A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—In Coal and Shale Mines

043.—Persons Conveying Material to the Shaft

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Note: The occupational terms marked with an asterisk * are also applied to workers doing similar work on the surface for other workers above ground. see (049).

assistant bottomer
see assistant on- setter.
assistant drawer
(i) see pusher-up;
(ii) assists on-setter in pulling empty tubs out of cage at bottom of shaft (S. Wales).
assistant onsetter ; assistant bottomer
assists onsetter (q.v.) in putting loaded trams on cage.
assistant trammer
see pusher-up.
balancer ; cuddy lad, cuddy runner
draws tubs down incline with aid of rope and balance box.
see haulage hand.
bank head lad
is employed as balancer (q.v.) or in similar capacity at top of haulage incline, below ground; of . bank head lad (049).
*bank rider ; chainer, chain runner, dip rider, dook runner, dram rider, dukey rider, ganger, gang minder, gang rider, gearman, glan rider, incline rider, journeyman, journey rider, machine rider, plane rider, plane runner, race runner, rake runner, rider, rope rider, rope runner, run rider, sett lad, sett rider, tail runner, trainman, train ruler, train runner, tram rider
rides on trams or tubs on haulage planes, either underground or on surface; in Durham applies brake when necessary (/« other districts done by brakesman); attaches and detaches stt of tubs when necessary; gives signal if tub runs off rails.
bencher, brae head bencher
marshals full tubs into sets or rakes, at top of self-acting incline; or attaches and detaches tubs singly where incline worked by endless rope; cf. bencher (044).
block attendant, block knocker, block minder ; self-acting dickie boy
places blocks on rails to prevent sets running back; knocks away blocks when signal received to piss sets on and gives signal to engineman by knocking rod or by means of electric bell.
bogie man, bogie rider, boggie man
(i) pushes tip wagons or bogies, i.e., small trucks used for conveying coal or shale where height is not sufficient for ordinary tubs, to main haulage roads;
(ii) rides on bogie, which is fitted with strong clip to grip haulage rope, and is thus pulled along haulage road, dragging set of tubs behind; see hank rider.
bond man
see clearance man.
*bond minder, bondsman
see rolleyway man.
bottomer, bottom man
(i) runs full tubs (or hutches) forward close to cage seat in readiness for descending cage; runs empty tubs into sidings, after being pulled off cage, in readiness for their removal along haulage roads;
(ii) see onsetter; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. night bottomer.
*brakesman, braker ; drum lad, drum tenter, sheavemm, wheeler, wheel lad, wheel minder
(i) applies brake to drum or rope wheel to regulate speed of carriages, cages, or tubs upon self-acting incline planes, or drop-pits in coal or shale mine;
(ii) in Durham, cf. . winding engineman (950).
see conveyor man.
see onsetter.
carting boy ; collier's hod boy, hod boy, hodder
draws wicker carts or hods of coal along a face in a coal mine where workings are very low; pushes empty hods back again; may also shovel coal at face into cart.
cartman, coal cartman
drives horse and cart along underground roads.
catch knocker, catch striker
as for block attendant, where a catch, fixed to the rails, is used instead of block.
see counler.
chainer (haulage)
(i) chain tenter; minds chain of endless chain system, by which tubs are moved; sees that chain is functioning properly; oils rollers; sometimes also attaches and detaches tubs:
(ii) see bank rider.
chain runner
see bank rider.
chain tenter
see chainer.
see clipper.
clearance man ; bond man, eleeh man
supervises movement of tubs on underground roadways, so as to clear coal away from working face.
cleek man
see clearance man.
*clipper, clipper-on ; clammer, gripper, hitcher-on, snapper, snapper-on
attaches and detaches single tubs to or from ropes on haulage roads by means of clips or grips.
clipper-off ; unclipper
takes clip off haulage rope when tubs reach terminus or branch road.
