A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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ORDER XIV.—MAKERS OF FOODS, DRINKS AND TOBACCO

Sub-order 1.—Makers of Foods

448.—Other Skilled Workers



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baking powder maker, baking powder operative
receives ingredients of baking powder, i.e. powdered tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate, with ground rice or cornflour as a diluent, from chemist or foreman, who decides proportions of each; sometimes weighs out quantities of minor ingredients according to instructions received from chemist or foreman; sometimes is himself responsible for quantities of each ingredient; places ingredients by hand, with a scoop, in mixing machine, or tips them from sacks into hopper of mixing machine and sets machine in motion; sometimes, when bag or barrel is not filled mechanically under attention of packers (949) q.v., turns tap or shutter, allowing mixture to flow into bags, barrels, or other receptacles, which he places under tap or shutter; places lid on barrel (if that is used) and secures it with a hoop, which he hammers into position; removes barrel, and puts another in position.
black pudding maker ; blood pudding maker
mixes pigs' blood, cooked pearl rice, barley or groats, "flair" (pigs' back fat), minced suet or dripping and seasoning, according to recipe, using mixing and chopping machines, cf. machine-man; fills sausage skin with mixture (see pudding filler); divides filled skins into convenient lengths by tying skin tightly; boils sausages, so formed, until cooked; cf. small goods man (sausages. etc.).
bleacher (flour mill)
regulates, by means of valves, passage of electrically ozonised air through bleaching machines, which are fed with flour mechanically; sees that transformers are not burnt out and are working properly; sometimes also does work of flour blender q.v.
blender, butter
places butters of different origins in a worker or in a blending or kneading machine, cf. kneading table attendant (449), operates and controls machine so as to mix them thoroughly; removes blended butters ready for moulding.
blender, flour
adjusts valves or slides to direct streams of different kinds or grades of flour running through chutes from bin to mixer; cuts off or starts flow of flour from1 various bins, and regulates machines so that specified proportions are admitted to make blend required.
blender, mustard ; mustard flour mixer
weighs and empties by hand, down a chute, into hopper of mixing machine, prescribed quantities of different qualities of mustard flour; is responsible for correct proportions of each kind (determined by a recipe or formula), and sees that hopper is kept full; regulates hopper slide, by hand wheel, thus controlling rate of feeding (through chute) the sieving machines on floor below; folds and stacks empty sacks.
blender, tea ; tea mixer
blends teas, according to directions of tea taster (789) q.v., to produce desired quality or flavour; opens packages and empties specified quantities of each sort into mixing machine, which mixes them, and delivers mixture through hopper to packing machine; when blending plant is not linked automatically to packing machine, may also empty machine into bags or cases.
bloater paste maker
as for mixer (potted meats, etc.).
blood pudding maker
see black pudding maker.
blower, cat gut; gut blower
distends to full size, by inflation from mouth, or with compressed air from special taps, intestines (which have first been cleaned and trimmed) removed from carcases of oxen, sheep, or hogs; cuts lengths of gut suitable for sausage casings, etc.; process now almost superseded by work of casing selector q.v.
blow-up man, water blow-up man (sugar refining)
opens valve allowing washed raw sugar to flow into blow-ups, i.e. large iron tanks in which raw sugar is melted in water; regulates valves controlling inlet of steam to heat sugar; adds water, as required, thus regulating density; brings liquor to definite gravity at a prescribed temperature; tests density with gauge; regulates temperature; adds purifying chemicals as directed by chemist; opens valve allowing liquor to run off; is sometimes in charge of all processes in raw sugar department.
boiler, jelly
weighs or measures out prescribed quantity of sugar, and puts it into a steam-jacketted pan, regulating temperature by means of valves; runs or pours water into pan, in which sugar is dissolved and heated to required temperature; runs off solution into large shallow pans; weighs or measures out correct quantities of gelatine and flavouring essences, adds them to sugar solution, and stirs all together until gelatine is dissolved; attends a number of steam pans and stirring pans.
boiler, ox head
a kitchen hand (provision factory) q.v. who boils ox heads in steam-jacketted coppers and cuts flesh therefrom for making brawn and tinned meat.
boiler, shrimp
boils shrimps and other shell fish in large steam-jacketted coppers in potted meat factory; removes boiled fish into trays to drain ready for shrimp sheller q.v.
boiler, sugar (sugar refining); vacuum pan sugar boiler ; pan hand, pan man (sugar refining), vacuum pan man (sugar)
opens liquor valve, to fill vacuum pan with liquor, operates vacuum valve, and admits steam by opening steam valve; observes temperature and vacuum gauges, and progress of boiling and grain formation through windows in pan walls; draws samples to test granulation and crystallisation; when process is complete, breaks vacuum by opening valve; draws pans by opening a valve which allows crystallised sugar to pass down chute to coolers (or "heaters"); books time of charging, and records progress of process and drawing.
boiler, tongue ; ox tongue boiler
as for boiler, ox head.
bondon maker
see cheese maker, bondon.
boner
(bacon airing) removes, with a knife, bone ' from sections of pork, without waste, preparatory to rolling or sausage making; (meat preserving) cuts up large joints, and removes bones, preparatory to preserving processes.
bottler, fruit
as for preserver, fruit.
brawn maker
working from set recipe, cuts out meat and fats from pigs' heads, chops meat and fats into small pieces and places in steam-jacketted coppers; boils these pieces, and pours brawn, so made, into moulds to cool and set; cf. small goods man (sausages, etc.).
brewer, vinegar
superintends processes of mashing, fermentation, acetification, and clarification, in manufacture of malt vinegar; determines temperature of steam vats and rate of flow of malt for mashing, amount of yeast for fermentation, etc., and instructs mash house man (449), vinegar pumper (449) q.v. and other workers engaged thereon.
brewer's saccharine maker
see inversion man.
butcher
see slaughterer ; cf. butcher (737) and (770).
butcher, chicken
see slaughterer, Jewish.
butcher, pig
see killer, pig.
butcher (preserved meat and bacon factory) ; bacon cutter
cuts up pigs' carcases for bacon curing; splits carcase into halves, and removes certain portions of side bones; in some Scottish works, cuts off only shoulders and flanks for curing purposes; cf. boner.
