A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Makers of Paper, Pulp, Straw and Card Board

518.—Other Skilled Workers

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see facer.
back tenter, big- back tenter ; reeler (paper mill), reelerman, reelman
is employed at finishing end of any machine, more particularly at back of reeling end of paper-making machine; watches paper as it is reeled on rollers and smoothes out any creases, by hand; helps machineman (512) q.v. to fix reeling spindles on machine or to manipulate hoist in lifting reels of paper off machine; oils and cleans machine.
back tenter, linen machine
a back tenter q.v. employed at back end of linen machine; receives end of paper after it has been put through various rollers by lineniser q.v.; fixes end of paper on spindle of machine for re-reeling; watches re-reeling of paper for creases and breakages, and adjusts pressure gauges to see that steam is maintained at requisite pressure in rollers; assists in removing reel of paper from machine.
bleach engineman ; towerman
pumps water into tower before bleaching by means of valves and turncocks; instructs labourers as to quantities of bleaching agent to be added and as to filling or discharging pulp to or from container of engine; sometimes acts as concentrator man q.v.
bleacher, rag bleacher, bleacherman ; crofter (paper), potcher, potcherman
shovels rags, etc., into machine; turns valve cock which admits bleach water; switches on or off power which drives machine; opens container of machine to allow bleached material to empty into vats.
boiler, boilerman, fibre boilerman ; washer, rag washer
shovels esparto grass or rags into revolving or stationary boilers; turns valve cocks which admit steam and caustic soda liquor; after several hours' boiling, opens valves which allow liquor to escape, and washes contents of boil.er by turning on water; after washing, opens lower end of boiler through which contents are emptied into bins, from which they are shovelled out by boilerman or by labourers; sometimes specificially [sic] designated, e.g., esparto boiler, boilerman; esparto grass boiler, boilerman; rag boiler, boilerman; straw boiler, boilerman.
boiler, wood; wood pulp boiler, wood pulp boilerman
see wood pulp pan man.
breaker, breakerman, rag breakerman ; rag washer, washer
as for bleacher, except that some types of breaking engine both break rags into half stuff, i.e., half formed pulp, and also wash and bleach it in a series of automatic operations.
breaker, wood pulp ; wood pulp crusher attendant, wood pulp willower
as for wood pulp grinder man, except that machine is fed with partly-ground pulp.
calender attendant, calenderer, calender man
watches drying or calendering rollers at dry end of paper-making machine for breakages or creasing of paper; in case of breakage, switches off power to stop machine and guides paper through rollers to its correct position; cuts edges of broken paper with knife; pastes strip of paper over break, irons with hot iron and starts machine again; periodically cuts strip of paper by hand from reel and weighs it on scale to test for correct weight; reports weight to machineman (512) q.v., who makes any necessary adjustment to machine; directs labourers using hoist, when to lift reels off machine; is sometimes also a dryer, dryerman, or a cylinderman q.v.
calenderman, super
assisted by labourers, using hoist or travelling crane, fixes reel of paper on calendering machine, which consists of a stack of heated rollers or cylinders used for glazing or finishing surface or paper; guides end of paper through rollers and switches on power which drives machine; sometimes damps paper on another reeling machine before super-calendering, by turning fine spray of water on to surface of paper as re-wound; performs similar work to calender attendant or dryerman q.v. in case of breakage paper; adjusts cylinders by manipulating screws on machine to increase or reduce pressure on paper.
centre maker
operates power-driven machine fitted with revolving steam-heated mandrel on which paper or hoard is wound, and coated with glue, to form centre (on which machine-made paper is wound); fixes end of paper or board on mandrel; switches on or off power which drives machine; regulates steam in mandrel by means of pressure gauge; sees that glue boxes on machine are supplied with glue; manipulates hand lever connected to small circular saw or cutter on machine which cuts centre to required length.
coater, baryta ; enameller (card, pasteboard or paper)
fills trough of coating machine with mixture prepared by baryta mixing machine operator q.v.; fixes reel of paper to spindle of coating machine and switches on power, causing paper to pass between rollers of machine; (paper, before passing through rollers, receives a coat of mixture from an endless moving band of felt, which passes through trough of mixture, and this coat is spread evenly on paper by oscillating brushes, as paper passes through rollers); passes hand over brushes from time to time to see that they are not clogged with coating mixture; watches machine to see that it is running properly and that paper is passing through correct rollers; cleans and oils machine, as required.
coater, paper
see machine man, paper coating.
coater, tracing paper ; tracing paper maker
measures or weighs out ingredients of coating compound according to a formula; fills ducts, or troughs, of coating machine with compound, and refills them as required; fixes reel of paper on machine, and threads end between rollers of machine; switches on or off power-drive of machine; removes coated paper from re-reeling end of machine, and stores it, or supervises its storage, to mature; judges by experience when maturing process is complete.
concentrator man
manipulates valves controlling concentration plant, which extracts residual product of bleaching process and excess of water from fluid pulp; when bleaching is done by same plant, also acts as bleach engineman or bleacher q.v.