*clutchman ; motion wheel minder
works clutches by which pulley on endless rope haulage system may be thrown in and out of gear and thus cause haulage engine to haul at will on any one of several branch roads.
conveyor drawer, conveyor face man
moves conveyor forward, as face or gateways advance, in thin seams, where height is insufficient for tubs or hods; places coal on conveyor belt.
conveyor hand, conveyor lad ; tub loader
attends to tubs or wagons at delivery end of conveyor, pushing empty tubs under discharging belt and pushing them on when loaded; pushes tubs along gate road between loading end of conveyor and haulage road.
conveyor man ; bummer
in charge of mechanical conveyors installed where practicable at working face; supervises conveyor lads; oils machinery; controls levers.
corf (corve) fastener ; fastener, tub fastener
couples corves or tubs together or attaches tubs to haulage rope.
*coupler, tub coupler ; chackler, coupler- on, link boy, linker, nipper, shackler, stutter
links up tubs or trams in journeys or trains at top or bottom of incline or at passbye, or at pit top or bottom; also uncouples tubs where required.
coupler-at-shaft ; slummer
pushes trams or tubs into passages at pit bottom called slums, and shackles or couples them together to form sets or "rakes" ready for haulage; sometimes similarly employed on surface.
see coupler.
cousie runner ; hatchen runner
(i) a brakeman (q.v.) who applies brake to drum or rope wheel to regulate speed of carriages, cages, or tubs upon self-acting inclined planes, or drop-pits;
(ii) Scottish term, as for bank rider.
crane footer ; (look footer
attaches and detaches sets of tubs to and from haulage rope, attaches back stay to last tub or set, and signals away set when ready at bottom of haulage incline.
hoists corves of coal on to rolleys with crane; also apportions work or quantity of coals to be " put" by barrowmen; now obsolescent, owing to introduction of winding machinery.
*creeper lad
pushes tubs on to rails fitted with "creeper," i.e., endless chain travelling in centre of railway under tubs, provided at intervals with vertical projecting fangs which engage with tub axle and push tub along.
cuddy lad, cuddy runner
see balancer.
dillier, dillyman
a brakesman (q.v.) controlling speed of tubs on dillies, i.e., self-acting haulage systems on short inclines.
dip rider
see bank rider.
(i) pushes loaded hutches on to cage at bottom of shaft or on to carriage at bottom of carriage incline;
(ii) pushes loaded hutches on to cage at top of drop pit or on to carriage at top of self-acting carriage incline.
dook footer
see crane footer.
dook header
attaches and detaches sets of tubs to or from haulage rope at head of "dook," or haulage incline; detaches hack stay from full set and returns it in one of tubs of empty set; operates stop-blocks, or runaway switches; signals empty sets away and pushes them over brow; sees that haulage rope is properly on pulley or roller at brow.
dook runner
see bank rider.
drag boy
attaches drags to rear end of tubs ascending on haulage incline; cf. crane footer.
stands at bottom of haulage incline and drags down haulage rope.
controls and manipulates at pit bottom tubs after disconnection from haulage rope ready for bottomer, onsetter, or assistant bottomer (q.v.).
dram lad, drammer
see drawer.
dram rider
see bank rider.
dram tenter
see drawer.
drawer, coal drawer, miner's drawer ; dram lad, drammer, dram tenter, hand putter, putter, runner, trailer, tram boy, trammer, trollier, truck lad, trundler, tubber, wagoner, wheeler
pushes coal or shale in tubs or corves from working face to pass-byes on main haulage road, along which it is afterwards taken to shaft by mechanical means.
see hooker-off.
*driver ; galloway putter, gal driver (Lancashire), hauler, haulier, horse boy, horse driver, horseman, jockey, jochier, pit haulier, ponier, pony driver, pony putter
drives horse or pony used for hauling tubs in coal or shale mine or on surface.
drum lad, drum tenter
see brakesman.
dukey rider
see bank rider.
*endless chain haulage hand, endless rope boy, or lad
general term covering all workers on endless rope or chain haulage roads, including clipper, crane footer, jigger.
*endless rope man, endless rope minder ; motion wheel minder, pulley minder
attends to rope of endless rope haulage system work; cleans and oils pulleys, sheaves, rollers, etc., and does all minor repairs.
engine dip hooker
couples or detaches tubs at foot of pit bank; cf. coupler.
engine plane man
a rolleyway man (q.v.) who is responsible for condition of ropes, sheaves and rollers, and also for signal arrangements; splices and sockets ropes.
see corf fastener.
flat keeper, flat coupler-on ; flatman, flatter
couples full and uncouples empty tubs at "flat" or working face terminus of haulage system; places chocks at flat ends to prevent tubs running away.
