A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Makers of Paper, Pulp, Straw and Card Board

519.—Other Workers

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baler (board making)
collects cuttings from reeling machine; compresses them by means of a press, and binds them into bales ready for re-use as raw material.
baryta mixing machine operator
places baryta, as instructed by baryta mixer (518) q.v., in tank of mixing machine; admits water into tank; after baryta mixer has added colouring matter, switches on power which drives revolving paddle in tank of machine; when ingredients are sufficiently mixed, draws off mixture in pail from tap in tank of machine, and passes through fine mesh sieve into separate storage tank.
beater's assistant, beaterman's assistant ; feeder, filler-in (North Country), helper
wheels crates or boxes containing rags, esparto grass, china clay, or other ingredients used in preparation of pulp to beating machine; shovels or pours ingredients into holders of beating machine as instructed by beaterman q.v. and assists beaterman generally.
bleacher (wood pulp making)
places wet boards of soda wood pulp, by hand, in bleaching powder solution in vat; sees that vat is kept full of pulp.
bleach houseman
removes pulp from bleaching chambers, where it has been mixed with bleaching solution, and trucks it to beater house.
bleaching solution mixer, bleach mixer
supervises working of mixing machine, i.e., a tank containing mechanical stirrers; switches on and off power which drives machine; empties chloride of lime from sacks into tank; opens valves which admit water to tank; judges when solution is complete, adding more water if required; opens valves which permit liquor to run off to bleaching engine.
places sheets of hand made paper between glazed boards to flatten them out before they are pressed.
board mill labourer (card and pasteboard)
does unskilled work and assists generally in mill.
brusher, brushing machine man
fixes reel of coated paper in a brushing machine, used for giving an extra bright finish to some coated papers; switches on and off power which drives machine; cleans brushes when required; takes off finished reels of paper from machine.
calenderman's assistant
helps calenderman (518) q.v. to place reel of paper in position on calendering machine; does various cleaning and other unskilled jobs, and assists calenderman generally.
card maker (pasted paper) ; paper cementer, pasteboard maker, paster (card and pasteboard), sheet paster
pastes several sheets of paper together to make cardboard, by hand or by machine, fixing reels of paper in machine, filling paste reservoir, watching cutting knives, etc.
see drawer.
catcher, sheet catcher
see cutter boy.
causticiserman, caustic liquor maker, caustic mixer ; liquor maker, liquor man, liquor mixer, panman
mixes caustic soda with water to make caustic liquor in which rags or esparto grass or other raw material are boiled; cf. soda causticiserman (143).
chemical worker
see liquor man, wood pulp.
clay mixer
shovels china clay into mixing vat; turns on water; stirs with wooden stirrer, and strains through sieve, in preparation for further treatment by beaterman q.v.
cutter boy ; catcher, jogger, lay boy, layer, sheet catcher, sheeter
(i) watches sheets as they come out of the cutting machine and lays them flat, if they curl up; in some machines has to pick up sheets from a travelling felt and pile them up;
(ii) takes boards off board-making machine.
cutter, card
cuts cardboard into various shapes and sizes with guillotine, press stamping, or rotary cutting machines.
cutter, esparto grass
feeds cutting machine with esparto grass, using a fork to load hopper head of machine.
cutter, rag
draws rags, by hand, across a knife blade at an angle to cut them into suitably sized pieces.
cutting machine hand, cutting machine man
assists cutterman (518) q.v. in placing roll of paper in machine, attending working of machine, etc.
damper boy
assists damper (518) q.v. at machine.
devil, devilman (paper making)
see dusterman.
drainerman, wood pulp drainerman
a labourer attending draining vats, in which wood or rag pulp is drained after boiling, bleaching, washing, etc.; after liquid is drained off through perforated floor of vats, shovels out pulp, and trucks it to machines for further processes; scrubs out floors of vats.
drawer, drawer-off ; carrier-off
carries cut sheets away from cutting machine to warehouse or sorting room.
drier (asbestos)
carries, or wheels in trucks, sheets of asbestos millboard to drying room; hangs up sheets by clips in drying room; removes dried sheets as required.