butter maker, butter churner, butter worker
tests cream with a thermometer to see whether it is at proper temperature for churning; tastes it, and otherwise examines it. to ascertain whether it is "ripe"; if it is not, adds various agents to hasten process of "ripening"; pours cream, when ripe, into a churn, by hand; turns churn (if hand-driven) by hand, with a handle; but, more usually, switches on driving belt or electric current, which turns churn mechanically; decides, by inspection or otherwise, when process of churning is complete; knocks out, by hand, plug at bottom of churn, to allow buttermilk to escape, and replaces plug; removes lid of churn, by hand, takes out cream (now become butter), and puts it on table of working-up machine, i.e. a large circular revolving table, with a small grooved wooden roller fixed from centre to one edge, which kneads butter, and squeezes out superfluous buttermilk or moisture; adds salt or washes with salt water, as required, to produce required flavour; tastes butter, and otherwise examines it, at frequent intervals, to ascertain if required flavour and consistency have been obtained.
canner, fruit
see preserver, fruit.
caramel maker (sugar refining)
prepares caramel, i.e. burnt sugar for medical or colouring purposes, by heating crystallised cane sugar in super-heated steam pans to a given temperature; sugar having been poured into pans by labourers, watches gauges and regulates steam pressure to govern heating of sugar; tests sugar content of caramel by saccharometer and by scrutinising; from knowledge of amount of heat employed, etc., determines colour value of heated sugar; when desired value has been obtained, shuts off steam, tests properties of caramel by placing samples in certain standard solutions and runs off caramel into cooling pans.
casein worker
see miller (dried milk, casein).
charge hand (sugar refinery), centrifugal machine charge hand (sugar)
superintends process in centrifugal machine room, where sugar crystal is drained and dried, and directs and supervises work of machine chargers (449) q.v.; instructs machine chargers as to amount of crystal or slab sugar to be placed in machines and length of treatment in machines; scrutinises dried sugar and amends instructions, etc., as necessary; does running repairs to machines or reports all breakdowns to works fitter (210) q.v.
cheese maker (not on farms)
mixes "evening" milk with "morning" milk, and tests acidity of mixture by tasting; pours milk (fresh or sour) from cans into a large steam-jacketted tank; watches temperature of milk in tank, which is kept at an even level; adds rennet, by hand, to curdle milk solid portion being coagulated into "curd," while liquid portion is separated out as whey; passes a knife methodically through curd, to prevent it forming into large clotted masses, and to keep it plastic; or moves lever setting in motion electrically-driven knives, which pass slowly through curd; works curd with his hands, rubbing it between his fingers, or turning it over; when, judged' by repeated tasting, process of ripening is complete, opens tap to allow whey to escape; places curd by hand on a perforated board to cool and drain; grinds curd, i.e. reduces it from large pieces, 4 or 5 inches in size, to pieces about or inch in size, by putting it in a machine, fitted with forks, and operated by hand; rubs in salt, wraps curd in a cloth binder, and puts it in a vat or mould, which is screwed tighter every day; binder is changed every day; takes curd from vat or mould, and places it in a special binder, compressing it slightly; cheeses are then taken to a loft or drying room to dry and mature; examines cheeses daily in drying room, with a view to eliminating any minor defects, e.g. too much warmth or too much moisture; pricks cheeses with a skewer if they contain too much air.
cheese maker, bondon ; bondon maker
a cheese maker q.v. making "bondon" cheese, which requires special care to obtain exact degree of ripeness required.
cheese maker, lactic
introduces rennet and a lactic ferment, or "starter," and salt into vat of milk previously strained and pasteurised; when curd has solidified, places it on cheese cloth for whey to drain off; sets in operation, power-driven blending machine, in which curd and hard cheese, usually cheddar, in equal quantities and a proportion of butter are thoroughly mixed between rollers, to form lactic cheese; moulds cheese in power-driven moulding press, wraps it in paper and packs it for sale.
cheese maker, soft
as for cheese maker, lactic.
chocolate hand
see concher.
chocolate maker
(i) general term for any skilled worker employed in manufacture of chocolate paste, including chocolate grinder, melangeur attendant, refiner, refining hand, chocolate mixer attendant q.v.;
(ii) in small firms, makes chocolate throughout, i.e. combines duties of chocolate grinder, chocolate mixer attendant, melangeur attendant, refiner (chocolate) q.v. but attends fewer machines than when work is sectionalised.
chocolate man
see concher.
chocolate mixer attendant
weighs, according to recipe, ingredients for chocolate paste and empties into three or four mixing machines, which, by revolving beaters, makes chocolate dough; starts and stops or reverses beaters by turning pulley wheel governing reversible clutch; scoops out mixed paste, when it is of correct consistency, and empties it into bowl of conching machine, which, by a rubbing action, continues mixing and improves flavour of chocolate; opens door of machine and allows conched chocolate to flow into trays; in small firms, sometimes also does other work, e.g. attends a chocolate grinding machine (see grinder, chocolate) or does work of chocolate maker q.v.
churn attendant (margarine)
runs specified, quantities of fatty constituents from melter tanks (cf. taster) into stirrer tanks; starts up stirrers by engaging pulley levers; turns on steam to heat fatty constituents for mixing with milk; runs off heated oil, etc., into emulsifier; is responsible for quantities of milk, colouring, etc., flowing into emulsifiers and gives instructions accordingly to churner (449) q.v.; in smaller firms, work is usually done by churner, supervisory duties being undertaken by works manager.
churner, churnman (margarine)
under direction of churn attendant q.v., churns together prepared milk and fat in a steam-jacketted churn or emulsifier; watches process, taking care that milk and fiat come together at correct temperature and obtain a certain constituency; opens valves to run in heated fats and also cooled milk, cf. milk room man (449); starts stirrers in emulsifier by pulley levers, handles, etc., and controls heat by means of steam valves; adds cooling matter, if necessary; when using turbo-pump emulsifiers adjusts valves so that liquid flows at correct heat to revolving cooling drum; when process is complete, opens outlet valves, allowing margarine to flow to outflow basin attendant (449) q.v.; in smaller firms, sometimes also does work of churn attendant q.v.
cleaner, fish
see gutter, fish.
cleaner, gut ; gut scraper, rop dresser, rop man, rop scraper
(ox gut) washes, in open troughs, outside of gut; turns gut inside out by turning back the end of gut and running water through "turn-up" continuously so that weight of water pulls gut completely inside out and carries away looser impurities; slimes the inner surface of gut using a slimer, i.e. a wooden tool, to remove mucous matter and membrane; winds gut on a hand-turned metre wheel; sorts in lots, and packs with salt into casks; if sorting gut into widths, places end of gut over tap nozzle, passes water into gut and confines water within a certain length of gut by squeezing gut at a certain distance from nozzle, measures bore of gut against a gauge and works along a length of gut until a certain gauge ie reached, then cuts; (sheep and pig gut) soaks gut until the mucous lining is "on the run," then, spreading gut on an inclined board, works down the gut with a wooden scraper so that mucous matter and membrane runs from the gut; (weazand and bladder ) cuts and scrapes flesh, etc., from weazands and bladders and blows up, by hand bellows or with compressed air, to dry.
