing on last in riveting machine, which is controlled by hand and foot levers;
(ii) executes repairs by riveting process, by hand or machine.
riveter, fastening (gloves)
see domer.
rodder-off (straw plait) ; picker-up
by means of binding thread, ties straw plait on rods after it has been bleached or dyed; places rods in open air to dry or in drying rooms.
passes leather intended for use in rough stuff room or press room (i.e., to be cut up for soles, insoles, stiffeners, etc.) through a rolling machine, to flatten and condense it; often does other labouring work in rough stuff room.
room girl
see matcher.
makes rosettes or bows as trimming for cerements.
rough rounder (boots)
see runner-round.
rubber, seam; rubber-down (boots)
rubs down seams on two pieces of "upper" material, after stitching, with blunt tool and opens out pieces.
rubber-up (boots)
see channel opener.
runner, ribbon
threads, or runs, ribbons through articles of clothing, with a bodkin.
runner, tip and lining (hats)
gathers top of hat lining by running a thread through it, by machine, preparatory to fixing in hat.
runner-round (boots) ; rough rounder
shapes sole and welt ready for stitching, either by hand or machine; as for rounder (414).
sander, heel (boots)
a scourer (boots) q.v. who specialises in scouring heels.
scourer (boots) ; naumkeager
rubs surface of soles or heels of boots or shoes, by hand with sandpaper, or on emery-wheel machine, to remove "grain," and leave surface smooth for finishing processes; sometimes specifically designated according to parts upon which he works, e.g. bottom or naumkeag scourer, heel scourer, heel-breast scourer, shank scourer, tip scourer, waist scourer.
scourer, fine
see buffer ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., bottom fine scourer.
scourer (hats) ; hat cleaner
dips hats, after proofing, in a solution of soda, and scrapes surface clean with a piece of wood.
scourer, veldt schoen
a scourer (boots) q.v. who smooths a type of welt used chiefly for children's shoes and formed by stitching together, from outside of shoe, the insole, upper and sole.
seat sinker (hoots)
presses seat-piece, a piece of leather which forms base for attachment of heel, into heel part of a boot or shoe, by hand with clam]) and tacks, or, by nailing machine, in preparation for attaching heel.
seat tapper (boots)
moulds "seat-piece" (piece of leather which forms foundation of heel) to last, by hammering it by hand and fastening with tacks.
setter, edge (boots)
closes up cracks between sole, middle-sole, and welt (if any) after sewing or nailing, by compressing and burnishing edges, usually by holding in place in ironing and burnishing machine.
shaker, bag shaker, sack shaker
shakes used sacks, by hand, or in a "dusting machine" (see cleaner, bag), to remove dust and dirt.
shaker girl
see cleaner, bag.
shaper (gloves)
see puncher of tranks.
shoe examiner
examines finished boots and shoes and rectifies superficial damage done during handling between different processes; work sometimes done by trimmer q.v.
shuttle boy, shuttle girl (Swiss embroidery) ; bark girl
fills shuttles at back of power-driven Swiss embroidery machines.
silk tie knotter
knots pieces of silk to shape for neckwear; finishes off with needle and thread; makes fringes and tassels on the ends of scarves, mufflers, and ladies' neckwear.
(i) (clogs), see polisher;
(ii) (straw hats) sorts hats into sizes;
(iii) see tier-up;
(iv) see marker, size.
slitter (gloves)
machines welt-binding on slit of glove.
slosher (slang)
see inker.
soaper (clothing factory)
rubs, by hand, piece of soap lightly on seams and other parts of garments, to facilitate pressing; usually done by presser (404).
solutioner (boots) ; cementer
(i) uses a rubber solution or cement, on lining of upper, in preparation for passing it to machinist (414) q.v. to be "bagged over"; or applies a rubber solution to uppers, to prepare them to go through edge-folding machine;
(ii) fixes patches to boot uppers with solution, by hand;
(iii) attaches soles or heels with solution.
general term, particularly in boot trade, for anyone who works in store room or factory sorting out finished articles, materials, or tools, according to size, shape, quality, etc., often using measuring instruments in finer work; generally further designated according to kind of goods handled, e.g.. plaiting straw sorter, insole sorter, last sorter, lift sorter, middle sole sorter, puff sorter, sole sorter (who also stamps gauge, or thickness, on sole), stiffening sorter.
spiker (clothing factory)
places cloth over spikes to keep in position during cutting; obsolescent.
splitter, palm leaf (straw plait)
cuts palm leaf into pieces for use in straw plait making, using hand knife; usually done abroad.
sprayer (gloves)
works, by hand stitching, spear point at top of glove pointing; obsolescent.
sprigger, heel sprigger (boots)
see rivetter.
stainer, boot
see glosser, boot.
stainer, bottom (boots)
see painter.
in hat trade, may be hat stamper or label stamper, see embosser (537); in boot trade, in which he is variously known, as insole stamper, size stamper, sock stamper, sole stamper, see size marker, and sorter; in tent and tarpaulin trade, see brander.
stamper, size; lining stamper (boots, gloves, etc.)
see marker, size.
stamper, sole ; sole brander
a size marker q.v. engaged in marking boot and shoe soles with die and stamp machine.
stamper (textiles)
prints patterns for embroidery upon cloth, by stencilling through perforated paper, with paint.
see brander ; cf. embroidery printer (428).
stringer, plait dyer's stringer
by means of a needle, puts thread or string through straw plait previous to dyeing or bleaching.
studder (boots)
hammers nails or .studs into soles and heels of boots by hand.
sews labels, indicating size, style, etc., on to corsets, by hand.