Warwickshire term, see flat keeper.
see flat keeper.
flitter, conveyor flitter
see puller up.
foal ; tugger, tugger boy
a young boy employed to help a bigger boy to "put" or draw; pulls in front whilst the header (big boy) pushes behind.
gal driver (Lancashire), galloway putter
see driver; Galloway horses are much used in mines.
ganger, gang minder, gang rider
see bank rider.
see bank rider.
gigger, giggerer, gig minder
see jigger.
*ginneyer, ginney tenter (North-East Lancs. term)
see incline brakesman.
glan rider
see bank rider.
see clipper.
guard, train guard
as for guard (702) (q.v.) on underground trains conveying workmen to and from working places.
gugman (Somerset term)
see incline brakesman.
hand putter
see drawer.
hanger-on ; hooker-on
an assistant onsetter (q.v.) who couples empty tubs to rope at bottom of self-acting incline.
hatchen runner
see cousie runner.
haulage hand, haulage lad, haulage man ; bandsman, motion hand
general terms for any person working on haulage system either above or below ground, including clipper, lasher-on, roadman (044), chainer (haulage), etc.
*hauler, haulier, pit-haulier
see driver ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. night haulier.
header, coal header
a putter (q.v.) working with assistance of a foal (q.v.).
see pusher-up.
in Warwickshire, tightens clips on ropes on hill or incline before reaching steep place on underground haulage roads; cf. hillman (049).
see onsetter ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. night hitcher.
see clipper.
see pusher up.
*hod boy, collier's hod boy, hodder
see carting boy.
hooker, hooker-at-shaft
see onsetter.
hooker-off ; drawer-off, puller-off, puller- out
pulls full tubs off cage at surface, or empty tubs off cage at pit bottom.
see hanger-on.
see incline boy.
*horse boy, horse man, horse driver
see driver.
Warwickshire term ; a drawer, putter or trammer (q.v.) who conveys tubs from pass-bye to working place; often helps hewer to fill tubs; sometimes used in sense of corporal (041) (q.v.).
hutcher, hutch runner
runs "hutches" (tubs or trams loaded with coal or shale) from cage to tipplers on surface, or between haulage terminus and cage at pit bottom, where "creeper" (endless chain) is not in use.
incline attendant
may be either incline brakesman or incline boy (q.v.).
*incline boy, incline lad ; hooker-up
attaches and detaches tubs to haulage rope or chain at top or bottom of incline cf. endless rope boy.
incline brakesman, incline braker ; ginneyer, ginney tenter, gugman (Somerset), incline haulier, incline man, incline minder, incliner, jigger (N. Wales), jig minder, jig tenter, jinneyman, jinney tenter, planeman
a brakesman (q.v.) working self-acting inclined planes, either above or below ground, controlling movement of tubs or wagons by means of brakes.
incline haulier
see incline brakesman.
incline hitcher
a jigger boy (q.v.) who is mainly engaged in hitching on at top or bottom of incline.
*incline man, incline minder, incliner
see incline brakesman.
incline rider
see bank rider.
jigger, jigger boy, jiggerer, jigger lad, jigger man, jig hooker ; gigger, giggerer, gig minder
attaches or detaches tubs, singly or in pairs, to or from endless rope, by placing rope in fork of "jigger," or double crook, in socket at one side or at end of tubs.
jigger (N. Wales ), jig minder, jig tenter
see incline brakesman.
jinney lad
see self-acting incline boy.
*jinny man, jinney tenter
see incline brakesman.
jockey, jockier
see driver.
journeyman, journey rider
see bank rider.
junction boy
assists junction man (q.v.) by pushing tubs, moving switch levers, or signalling by means of electric bell or other method.
junction man ; off-take keeper, off-take lad
in charge at junction, where haulage tracks branch or cross; hooks or unhooks tubs from one rope to another to send them to proper destination; alters points of track by hand levers; gives haulage signals by electric bell or other method.
see lasher-on.