counter, paper counter ; teller-out
counts sheets of paper or board; often acts as paper sorter q.v.
crofter (paper)
see bleacher.
crusher attendant, wood pulp
see breaker, wood pulp.
cutter (card and pasteboard)
general term covering guillotine cutter, rotary cutterman, reelerman, cutterman q.v.
cutter, guillotine (paper mill) ; trimmer (card and pasteboard), guillotine man (paper mill)
in charge of the guillotine which cuts piled sheets of paper; adjusts paper or boards on bed of cutting machine; brings it into exact position under knife; clamps pile of paper with heavy iron clamps; moves lever which releases heavy knife; unclamps and removes paper when cut.
cutterman, angle
adjusts cutting knives in machine which cuts paper into shapes for envelopes, etc., using measuring gauge; clamps pile of paper on machine and operates lever which causes knives to cut through paper to shape required.
cutterman (paper mill), cutting machine hand, cutting machine man ; reeler (paper mill), reelerman, reelman
places reel of paper on cutting machine, using hoist; adjusts cutters on machine by means of measuring gauges to widths and lengths required; in case of watermarked papers, arranges so to cut that, in finished rolls, watermark is in proper position in centre of reel or sheets; switches on and off power which drives machine, and watches cutting and/or re-reeling of paper.
cutterman, rotary ; ripperman, trimmer (card and pasteboard)
adjusts rotary cutting knives on machine used for trimming edges of large mill boards, using measuring gauges; feeds machine with mill-boards and controls power which drives machine, by means of switches.
cylinder man
see dryer.
damper, damperman
assists super-calenderman q.v. by attending a reeling machine fitted with a mechanically operated damping device used for damping paper in preparation for super-calendering; watches reeling or re-reeling of paper for creasing, breakages, etc., and assists in lifting on and off reels of paper to and from spindle of machine.
dipper, size dipper
dips hand-made sheets into sizing vat of gelatine; cf. tub sizer.
dry ender, dry end man
see dryer.
dryer, dryerman ; cylinder man, dry ender, dry end man
attends steam-heated drying cylinders round which paper passes in papermaking machine; when starting machine or after breakage of paper web, takes the paper from end to end of the drying cylinders to ensure it following the correct path; while machine is working, watches for breakages of paper, regulates steam and makes any minor necessary adjustments; see also calender attendant.
dryerman, loft (hand-made paper)
see dryworker (hand-made paper).
dry worker (hand-made paper) ; loft dryerman
is employed in drying loft, in which band-made sheets of waterleaf are suspended in small batches on cowhair ropes; changes position of sheets at intervals so that all are subjected to equal drying conditions.
as for lineniser except that machine is fitted with an engraved steel roller, running in contact with a paper one, to impress a grain on paper.
enameller (card, pasteboard and paper)
see coater, baryta.
enameller (photographic paper)
a calender attendant q.v. engaged in passing special photographic paper through rolls of calendering machine to give it a glossy surface; cf. enameller (photographic paper) (688).
facer ; backer
makes double-faced corrugated boards by machine.
finisher (card and pasteboard)
general term for workers who examine, sort, count or tie up boards, or do other finishing operations prior to despatch.
finisher, panel (millboard)
see glazer, plate.
finisher, paper ; maker-up, salle finisher
general term for workers in the finishing (salle) department including paper counter, paper sorter q.v., etc.; in hand-made paper trade may be responsible for quality and quantity of paper sent out.
finisher, plate
see glazer, plate.
finisher, salle
see finisher, paper.
glazer (card and pasteboard)
see rollerman (card and pasteboard).
glazer, friction ; glazer (paper)
a calender attendant q.v. operating a machine which glazes paper by passing it between beeswaxed bowls or cylinders, of different diameters revolving at different speeds; keeps cylinders clean and regulates flow of beeswax to cylinders by turning taps on or off.
glazer (paper)
(i) see plate glazer;
(ii) see friction glazer.
glazer, plate ; glazer (paper), miller, panel finisher (millboard), plate finisher, plater, press rollerman, roller, rollerman (hand-made paper)
passes a pile of sheets and plates prepared by interleaver (619) q.v. several times between rollers pressed powerfully together and returns it to interleaver; repeats process, after re-arrangement of sheets by interleaver as often as necessary to obtain requisite finish; may sometimes also do the work of interleaver.
guillotine man (asbestos)
see trimmer (asbestos).
guillotine man (paper mill)
see cutter, guillotine.
inspector (card and pasteboard)
inspects goods before despatch to ensure good quality.
jordan man
shovels half-stuff, i.e., semi-prepared pulp, into hopper head of specially designed machine used for pulp refining; manipulates valves which control water flow; switches on and off power which drives machine.
lineniser ; linen machine man
with assistance of labourers, fixes reel of paper on machine consisting of steam-heated steel rollers and paper rollers between which two endless sheets of linen pass, power pressure being applied to rollers in order to impress linen pattern on paper; guides end of paper between linen sheets and rollers, and switches on and off power which drives machine.
machine assistant, first
the head machineman's assistant (519) q.v. who usually acts as dryerman q.v.; cf. spare machineman (512).