dryerman, loft (board making)
see dryworker (board making).
dryerman's assistant ; nipper
assists dryerman (518) q.v. in passing web of paper round drying cylinders, when starting paper making machine; does other odd jobs.
dryworker (board making) ; loft dryerman (board making)
hangs boards on to drying screens in drying room by hand.
duster, dusterman ; devil, devilman, esparto grass shaker, rag shaker, thrasher, willower
shovels or rakes rags, esparto grass, or other material into hopper head of machine, which opens fabric of rags or fibres of esparto grass or other raw material with mechanical beaters and tearers, and removes dust and other foreign matter by air suction pipes; switches on and off power which drives machine; often specifically designated, e.g., esparto grass dusterman, rag duster.
see kollergang man.
feeder (card and pasteboard)
(i) passes sheets of paper into pasting machine;
(ii) see beater's assistant.
felter (leather board)
interleaves pieces of felt with sheets of leather hoard in readiness for pressing.
filler-in (North Country)
see beater's assistant.
filter man, filter boy
cleans floors of filter tanks, through which waste water flows from paper-making machine, with shovel, broom and water, and does other labouring work in connection with filter tanks.
folds sheets to size required by hand or machine.
front side boy
assembles reels of board at pasting machine, so that any reel which has been unwound can be immediately replaced.
glue boy
mixes glue and carries it to board pasting machine.
grainer attendant
regulates power driving a machine which impresses a surface on boards resembling the appearance of grained wood; adjusts pressure gauges and guides in boards, cf. embosser (518).
grinder, grinderman, grinding machine man
see kollergang man.
grinder, sawdust
shovels sawdust into hopper of grinding machine to reduce it to wood flour in making of paper; starts and stops machine as required; cf. kollergang man.
(i) hangs up wet sheets of cardboard to dry;
(ii) in hand paper manufacture may be a dryworker (518) q.v.
see beater's assistant.
hydraulic press attendant, man or hand ; press packer
places paper or board in hydraulic press, on canvas or other material used for outer covering; screws down press by hand; manipulates hand lever which brings pressure to bear on paper or board; releases pressure and sews outer covering of hale with string or rope.
ink boy
see jipper.
interleaver ; milling roll girl
places single sheets of hand-made paper and plates of polished copper or zinc alternately in a pile ready for plate glazer (518) q.v.; after rolling, rearranges sheets and plates for subsequent rolling if necessary.
jipper ; ink boy
assists grainer attendant q.v. in lifting up boards to machine, etc.
see cutter boy.
kollergang man, wood pulp kollergang man ; edge runner, grinder, grinderman, grinding machine man, paper pulper, pulperman
feeds, by hand, and attends to edgemill or kollergang, which consists of a pair of circular grindstones with grooved periphery, which revolve on a granite bedstone surrounded by trough containing water and thereby break up waste paper or paper pulp, product being washed out mechanically.
does general yard work in paper mill, e.g., carting, carrying, trucking, stowing, cleaning and odd jobs generally.
lay boy, layer
see cutter boy ; cf. layer (hand-made paper) (512).
liquor maker, liquor man, liquor mixer
see causticiserman.
liquor man, wood pulp ; chemical worker
empties chemicals from sacks into tank containing water, to make solution in which wood pulp is boiled; varies strength of liquor as instructed by chemist (866) q.v. or according to formula corresponding to kind of wood pulp to be boiled; stirs liquor with wood stirrer, or regulates power which drives mechanical stirrer.
little backtenter ; machine boy, machine helper
(i) clears away waste from breakages in paper-making machine; assists backtenter (518) q.v. in taking roll out, and watches presses to give warning of breakages of paper; performs odd jobs;
(ii) assists machineman (512) q.v. in board making.
loads goods in despatch department.
lobber (card and pasteboard)
piles up sheets of pasteboard, etc., after they have been through the pasting machine; cf. paster.
machine boy, machine helper
see little backtenter.
machineman's assistant
assists machineman (512) q.v. in keeping machine in good running order.