cleaner, mustard seed
see dresser, mustard.
cleaner, sausage casings; sausage skin cleaner ; sausage case maker, sausage casings dresser, sausage skin dresser, sausage skin maker
a gut cleaner q.v. working exclusively on gut casings for sausages.
cleaner, tongue
a kitchen hand (provision factory) q.v. who washes and scrapes ox tongues in preparation for boiling.
cleaner, tripe ; tripe dresser
(i) scalds tripe in hot water; scrapes off outer skin, boils for three hours, and scrapes off inner skin;
(ii) operates a belt-driven circular machine brush which cleanses tripe in a stream of cold water.
concher (chocolate) ; chocolate hand, chocolate man
pours or ladles charge of chocolate, either powdered or liquid, into a concher machine (so called because originally it contained shell-shaped appliances, or "conches," which dug into chocolate and worked it to keep it plastic; working is now sometimes done by rollers); sets machine in motion by a lever; Watches temperature indicator to ensure that correct temperature is maintained; removes charge, with a ladle or other instrument, when refining process is complete; cleans machine, and looks after it generally.
condenser (milk), condensed milk maker ; preserved milk maker, pan man (condensed milk)
runs milk, after heating, into evaporating pans of condenser; watches evaporation and regulates heat of steam coils to prevent milk burning; regulates vacuum pressure to govern evaporation; draws off samples and, when process is complete, strikes vacuum, i.e., shuts off steam, lets in air and runs off milk to cool.
confectioner's assistant
does decorative coloured designs on high-class sweetmeats by hand, with a brush; cf. confectioner's assistant (449).
converter man
(i) (solid glucose) acting in conjunction with steeper q.v., opens and shuts connecting valves, as necessary, to draw liquor from steeping vats and to force it up to neutralising tanks;
(ii) (liquid glucose) attends converter plant in which, by the addition of acid, starch solution is converted into liquid glucose; admits and shuts off steam, as necessary, to operate pump forcing starch solution into converter; regulates valves to run in acid; guided by gauges, regulates steam pressure on to converter; draws off sample of glucose from time to time; tests with standard solutions, and when process is complete, opens valve and forces out liquid glucose; keeps a record showing amount of liquor converted.
cooker, lemon
puts halved lemons in steam-heated vats, heat of which he regulates by means of valves; judges when process is complete and empties vats.
cooker, orange
puts juice and pulp of oranges, after they have been freed from pips, etc., by rubber-down (449) q.v., in steam-heated tubs and regulates temperature by means of valves; leaves it in tubs for length of time varying according as fruit is to be stored as pulp or is to be used immediately in making marmalade; for storing' pulp, fills cask with pulp, hammers in bung, and nails a strip of tin or zinc thereon; weighs cask before and after filling, and chalks up weight.
cook (preserved foods)
directs processes for cooking preserved meats, etc., on a large scale; examines meat on receipt, supervises cleaning and cutting up, has charge of steam vats, and generally supervises women assistants.
cream maker, clotted; scalded cream maker
prepares raw cream for heating in pans; during heating, skims off clotted cream.
custard powder maker
weighs ingredients, according to formula, and empties them, by hand, into a chute, which feeds hopper of mixing machine; moves switch, which sets machine in motion; watches machine to see that it is working properly and that ingredients are being correctly mixed.
cutter (Jewish)
see slaughterer, Jewish.
cutter, bacon
see butcher preserved meat and bacon factory).
dairymaid (in creamery)
pours cream into pots; wraps and packs up cream cheeses; weighs moulds, assists in making up, weighing, stamping, and moulding pats of butter, cleans pots, pans, etc.; washes shelves and marble slabs, etc.
dairyman (margarine factory)
removes cream from milk, by hand, with a ladle or other utensil, and puts cream in a separate can for removal; empties milk, after cream has been removed, into steam-jacketted churns, to pasteurise milk; adds water, by hand, when milk is at a certain temperature; opens valve by hand, causing pasteurised milk to be pumped to another department; works under supervision of foreman dairyman (431) q.v.
dairyman (milk factory)
receives milk in churns at factory and tips milk into reservoirs from which it is pumped to various machines for separating, pasteurising, condensing, etc.; cleanses reservoirs, etc., periodically; is generally responsible for good condition of milk accepted at receiving depots.
dresser, bladder ; weasand dresser
removes fat and superfluous tissue from bladder or weasand with a knife, taking care not to cut it; encloses one end of it with a piece of string; places it on nozzle of electric pump, regulated by hand lever, which fills it with air, or blows it up with hand bellows; ties another piece of string round open end to prevent air escaping; ties a number of bladders or weasands together with string, and places them on hooks in roof or ceiling to dry.
dresser, fowl ; fowl trusser, poultry dresser
plucks and cleans fowls or other poultry; removes viscera; washes and skewers poultry, and ties them up for market.
dresser, game
as for dresser, fowl.
dresser, meat
flays slaughtered beasts; removes internal organs with sharp knife; chops carcase (if of an ox) down middle; washes down meat; work usually done by slaughterman q.v.
dresser, mustard ; mustard sifter, mustard sieve man
(i) mustard seed cleaner, mustard seed dresser, seed dresser (mustard); attends three or four machines for sieving mustard seeds; pours seed into sieves, clears impurities from sieves, and bags sieved seeds; starts and stops machine, as necessary, by loose pulley lever; machine is rarely stopped;
(ii) mustard flour sifter; attends three or four mustard flour sifting machines, fed from chute, controlled by mustard blender q.v., after passing through beating machines; bags sifted flour; fills and nails up casks or boxes for despatch; clears sieves of impurities by hand, using brush; occasionally, e.g. to change sieves, stops machines by pulley lever;
(iii) receives blended flour in sacks and fills mortars; starts and stops automatically-driven pestles by inserting or taking out pestle plugs; rubs flour in fingers to test it and to assist breaking up; fills open sieves by hand scoop and starts sieves by engaging pulley; clears sieves and bags flour.
dresser, mustard seed
see dresser, mustard.
dresser, neat's foot
washes feet of oxen and cows; boils feet for six hours in copper; picks off hairs by hand; boils feet again in water, after which they are ready ior sale; skims off oil (sold as neat's foot oil) which comes to surface during boiling process.