*landing minder, landing attendant, landing keeper, landing lad ; run lander, station lad, station minder, siding lad
attends to haulage tubs as they arrive on landings at junctions or at extremities of haulage system; pushes tubs off and on main track; detaches and attaches tubs to rope; couples tubs into sets or trains.
lasher-on ; kincher
fastens boxes or tubs on haulage rope by means of lashing chains; cf. clipper.
a boy who assists driver (q.v.) by leading pony by bridle.
link boy
see coupler.
link carrier
carries couplings, or shackles, from place where they have been detached from loaded tubs at one end of haulage road to place where empties have to be coupled at other end.
see coupler.
lockerer-up, lockerman ; nibbler, scotcher, snibbler, scotcher-up, Scotchman, spragger, spragman, tram spragger, wheel wedger
inserts lockers, scotches, sprags, or snibbles, into wheels of trams to check speed or to prevent their moving when disconnected from haulage rope at landings, junctions or pit bottom; gives signals to junction man.
see taker-off.
lowerer-in ; tub lowerer
uncouples tubs one at a time from set and lowers them down siding to onsetter (q.v.); cf. taker- off and assistant onsetter.
machine rider
see bank rider.
mechanical haulage hand
general term for any man or boy engaged in mechanical haulage, including haulage hand, etc. (q.v.).
see runafore-boy.
motion hand
see haulage hand.
motion wheel minder
(i) see endless rope man;
(ii) see clutchman; cf. brakesman.
see lockerer-up.
see coupler.
off-take keeper, off-take lad
see junction man.
*onsetter ; bottomer, bottom man, eager, hitcher, hooker, hooker-at-shaft, pit bottom man, runner-on, setter-on
stands at bottom of shaft in coal or shale mine to push full tubs on to cage and remove empty ones; signals to winding engineman when to start or stop winding; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. night onsetter.
pit bottom man
see onsetter.
plane boy
oils or greases rope rollers, and does other light work about engine plane.
see inoline brakesman.
plane rider
see bank rider.
plane runner
see bank rider.
point minder
see pointsman.
pointsman ; point minder, switcher, switch keeper, switch minder, switch tenter, switch turner
moves points or switches controlling movement of tubs or wagons on colliery railway or on underground haulage roads.
see driver.
pony driver, pony putter
see driver.
*puller-off, puller-out
see hooker-off.
puller-up, conveyor puller-up ; conveyor flitter, flitter
moves forward coal conveyor as face or gateways advance.
*pulley man ; wheel man
fixes pulleys or rollers on haulage road, and refixes any displaced; examines and keeps in order pulleys and other wheels used for hauling or lifting; sometimes done by rolleyway man (q.v.).
pulley minder
see endless rope man.
(i) pushes tubs on to cages either above or below ground;
(ii) slang term for charge haulage hand who supervises work of haulage hands; cf. haulage foreman (041).
pusher-up ; assistant drawer, assistant trammer, helper-up, hitcher-up, putter (Scotland), shover-up
helps drawer in pushing tubs when gradient too steep for one.
(i) see drawer;
(ii) in Scotland see pusher-up.
see taker-off.
race runner, rake runner
see bank rider.
rapper boy, rapper lad ; signal boy
gives and receives signals on mechanical haulage system; raps on hollow tube or rings electric bell, etc.
rapperman ; shaft minder, shaft rapper
attends to shaft signals at insets where persons only are wound.
see bank rider ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. night rider.
road boy
assists rolleyway man (q.v.) on endless haulage system, oiling, watching bends, etc.
rolley driver
(i) drives "rolley," i.e., carriage used to carry corves along horse- roads underground; obsolescent ;
(ii) see rolleyway driver.
rolley lad
see rolleyway driver.
rolley man
see rolleyway man.
rolleyway driver, rolleyway lad, rolliway driver, rolliway lad ; ; rolley lad, rolley driver
a driver (q.v.) who drives horse or pony hauling setts of tubs to or from sidings or rolleyway track.
rolley way man, rolliway man ; bond minder, bondsman, rolley man, stage whipper (Cumberland), tramwayman, wagon man, wagon road man, wagonway man
keeps in repair and working order roads or planes along which wagons or trams are hauled by ponies or by ropes attached to stationary engine; sometimes also supervises haulage hands; cf. haulage foreman.
rope boy
transfers rope from one set of rails to other after sett of tubs has finished its journey on inclined plane.
rope changer ; rope minder
unclips tubs from one haulage rope and clips to another at junction, siding or landing; cf. junction man.
rope ender
attaches rope end to tub to be hauled on main and tail haulage system.
rope guider
guides incoming rope on to winding drums of main and tail haulage engine.
rope man
examines haulage ropes, splices and re-caps them.
rope minder
see rope changer.
rope rider, rope runner
see bank rider.