machine minder, machine tenter
general terms describing assistants on any machine in paper or hoard making; sometimes used as synonym for machineman (512) q.v.
milling roll girl
see interleaver.
see picker, engine.
see dryerman's assistant.
pan cleaner (wood pulp)
assists wood pulp panman (518) q.v.
see causticiserman; cf. panman (143).
paper cementer
see card maker (pasted paper).
parter, pack parter
separates handmade sheets, after they have been pressed, to enable dryworker q.v. to hang them up.
parter, size
separates sized handmade sheets, after they have been pressed, in preparation for loft drying.
pasteboard maker
see card maker(pasted paper).
paster (card and paste board), sheet paster
see card maker (pasted paper).
picker, back
a picker scraper q.v. who cleans out slits in auxiliary picker or strainer, at back of presse pate of some paper making machines, with a steel picker.
picker, dry
see picker, esparto grass dry.
picker, engine ; mote picker, moter
picks "motes," knots, etc., from half stuff as it is conveyed from breaker engine to beater engine.
picker, esparto grass dry ; dry picker
picks out visible impurities in esparto grass while it is being conveyed to. boilers on a moving belt.
picker, mote
see picker, engine.
picker scraper, picker rubber ; strainerman
cleans slits in strainers (pickers) free from all impurities which collect there and clog the machine.
picker, wet
removes, by hand, conspicuous foreign matter from rags after they have been boiled.
press packer
see hydraulic press attendant.
pulper, paper; pulperman
see kollergangman.
rag chopper, rag chopperman
feeds rags into hopper head of rag cutting machine, and performs general labouring work in rag-house.
reeler-off (tracing paper)
reels paper by hand or machine, measuring it into suitable lengths for each reel.
(slang), a porter who carries bales of raw material for board making from yard to beating department.
sand table man
cleans out grit, dirt, etc., from sand trap or baffle plates through which pulp passes to presse pate machine or wet end of papermaking machine, using a shovel.
screen boy
attends to strainers on board-making machine, keeping them clear by removing waste matter, etc., by hand, using brushes, water, etc.
shaker, esparto grass; rag shaker
see dusterman.
sheet carrier
carries sheets of handmade paper to and from the drying loft.
(i) see interleaver;
(ii) see cutter boy; cf. sheeter (518).
sheeter (card and pasteboard)
passes sheets of card or pasteboard into machine which cuts them to specified size; adjusts cutters of machine, using measuring gauge; switches on and off power which drives machine.
sheeter, single
adjusts cutting knives of machine used for accurate cutting of hand-made paper in single sheets, using measuring gauge; feeds machine with paper and uses hand lever or foot treadle to operate knives and cut paper.
size mixer
puts ready prepared size (either vegetable or animal) into boiler containing heated water; stirs with wooden stirrer; draws off solution from tap in boiler, and strains it through sieve into reservoir, ready for use by dipper q.v.
sorter (card and pasteboard)
see sorter, waste paper.
sorter, esparto grass
(i) removes dust and impurities from esparto grass, on hand-manipulated wire screens;
(ii) (in machine process) puts grass, with a hay fork, on travelling band or lattice or sorting machine.
sorter, waste paper; waste sorter ; sorter (card and pasteboard)
sorts waste paper, by hand, according to colour and quality.
sorting machine man, esparto grass
feeds, by means of hay fork, a machine in 'which esparto grass is partially cleaned and sorted.
piles up sheets of paper or cardboard for stock or despatch purposes.
see picker scraper.
separates hand-made sheets of paper from each other, by hand, in preparation for plate glazing.
see dusterman.
places felts used in making hand-made paper on rollers, by means of which they are mechanically drawn through water; regulates power which drives machine; removes felts and passes them to coucher (512) q.v.
water boy, waterman
adds requisite amount of water to rotary boilers in which certain raw materials, e.g., rags, for paper are boiled.
water softener
operates valves and cocks of water softening plant in paper mill; adds softening agent as instructed.
weigherman (card and pasteboard)
supervises despatch of hoards to loading department.
wet end boy
assists machineman (512) q.v. in attendance on wet end of board-making machine.
see dusterman.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.