machine man, linen
see lineniser.
machine man, paper coating
general term covering baryta coater, paper coater, tracing paper coater, etc.
machine man, wood; wood pulp machine man
manipulates valves which control flow of water into machine in which wood pulp is washed after boiling; switches on and off power which drives machine.
see finisher, paper.
see glazer, plate.
mingler ; teller-out
stands at mechanically fed, power-driven gum or paste roller; applies sheets of paper, by hand, to roller; places sheets, after gumming or pasting, on travelling belt on which they pass to card maker (pasted paper) (519) q.v.
mixer, baryta mixer
(i) measures quantities of gelatine and of chemical colouring matter to be mixed with baryta, and directs and supervises work of baryta mixing machine operator (519) q.v.;
(ii) very rarely, performs duties of baryta mixing machine operator (519) q.v.
paper maker
general term denoting a skilled worker in paper making, especially machineman (512) or beaterman (512) q.v.
paper overhauler, paper overlooker
see sorter, paper.
see glazer, plate.
potcher, potcherman
see bleacher ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., esparto grass potcherman, rag potcherman, wood pulp potcherman.
presser (card and pasteboard)
see pressman.
presser, hot
(i) places cardboard or paper sheets between iron plates in hydraulic press; operates press by means of foot lever; removes sheets when pressed;
(ii) places cardboard or paper sheets between zinc sheets, and passes them between revolving heated rollers; cf. hot presser (549).
presser, wet
see pressman.
pressman ; presser (card, and pasteboard), wet presser
places pile of hoards or paper, as received from coucher (512) q.v., in press; operates press by means of foot lever, causing water to be squeezed out; removes boards or paper when pressed.
reeler (paper mill), reelerman, reelman ; ripperman, slitterman, slitting machine man, winder, winderman
(i) with assistance of labourers, places reel of paper, as received from papermaking machine, on reeling machine; adjusts rotary cutters to divide paper into widths required and to cut off rough edges; switches on and off power which drives machine, and watches re-reeling for creasing or breakages of paper; helps in removing re-reeled paper from machine;
(ii) see back tenter;
(iii) see cutterman (paper-mill).
(i) see reeler (paper mill);
(ii) see cutterman, rotary.
roller (card and pasteboard)
see rollerman (card and pasteboard).
roller, cold
(i) is in charge of calender in which bowls, i.e., cylinders, or rollers are cold and not heated;
(ii) see rollerman (card and pasteboard).
roller (hand made paper)
see glazer, plate.
rollerman (card and pasteboard) ; cold roller, glazer (card and pasteboard), roller (card and pasteboard)
attends rolling machine used for finishing the surface of boards.
rollerman (hand made paper), press rollerman
see glazer, plate.
see sorter, paper.
sizer, engine sizer
tips from pails or tubs into beating engine, as instructed by beaterman q.v., size, resin, and alum, at intervals during progress of beating; sometimes also acts as spare beaterman q.v.
sizer, tub sizer
manipulates valves to maintain quantity of size in vat through which hand-made sheets or machine-made paper web are slowly passed mechanically; in machine-made paper trade, sometimes also acts as dryerman q.v.
slitterman, slitting machine man
see reeler (paper mill).
general term covering paper sorter, waste paper sorter, rag sorter (964) q.v., etc.
sorter, paper; salle sorter ; paper overhauler, paper overlooker, sheeter
overlooks paper sheets or cards, sorts them and throws out all those which are defective.
(i) see mingler;
(ii) see counter.
see bleach engineman.
tracing paper maker
see coater, tracing paper.
trimmer (asbestos) ; guillotine man (asbestos)
cuts up and trims sheets of asbestos millboard or sheeting in a guillotine cutting machine; cf. guillotine cutter.
trimmer (card and pasteboard)
(i) see cutter, guillotine;
(ii) see cutterman, rotary.
washer, rag washer
(i) see breaker;
(ii) see boiler.
water bailiff
keeps the water course, in connection with paper mill, clear by clearing filters with rakes; controls by means of levers supply of water to lodges or dams.
waterproofer (paper and millboard), waterproof paper maker
feeds with paper (on reels) or with cardboard (in sheets) a machine which, by a system of rollers, takes up waterproofing composition from a trough, or duct, and applies it to paper or cardboard, finally passing waterproofed paper to a re-reeling mechanism, or delivers waterproofed cardboard at rear of machine.
winder, winderman
see reeler (paper mill).
wood pulp grinder man
puts logs of wood in hopper head of grinding machine, in which they are ground to pulp; manipulates valves which control flow of water on to grinding stone of machine to prevent friction, burning, or production of pulp of a brittle fibrous quality; switches on and off power which drives machine and opens valves through which pulp is delivered to vats.
wood pulp pan man ; wood boiler, wood pulp boiler, wood pulp boilerman
shovels wood chips into revolving pans in which they are boiled to pulp in prepared liquor; manipulates valves which admit liquor or discharge pulp; switches on and off power which drives machine.
wood pulp willower
see breaker, wood pulp.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.