dresser, offal
removes offal of animals from slaughter house; boils it to extract dirt, blood, etc., and trims intestines, etc., in preparation for making catgut.
dresser, poultry
see dresser, fowl.
dresser, rop
see cleaner, gut.
dresser, sausage casings; sausage skin dresser
see cleaner, sausage casings.
dresser, seed (mustard)
see dresser, mustard.
dresser, sheep's trotter
as for dresser, neat's foot.
dresser, tripe
see cleaner, tripe.
dresser, trotter
as for dresser, neat's foot.
dresser, weasand
see dresser, bladder.
drier, mustard seed
see kiln man, mustard.
evaporator man (liquid glucose)
(i) attends single vacuum pan or an evaporator pan to reduce clarified liquid glucose to required density by evaporating some of the water in glucose liquor under a vacuum; opens valve to run in liquor; similarly admits steam and water to Create vacuum; consults gauges, showing water and steam pressure, to regulate vacuum; draws samples of liquor and tests density with specific gravity tubes; when desired density is obtained, lets in air to break vacuum and runs off liquor;
(ii) attends multiple evaporator, i.e., two, three or four evaporators linked in series to economise on steam utilised; operations as above; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., multiple evaporator man.
evaporator, steep water (glucose)
as for evaporator man, evaporating steep water (see steeper) to a certain density for use in recovering bye-products; involves extra cleaning duties, as maize water is apt to run up and down the down-leg of the multiple evaporators.
filler, pudding (preserved meats)
fills skin casings, by hand, through a funnel, with previously mixed ingredients of black puddings; ties them into lengths ready for boiling; or fills by machine, placing end of casing over outlet funnel and working machine by hand, foot treadle, etc.; work usually done by black pudding maker q.v.
filler, sausage
places minced sausage meat in a cylinder fitted with a piston, worked by treadle, hand or by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure, which forces mince through a spout into sausage skin; fixes skin on end of spout and regulates supply of mince into casings ready for weigher (sausages) q.v.
filleter, fish
removes bones from fish which have previously been gutted and cuts them into strips, in preparation for curing.
filter man (sugar refining)
takes charge of process of bag filtering of sugar liquor after it leaves blow-up, i.e. large iron tank in which raw sugar is melted in water; instructs filter press man (449) q.v. as to speeding and retarding flow of liquor, cleaning of filter bags, etc., and receives complaints from him as to state of liquor, etc.; takes samples and so watches state of liquor running through.
foreman (char house)
see leading hand (char house).
fruit pudding maker
mixes, in specified proportions, currants, raisins, sugar, spirits, etc., for puddings; fills bags or basins of specified weight or size, with mixture, and boils until cooked.
gipper, fish gipper
see gutter, fish.
glucose maker
general term covering all workers engaged in making solid or liquid glucose, including evaporator man, liquor man, pan man, steeper, separator man, filler-out (solid glucose) (449) q.v.
golden syrup maker, golden vatman, goldie maker (slang)
(i) makes golden syrup from refined sugar by inversion process; for operations, see inversion man;
(ii) measures off standard strength acid and pours or runs it through a valve into centrifugal machine, and allows it to react upon sugar residue in machine; judges when this part of process is complete, and, opening valves, runs off solution through filter presses and char cisterns; finally boils product in a vacuum pan, thus obtaining a refined treacle; operations as for evaporator man.
granulator man (sugar refining)
see superintendent of granulators.
grinder, casein
see miller (dried milk casein).
grinder, chocolate; chocolate powder grinder
is engaged entirety on a number of chocolate grinding machines, e.g. ten, which by the action of pair of mill stones, revolving in reverse directions, one being steam heated, reduces winnowed and kibbled beans to chocolate paste (or fluid) of uniform consistency; adjusts, by screw device, a scraper on edge of bottom millstone, so that paste flows into a tray below machine; removes full tray once a day, switches on steam for heating millstone and starts up machine by pulley lever; also fills machine hopper when this is not done by nibber q.v.; in smaller firms , work usually done by chocolate maker q.v.
grinder, cocoa ; cocoa nib grinder
as for grinder, chocolate.
grinder, mustard ; mustard miller, rollerman (mustard)
attends three or four grinding machines; shoots mustard seed, by hand, from sacks into hoppers of machines; occasionally inspects to ensure that there are no stoppages of machines and that hoppers are kept supplied; on rare occasions, adjusts grinding rollers by hand, wheel, or other device, or stops machine by disengaging loose pulley (by lever) and clears stoppage by hand.
grinder, starch
empties starch crystals, by hand, into hopper of automatic disintegrator mill, which grinds them to powder; watches machine to see that it is working correctly; watches working of rotary sieve into which starch powder runs automatically; cleans sieve periodically; bags and weighs finished product, which enters a chute after leaving rotary sieve; attends two or three machines and reports faulty working to foreman or works manager.
gutter, fish ; fish cleaner, fish gipper, gipper
removes head and internal organs of fish, and cleans it ready for salting; sometimes also salts fish; cf. cobberer (437).
haggis maker
mixes oatmeal, minced suet, minced sheep's pluck, onions, and spices; fills sheep's bladders with mixture and boils them in water.
header, fish ; knobber, nobber
removes head of fish with a knife, by hand, in preparation for splitting or canning; cf. fish gutter.
inversion man (sugar refinery) ; brewer's saccharine maker
runs raw sugar into lead-lined steam-heated tanks; directs acid men (449) q.v. who add standard strength acid; regulates steam valves to control speed and degree of heating, the success of the process depending upon judgment in heating; determines approximately state of sugar from its appearance, i.e. colour, clarity, density; sends samples of liquid to chemist who decides when inversion is complete.
jelly maker (calves' foot), calves' foot jelly maker
weighs ingredients, which he requisitions from store room, and places them, by hand, in a steam-jacketted pan;watches temperature indicator during boiling process, to ensure that correct heat is maintained; decides when ingredients have been sufficiently boiled, and opens a valve or tap to allow them, now in form of liquid jelly, to flow out into receptacles; strains jelly through a bag of fine muslin to clarify it and to extract any solid ingredients which have not dissolved during boiling.
jelly maker (provision factories)
general term covering jelly boiler, jelly pourer-out (449), and jelly cutter (449) q.v.; in small firms, sometimes makes jellies throughout, combining work of all these workers.
jelly maker (sugar jellies)
weighs ingredients (principally sugar), according to a standard formula or recipe, and empties them by hand down a chute into steam-jacketted pans; adds water, as required; when required, adds, by hand, gelatine, flavouring essences, and colouring matter; watches temperature indicator, or inserts thermometer in mixture; when ingredients have been boiled sufficiently, and have acquired proper consistency, pours them into a large receptacle and thence transfers them, by hand, with a ladle, to moulds; cf. sugar boiler (434).