tacker (boots)
(i) old-fashioned name for laster (414) q.v.;
(ii) tacks, with small nails, various parts of boots or shoe together, e.g. tacks split lifts or "rands" on heel by rand-tacking machine; tacks insoles on last; tacks soles, by hand or machine, after boot is lasted; tacks piece-soles on to bottom by hand or machine, etc.
tacker (clogs) ; coupler
fastens a pair of clogs together by a strip of leather nailed to each; often done by seatsman (415), or by packer and stacker (949) q.v.
tacker (cloth hats)
stitches peak to body of cap by hand, in caps where patent fasteners are not used.
tacker (gloves)
fastens, by tacking with thread, finished gloves together in pairs ready for market.
tack puller (hoots)
removes tacks from sole, by hand or machine, after vamp has been pounded and shoe set on last.
tagger (leather laces)
(i) pierces end of lace; threads wire through holes; lays lace ends with wire in slot of twisting machine and turns hand wheel causing wire to twist round lace ends into points;
(ii) as for tagger (mohair, silk, etc.).
tagger, lace tagger, boot lace tagger, stay lace tagger (mohair, silk, etc.)
operates, by foot lever, a machine which attaches metal tags to ends of laces; places lace end on open tag and lays both on bed of machine.
removes sacks from printing machine after they have been marked by printer q.v.
thread drawer
draws threads, by hand, in preparation for hem-stitching by hemstitcher (419) q.v.
(i) threads needles for Swiss embroidery machine, using hand threading machine;
(ii) see lacer, corset.
thumber (gloves)
sews thumb pieces into gloves, by hand or machine.
tier-over, tier-up (boots)
see lacer.
(i) ties up cut materials for cloth hats into bundles, ready for machinist;
(ii) (tailoring); sizer; sorts cloth cuttings and cut out trimmings into bundles according to size, and to garment for which they are intended, e.g. coats, vests, or trousers; inserts size tickets, ties up with distinguishing slips under string, and passes to fitting-up department.
tipper (clogs)
see ironer.
toe capper (clogs)
an ironer q.v. who nails on metal toecaps of clogs by hand.
top piece beveller, top piece filer (boots)
bevels edge of top-piece, i.e. sides of heel; holds heel against glass-paper-covered revolving buffs and shapes as required.
tracer (boots)
see marker.
trimmer, boot trimmer, shoe trimmer
general terms for any worker who trims up manufactured boots or shoes by hand or machine; sometimes specifically designated according to speciality of work, e.g. edge trimmer, heel trimmer, upper trimmer.
trimmer, boot upper
see parer, seam.
trimmer, edge ; edge parer
(i) trims edges of soles of boots and. shoes, by hand or machine, i.e. gives them final shape, removes all roughnesses, and prepares them for compression and burnishing by edge setter q.v.;
(ii) see parer, seam.
trimmer (embroidery)
see parer.
trimmer, heel
see parer, heel.
trimmer, inseam
trims superfluous leather from inseams of boots, etc. in a power machine; holds part to be trimmed against machine knife, set to trim as required.
trimmer, label (hat factory)
trims labels for felt hats with scissors.
trimmer, trank (gloves)
(leather gloves), trims edges of tranks (main part of glove punched or cut out of oblong piece of skin), with shears, after punching; in fabric glove making, trims up edges of seams by paring them off with scissors.
see matcher.
examines sewing of finished gloves by fitting on steel stretchers.
turner (tarpaulins, etc.)
turns sacks or bags right side out, after seams, etc., have been sewn inside out.
turner-down (gloves)
turns down and creases into position, by hand, welts of gloves before sewing.
turner for lining (gloves)
turns gloves inside out for lining.
turner-out (shirts)
turns collars, cuffs, wristbands, etc., inside out (i.e., right side out) after they have been "run" by collar runner in preparation for final stitching.
tyer (gloves)
ties ends of point sewings and linings inside gloves.
umbrella looper
attaches silk cord or leather loop to umbrella or parasol handle in warehouse; usually done by wrapper and boxer (949) q.v.
varnisher, body (hats) ; wringer-out
brushes over body of hat, after manufacture, thin coat of shellac and methylated spirits, to form an adhesive surface to which silk plush is attached by finisher.
washer, body (hats)
washes body of hat, after it has been dyed, by immersing it in vat of cold water.
washer, palm leaf (straw plait)
washes, by hand dipping in water, palm leaf used in straw plait making.
see puncher.
wetter (boots)
see damper.
wheeler (boots)
ornaments, by means of a small hand wheel or by machine, parts of boot or shoe with a small pattern, generally indentations, or imitation of stitches, which also serves, when necessary, as a guide to stitcher; variously known according to part on which he works, e.g., edge fudge wheeler, fudge wheeler, heel wheeler, heel seat wheeler, stitch wheeler, welt wheeler; cf. fudger.
wheeler, wet (boots)
a wheeler q.v. who ornaments heel of boot, etc., while leather is still damp, by imprinting a row of indentations.
wire coverer, hat; millinery wire coverer, bonnet wire maker
tends wire covering power machine in which a hollow spool of cotton, or other yarn, revolves rapidly and through which passes soft iron wire, thus causing cotton to become wound into a continuous covering for wire; feeds machine with reels of wire and spools of cotton, and removes reels of covered wire; repairs broken cotton, and joins ends of two spools, etc.
wire twister, hat
places spool of wire on wire twisting machine and feeds end between rollers; controls machine by levers so that given length of wire is cut off and twisted into oval shape; removes bent wire and connects ends by thrusting them into metal tag.
wire winder, hat; millinery wire winder
winds, on hand machine, lengths of millinery wire on reels, or into coils, ready for despatch.
see varnisher, body.

Back to List of Occupational Codes

From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.