jelly powder maker
weighs out in exact proportions, according to a recipe, ingredients for jelly powder, and mixes them by hand on a bench; is often employed interchangeably on other work, e.g., as custard powder maker q.v.
killer
see slaughterer.
killer, pig ; pig butcher
stuns pig; hoists body of pig by chain or rope attached to hind leg; cuts pig's throat, allowing blood to drain out; may cut pig's throat while carcase is held on ground or in wooden cradle; sometimes also does work of pig scalder and pig singer q.v.
kiln man (grain milling)
(i) is in charge of one or more kilns, used for drying oats in preparation for milling and rolling, which are automatically fed with oats from cleaning machines through hoppers, and are healed by hot air from a furnace; sees that required heat is maintained, and, if grain is over-heated or under-heated, reports to boiler fireman (951) q.v., who increases or reduces temperature accordingly; directs kiln labourer (449) q.v., takes samples of grain from time to time and feels and tastes them to ascertain their condition; sometimes also acts in other capacities, e.g. as intake man, silo man, screensman (432) q.v.;
(ii) is in charge of flat type of kiln used for drying damaged or wet grain; in small establishments, also stokes furnace and regulates heat of kiln; cf. boiler fireman (951); with assistance of labourers, spreads grain from bins with shovels on floor of kiln, and turns it over from time to time during heating process; takes samples from time to time, and feels and tastes them to ascertain condition; when grain is dry, shovels it into a chute to be packed by warehouseman (940) q.v.
kiln man, mustard; seed kiln man (mustard) ; mustard seed drier
is in charge of kiln in which mustard seed is dried; regulates heat of kiln fire by building fire up or damping it down, as required; turns seed over, with a long iron rod, so that it may be dried evenly, and none be either burnt or insufficiently heated.
kitchen hand (provision factory)
performs one or more of the following operations: bottles liquid soup; dries vegetables and essences for soup powders, by placing them in stoves (usually steam-heated) and regulates temperature by means of valves; weighs ingredients; mixes them (dry), by hand, on a bench; puts them in a compressing machine and operates machine by moving a lever or switch; packs powders by hand, in cartons; also boils ox-heads, tongues, etc., as directed, in making brawn, tinned meat, etc., cf. boiler, ox-head; works under direction of foreman or chef of kitchen.
knobber
see header, fish.
lard maker, lard refiner, lard Tenderer
melts flair, i.e. pig's fat, in an open steam-jacketted pan; transfers hot liquid lard into pan fitted with spouts and taps; runs liquid lard into paper bags, card board moulds, bladders, or tins, and sets to cool.
leading hand (char house-sugar refining) ; foreman (char house)
supervises other char house workers; is responsible for whole process of final clarification of liquid glucose by heating and skimming liquor in open tanks and by charcoal filtering, i.e. maintaining temperature levels of liquor in tanks, flow of liquor through tanks and char filters, and through the final outlet pipes; also, by inspection, ensures that charcoal cisterns and revivication retorts are working effectively; regulates steam valves, inlet and outlet valves to tanks, etc.; skims scum from glucose liquor; takes sample in glass ladle and inspects the clarity to determine rate of flow of liquor through char , house; opens and shuts final outlet pipes to pass clarified liquor from char house to evaporator man q.v.
lemon cheese maker, lemon curd maker
receives ingredients, in correct proportions, from manager; in some firms, is himself responsible for measuring out ingredients in correct proportions; places them in a large copper steam-heated pan; adds water according to instructions; opens valve to allow steam to enter lower portion of copper pan; boils mixture, taking temperature frequently with a thermometer; stirs mixture with a spoon or other instrument, during boiling process; when mixture has boiled long enough, ladles mixture, by hand, out of pan, and pours it into vats to cool; usually works throughout under instructions of manager.
liquorice hand, liquorice refiner
places prescribed quantity of block liquorice in a steam-jacketted pan, and turns on steam to heat it; sets in motion mechanical stirrer; watches liquorice, judges when correct consistency has been reached and adds measured quantity of flavouring thereto; ladles out boiled liquorice into open pans to cool; is usually employed part-time in breaking up and stacking block liquorice, or in trolleying liquorice, etc.
liquor man (glucose)
attends a number, e.g. six, of filters and regulates flow of glucose liquor through filter plate, cf. filter pan hand (449); regulates main inlet and outlet valves and also the small valves attached to each filter plate (20) or so to each filter) and so controls filtering.
liquor man, liquor tank attendant ; tank attendant, tank man (sugar refining)
operates valves controlling flow of liquor from char cisterns; or superintends opening and closing of valves used for filling and emptying liquor tanks; arranges that sugar boiler (434) q.v. draws from tanks in correct rotation; observes colour of liquor as it flows from char cisterns, and tests it for density; controls, by means of valves, supply of water for washing off charcoal cisterns when empty of liquor; books times of stages in process; notes numbers of cisterns to be drawn and re-charged with charcoal.
macaroni maker
weighs out, in correct proportions, ingredients, which differ according to type or quality of macaroni required; mixes them with water by hand, in a bowl with a spoon or other instrument, or puts them in a mixing machine, to he mixed mechanically; sometimes, after mixing, puts paste on table of grinding machine, which consists of a revolving circular metal table, fitted with two grooved conical rollers fixed from centre of table to edge; sets revolving table in motion, causing paste to pass repeatedly under rollers and to be worked up to an even consistency; in other cases, adds correct proportion of water, by hand, and works paste up to correct consistency by hand in mixing bowl; transfers paste, by hand, to another machine fitted with a press, which forces paste through holes, in bottom of machine, in form of long pipes; breaks off pipes into convenient lengths, puts them on a tray, and carries them to drying chamber; sometimes passes macaroni through a hand roller before drying, which presses it into strips resembling thin ribbon; examines macaroni from time to time in drying chamber, and decides when it is ready for sale; in large factories, is assisted by labourers, who do unskilled parts of operations.
macerator, starch ; starch vat man
attends macerating machine in which rice or other paste, which has been ground by starch grinder q.v., is mixed with water and kept in motion by compressed air or other means; regulates, by hopper slide,; flow of paste into machine, and runs in water to fill machine; starts and stops machine by means of pulley lever; when operation is complete, allows mixture to settle; opens outlet valve and runs off starch liquor; repeats process several times.
machine hand (mustard)
general term for any worker operating and controlling machines used in mustard manufacture, e.g. mustard blender, mustard dresser, mustard grinder q.v.
machine man, butcher's machine man
attends chopping and mixing machines for brawn, black pudding, sausage, etc., making; working from recipe, empties prescribed quantities of fat, flesh, bread, flour, etc., according to commodity to be made, into chopping or mincing machine, in correct order; controls machine by treadle, handle or lever.
machinist (milk factory)
general term covering workers operating machines in milk factory, e.g. milk pasteuriser, milk steriliser, milk separator (449) q.v.
melangeur attendant (chocolate)
attends from 6 to 10 machines which, by means of edge running rollers, reduces chocolate paste to plastic mass; working from recipe, weighs ingredients for paste and scoops it into chase or bowl of the machines; decides when operation is complete and scrapes paste from edges; repeats process in "fine" melangeur machine; in smaller firms, work is usually done by chocolate maker q.v.
milk sugar maker
as for evaporator man; watches and controls special plant which extracts sugar from milk, from which casein and cream have already been removed, by evaporation under reduced pressure; dries lactose or milk sugar by hydro-extractor.
miller (casein) ; casein grinder, casein worker
empties sacks of casein down a chute, which feeds hopper of grinding machine; places sacks in position to receive casein powder as it issues from machine; judges when machine is running hot (which would injure product); decides when grinding process is complete, and powder is in a fit condition to be stored.
miller, mustard
see grinder, mustard.
mincemeat maker
weighs out ingredients, i.e. suet, raisins, etc., in exact proportions according to a formula; and either feeds and operates machines, e.g. suet chopping, fruit cleaning, raisin stoning mixing or directs and superintends labourers who feed and operate these machines.
mincer, sausage meat
a machine man q.v. who feeds mincing machine, by hand, with meat or pork, bread and other ingredients; turns crank of machine, if hand-operated, or sets machine in motion, if power-driven; removes minced and mixed ingredients from bowl into which they issue from machine; sometimes also does work of sausage filler q.v.
mixer, chocolate
see chocolate maker.
mixer man, magma; massecuite mixer man
controls, by means of valves, flow of raw sugar, water, or syrup into crystalliser, to obtain correct mixture and density; guided by gauges showing state of working of crystalliser, etc., uses judgment in varying the flow by cutting off or adding sugar, water or syrup.
mixer, mustard flour
see blender, mustard.
mixer (potted meats, fish paste, etc.)
weighs ingredients, according to a formula or recipe; puts them, by hand, in a large howl fitted with wheels; this howl, with its contents, is called a "batch"; pushes hatch under mixing machine, fitted with blades which cut up and mix ingredients; sets machine in motion; watches to see that ingredients are well mixed; pushes hatch aside to be taken away to filling room, and puts another batch under mixing machine.
mixer, tea
see blender, tea.
nobber
see header, fish.
opener and dresser, pig
hangs up carcase of pig, after it has been scalded and singed, by hind legs; cuts down centre of underside; removes offal, and dresses carcase, which is then removed to hanging room.
paddler, starch paddler
with other paddlers, paddles starch on the starch runs, i.e. walks up and down a number of asphalt channels (approximately 100 feet in length) along which starch liquor flows in shallow streams, and by means of a paddle, prevents the light glutinous matter settling with the starch on the starch runs; continues paddling until all glutinous liquor runs off and only starch remains on the "runs"; regulates flow of liquor on the runs by valves.
pan hand, pan man (sugar refining)
see boiler, sugar.
pan man (condensed milk factory)
see condenser (milk).
pan man (solid glucose)
attends vacuum pan in which glucose liquor is heated under a vacuum and reduced to required density; admits steam to steam coil, and watching gauges, regulates temperature, from time to time drawing off samples of liquor as a guide; shuts off steam and opens valves to run off liquor to filler-out (449) q.v. upon completion of process; cf. evaporator man (liquid glucose).
pan man, vacuum (cereal foods)
attends vacuum pans in which cereals, used in preparation of patent foods, are evaporated; cf. pan man (solid glucose), evaporator man.
pan man, vacuum (sugar)
see boiler, sugar.
pasteuriser, milk
regulates, by opening or shutting a cock or valve, flow of milk through a machine which cleans or clarifies it, into a steam-jacketted pasteurising machine, where it is heated to a given temperature, to destroy bacteria; in some factories, regulates supply of steam to pasteurising machine, by opening or shutting a valve, using a temperature indicator to show when correct temperature has been reached; where temperature is regulated automatically, regulates, by opening or shutting another cock or valve, supply of hot, pasteurised milk to holding or retarding tanks; when one of these tanks is full, opens a cock or valve which allows milk to flow out of tank over cooler; sees that pasteurising machine is working properly.
pickler, beef
soaks pieces of beef, tongues, or pork (for brawn, sausages, etc.) in strong solution of brine, in casks, or more usually, in pickling tanks; opens valves to fill tanks with brine and adds pork; inspects tanks from time to time and removes meat when it is sufficiently salted, taking into consideration temperature, e.g. meat absorbs more brine in given time in hot weather; empties and cleans tanks; may also do other work, e.g. attend retorts, cf. retort hand.
pickler, sprat
prepares the pickle, i.e. sugar, spice, hay leaves, etc., in barrels for sprats and herrings, working from own recipe; often travels round coast to follow "catch."
plugger (meat preserving)
fills tin with meat, by hand; places board on top of tin to press down meat; removes hoard, and fills in crevices with small pieces of meat, by hand.
plunging machinist (meat preserving)
attends a stuffing machine in a "canned" or "packed" meat factory;
(i) (multiple machine ) places tins beneath automatically meat-fed hopper and after they have been filled with meat by means of an automatic plunger, removes tins from beneath hopper;
(ii) (single machine) fills hopper with meat, places empty tin beneath hopper and pulls lever to operate plunger; removes filled tin, replacing with an empty one.
preparer, preserved fruit
picks over specially selected fruit in preparation for candying; removes stalks, etc., and rejects any fruit that is defective; cuts open with sharp knife and removes stone.
preserved milk maker
see condenser (milk).
preserver, fruit; fruit and vegetable preserver ; fruit canner, fruit tinner
picks over fruit, vegetables, etc., discarding any that are defective, removing stalks, shells, etc., and, if necessary, skins, peel, etc.; fills bottles, tins, or other vessels with fruit, vegetables, etc., thus prepared, with or without addition of syrup or other preservatives; boils, or partially boils, these vessels with their contents, if boiling is required, and makes vessels air-tight with a seal or cap.
preserver, meat
is in charge of all processes in preserving and sterilizing of meat; knows temperatures and times governing charging and emptying of retorts; superintends filling and sealing of tins; directs particular preserving processes, e.g., for large tins of meat, may decide upon a second heating in retort (after first soldering), opening up and resealing of tins finally to exclude air; directs spraying of tins with cold water to cool tins after heating and soldering; keeps log book of times, temperatures of retorts, and consignments passed through.
preserver, potato
as for preserver, vegetable.
preserver, sardine
preserves sardines, either by partly frying them before they are packed, or by heating them in steam retorts after they are packed; also directs and supervises workers engaged in packing sardines, i.e. in putting them in tins, filling tins with oil, and soldering them.
preserver, vegetable
(i) as for preserver, fruit;
(ii) washes carrots, turnips, onions, cabbages, potatoes, or other vegetables; slices them by machine; dries slices on trays, in a gas-heated drying oven; packs vegetables, when they are dry.
presser, cocoa
see pressman, cocoa.
presser, mustard husk oil
as for pressman (cattle cake).
pressman (cattle cake)
attends, with another pressman, two presses for extracting oil from maize husks, bean, etc., and pressing residual husk into cattle cakes; regulates flow of husk liquor into presses by valves; while one press is filtering, stops flow of liquor through other press, unscrews filter plates and, working from plate to plate, pulls by hand the caked husk, etc., therefrom; husk falls through hopper to conveyor feeding drying cylinders, cf. dryer man (449); changes and washes filter cloths, cf. filter pan hand (glucose) (449).
pressman, cocoa ; cocoa presser, hydraulic press operator (cocoa)
attends machine for pressing out cocoa butter from cocoa liquor and for pressing residual cocoa into hard "cheeses" or blocks; pours liquor into steel pots in machine; fastens lids on pots and starts up pump, or opens a hydraulic valve to operate a ram which presses up bottoms of the pots in the compressing of cocoa liquor; removes pressed blocks and pail containing the cocoa butter; exercises great care in starting up machine.
press man, Sweetland
attends a number, e.g. three, of Sweetland filter presses, in which neutralised liquid glucose passes through cloth bags attached to filter plates; regulates, by valves, flow of liquor through machine; from time to time draws off samples of liquor to determine the state of filter bags; when necessary, empties and opens press, unscrews filter bags, washes them and dries them on hot pipes; sometimes also does work of liquor man or filter pan hand (449) q.v. when liquor flows from Sweetland press through other type of press for additional filtering.
press operator, hydraulic (cocoa)
see pressman, cocoa.
pulper, fruit
puts fruit (other than oranges), after it has been cleaned by fruit picker (449) q.v., in steam-heated tubs, and regulates temperaure [sic] by means of valves; when fruit is reduced to pulp, fills casks with pulp, hammers in bung, and nails thereover a strip of zinc or tin; weighs casks before and after filling, and chalks up weight.
raw sugar man (sugar refining)
(i) general term for any man employed in raw sugar department, including blow-up man q.v. and labourers engaged in trucking, etc., raw sugar, or attending belt carrier; cf. mixer boy (sugar refining) (449);
(ii) prepares juice, i.e. raw sugar in water, for refiner, adding weighed or measured quantity of lime to juice in defecating pan; mixes with mechanical stirrer, to neutralise acidity and to combine with albumen to create flocculent precipitates, which carry away impurities; watches mixing and stops machine when process is complete.
refiner, refiner hand, refiner man (chocolate) ; refining machine attendant
attends from six to ten chocolate refining machines, which, by means of finely adjusted cold steel rollers, still further reduce paste in fineness; starts and stops machines by loose pulley levers; if necessary, adjusts clearance of rollers by hand wheels governing screw device; adjusts magnets (for removing stray pieces of metal in paste) in magnet board of each machine; clears delivery trays with hand scoop; in small firms, work is usually done by chocolate maker q.v.
refiner, suet
receives crude suet from cattle market, cuts away meat, skin, etc., and places in melting pan of refining machine; adjusts temperature by regulating valves of steam jacket and runs out refined suet fat to cool.
refining machine attendant (chocolate)
see refiner (chocolate).
rennet maker
steeps, macerates, and cleanses in water, a portion of fourth stomach of calves; frees it from outer skin, fat and useless membranes, washes it in brine or rubs with dry salt and finally dries it till it resembles parchment; makes up steeping liquor and immerses wells (dried calves' stomachs) to extract ferment; superintends filtering bottling and packing of rennet.
roaster, cocoa; cocoa bean roaster
puts cocoa beans in revolving heated iron drums; watches roasting, and removes beans when process is complete; stokes fires beneath cylinders or, more usually, regulates gas jets to control heating; tests beans by breaking in his fingers to ensure by their brittleness that they are thoroughly roasted; opens cylinder door and allows beans to fall into cooling receptacle, where cooled air is drawn through beans by means of a fan; may attend to two or three cylinders; may also roast coffee beans by the same method.
roaster, coffee
as for roaster, cocoa; sometimes also roasts chicory, see roaster, chicory (449).
roaster, oat
a kiln man q.v. who supervises working of kilns in which oats are dried in preparation for hulling and roasting.
roller, bacon
sews or ties bacon, which has been previously boned, into rolls by hand, either before or after curing.
roller (chocolate)
as for concher (chocolate) working at roller machine.
rollerman (mustard)
see grinder, mustard.
rop man
see cleaner, gut.
runkeeper, runman (cereal foods)
supervises paddlers, shovellers (449) q.v. and other labourers and superintends processes by which grain is steeped in water, ground and passed through long "runs" where starch is deposited.
sampler, cocoa
visits docks and examines consignments on behalf of cocoa merchants; inspects state of cocoa, takes representative samples from certain sacks, exercising special care to estimate as near as possible percentage damaged, e.g. through dampness.
sausage case maker
see cleaner, sauage [sic] casings.
sausage maker
general term for any worker engaged in making sausages, including boner, machine man, sausage filler, weigher (sausages) q.v.
sausage skin maker
see cleaner, sausage casings.
scaler, pig
receives carcase from pig killer q.v.; immerses it, by hand or by overhead gear, in tub of boiling water; removes carcase from water, and scrapes off hair, scraper, gut; rop scraper, see cleaner, gut.
sealer (Jewish meat market)
a priest or layman, appointed by Jewish Board of Shecheta, who ensures that slaughtering has been performed in accordance with Jewish customs; supervises slaughtering and affixes seal to Kosher meat.
seedsman, mustard
is in charge of store of mustard seed; directs carters and labourers in receipt and stowing of consignments of seed, and, from experience is able to judge quality of seed; rejects seed, or reports when seed is not up to sample; according to quality of seed, directs trucking to different floors of mill for blending, sifting, etc.; keeps stock book.
selector, casing; gut selector
determines full size of guts, i.e. intestines removed from carcases of oxen, sheep or pigs, by filling them with water; cuts gut into lengths suitable for sausage skins, etc.; usually done by gut cleaner q.v.
self-raising flour maker
(i) is in charge of a number of automatic mixing machines, working in series; sets measures of machines, so as to admit correct proportions of each ingredient, i.e. wheat flour, carbonate of soda, cream of tartar, and tartaric acid, sometimes also rice or maize flour; watches running of machines and from time to time oils and cleans machinery;
(ii) in bakeries or small works, powders and sifts ingredients; weighs them out by hand, and puts them, by hand, in mixing machine; starts and stops machine by moving a lever.
separator man
attends four vats which feed eight shakers for separating the husk from the germ of milled maize; regulates, by valves, flow of maize and starch liquor pumped into vats and ensures that husk does not sink to the bottom at the back (entrance) of tank by stirring liquor with a shaped rod from time to time; attends and watches shakers (which are of copper); cf. shaker man.
shaker man
attends a number of shaking machines (e.g. twelve) which, by means of oscillating silk sieves, separate husk from fine starch; regulates, by valves, water spray over shakers; twice a day stops husk feed over each machine, removes washers and refits each sieve, throwing off belts to stop machine.
shecheta
see slaughterer, Jewish.
sheller, shrimp
removes boiled shrimps from their shells, in preparation for potting.
shocket
see slaughterer, Jewish.
sieve man, mustard
see dresser, mustard.
siever, cocoa
see sifter, chocolate.
sifter, chocolate; chocolate powder sifter, cocoa sifter ; cocoa siever
keeps replenished, the hopper of a machine which sieves cocoa or beverage chocolate powder by means of oscillating silk sieves; clears sieves with hand brush; scoops sifted powder from delivery tray; starts up and stops machine by pulley lever; cf. cocoa dresser.
sifter, mustard; mustard flour sifter
see dresser, mustard.
singer, pig
receives carcase from pig killer q.v.; attaches it to overhead gear, .and passes it for singeing into a special oven; removes it from oven, rubs off charred hair, and washes and scrapes skin to remove any remaining bristles.
slaughterer (not horse) ; butcher, killer, slaughterman
kills animals for human consumption, usually by pole-axing cattle and by cutting throats of sheep and pigs; sometimes stuns animals before killing them; often also performs duties of meat dresser q.v.
slaughterer, Jewish ; chicken butcher, cutter, shecheta, shocket
slaughters animals, and examines carcases according to Jewish ritual; is employed by Jewish Board of Shecheta.
slaughterman
see slaughterer.
small goods maker
undertakes any kitchen work in connection with sausage and cooked or preserved meat trade; makes sausages, brawn, prepares and cooks tongues, presses brisket of beef; sometimes also tins meat, seals tins and passes them through retorts; cf. machine man, black pudding maker, brawn maker.
soup maker, liquid
a highly skilled cook q.v. who prepares liquid soups from meat, vegetables, seasoning, etc., which he mixes in exact proportions.
soup maker (soup powder)
a kitchen hand q.v. who weighs out ingredients of soup powders in prescribed proportions according to a recipe, and mixes them (dry) by hand on a bench; dries them off in a stove.
splitter, bean
as for splitter, pea.
splitter, fish
splits open fish, after heads have been removed, in preparation for curing.
splitter, haddock
as for splitter, fish.
splitter, pea
feeds hopper of splitting machine with peas from a sack, where this is not done by labourers; sets millstones of machine at correct distance apart, by turning a screw device, so that peas are split to required size, and are not ground or smashed; starts and stops machine by moving a lever; bags split peas as they emerge from delivery chute of machine.
starch maker
general term for a worker employed in any process in manufacture of starch, e.g. starch macerator, starch grinder, starch stove attendant q.v.
steamer (rolled oats)
sets automatic feed measure, governing flow of groats (rolled oats) to heated revolving cylinders; starts and stops machine by means of a lever; takes samples from time to time, to judge progress of steaming process; removes groats when process is complete.
steeper, steep man
(i) (solid glucose) empties sacks of starch flour into steeping vats; turns on steam and water and acid, regulating inlet valves, as necessary; acting in conjunction with converter man q.v., opens outlet valves of vats;
(ii) (liquid glucose) attends twelve vats in which maize is steeped to soften f or grinding; opens and shuts hopper slide and runs in maize; runs water into vats, using marked stick to determine when requisite quantities have been run in; turns on steam and maintains a given temperature; runs off softened maize and liquor from vats in rotation; regulates speed of Ailing and emptying and regulates temperature, according to speed of grinding, under works manager's instructions; keeps vats clean and ensures that they do not overflow.
steriliser, milk
places bottle (or other vessel) of milk in a steam-jacketted receptacle; heats milk to required, temperature, and watches temperature indicator to ensure that correct heat is maintained; if necessary, regulates heat, by opening or shutting valve which admits steam; hermetically seals bottles while still in sterilising copper, by hand, by inserting a cardboard disc; removes bottles from copper to cool.
stove attendant, starch
attends stove in which is dried, powdered starch or block starch to form starch crystals; puts in and takes out, as necessary, block starch or powdered starch on trays; regulates the heat of oven in which starch pulp is heated for evaporation of moisture, by stoking oven fires, opening and shutting hot air doors, turning on and off dry steam valves, etc., according to method of heating oven employed.
superintendent of granulators ; granulator man (sugar refining)
superintends process, and regulates, by valves, rate of flow of crystals from centrifugal machine through granulators and also temperature of granulators; is guided mainly by chart, or other indicator showing rate of flow, and thermometer.
tank attendant, tank man (sugar refining)
see liquor man.
taster (margarine)
tastes oily and fatty ingredients of margarine to ensure freshness, at various stages of manufacture; usually in control of melting room; in small works, may do work of melter (449) q.v.
tester, milk
in large factories, measures out quantity of milk; adds specific quantity of amyl-alcohol, sulphuric acid, or other heating and colouring agents and pours solution in cylindrical machine; starts cylindrical machine by turning handle, or if power-driven, engages driving belt; after three or four minutes, pours off the separated cream and residual milk in graduated flasks and records fat contained; in small factories , work is usually done by works manager.
tinner, fruit
see preserver, fruit.
trusser, fowl
see dresser, fowl.
vatman, starch
see macerator, starch.

Back to List of Occupational Codes


From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.