*rope splicer
splices ropes of hauling system; sometimes done by rope inspector (041) (q.v.), by ropeman or by rolleyman (q.v.).
runafore boy ; messenger
runs messages.
run lander
see landing minder.
see drawer.
see onsetter.
run rider
see bank rider.
scotcher, scotcher up, Scotchman
see lockerer-up.
sectional cleek hunter
a clearance man (q.v.) clearing tubs from a section only.
self-acting dickie boy
see block attendant.
self-acting incline boy ; jinney lad
an incline boy (q.v.) working on a self-acting haulage incline or jinney.
a rolley way man (q.v.) who makes up setts of tubs for haulage.
see onsetter.
sett lad, sett rider
see bank rider.
see coupler.
shaft lad
assists onsetter (q.v.) at shaft bottom pushing full and empty tubs in and out of sidings and cage; cf. assistant drawer, assistant onsetter.
shaft minder, shaft rapper
see rapper man.
see brakesman.
see pusher-up.
siding lad
see landing minder.
signal bellman
see signaller.
signal boy
see rapper boy.
*signaller, signalman ; signal bellman
operates signals and switches for men driving trucks and trains on colliery railway; strikes bell or hollow tube with hammer, or rings electric bell.
slope rider
a bank rider (q.v.) employed on a slope road or incline.
slotter (slang)
see coupler.
see coupler-at-shaft.
snapper, snapper-on
see clipper.
engages or disengages sneck or catch which holds tubs in pit cage.
see lockerer-up.
*spragger, spragman
see lockerer-up.
spunney boy
an incline boy (q.v.) who attends to tubs on spunney or short self-acting incline.
stage whipper
Cumberland term, see rolley way man.
staple braker, staple brakesman
a brakesman (q.v.) who works at top of staple pit, a small pit sunk inside main pit.
staple lad
assists Staple braker (q.v.) by attaching and detaching tubs and pushing them from staple pit to main haulage road.
station lad, station minder
see landing minder.
stonehead lad
assists stone contractor (041) (q.v.) by pushing full and empty tubs from place, where stone is being ripped, to main haulage road.
stone putter
puts or draws stone in tubs from drift or canch to stowboard (below ground) or from bank and picking belts to stone heap (above ground).
switcher, switch keeper, switch minder, switch tenter, switch turner
see pointsman.
tail runner
see bank rider.
*taker-off ; looser-off, putter-off
a jigger (q.v.) who only detaches tubs from haulage rope at top or bottom of haulage incline or at end of haulage road.
receives small trams of coal from low stalls and transfers coal to larger trams with shovel, where height of roadway permits.
tracer, tracing driver
drives pony in traces, to assist driver's pony attached to tubs, either above or below ground.
see drawer.
train man, train rider, train runner
see bank rider.
*tram boy, trammer
see drawer.
tram rider
see bank rider.
*tram spragger
see lockerer-up.
see rolleywayman.
transit lad
general term for boys employed as haulage hands underground; cf. haulage hand.
trollier, truck lad
see drawer.
see drawer.
see drawer.
tub fastener
see corf fastener.
tub loader
see conveyor hand.
tub lowerer
see lowerer-in.
tugger, tugger boy
see foal.
turns out, i.e., pushes full tubs from pass-bye levels or sidings at top of self-acting machine, at bottom of "dook" or dip, or at branch off mechanical haulage road, ready for bencher, chain runner, or bogie man (q.v.).
turn keeper haulier, turn minder, turnsman
sees that empty tubs are properly shared out among coal face men; duty usually performed by haulage foreman or corporal (011) (q.v.).
see clipper-off.
underground banksman
as for banksman (049) (q.v.) placing empty tubs on and withdrawing full tubs from cage at top of staple pit underground.
undoes lashing chains, by which tubs or trams are fastened to haulage rope, at landings.
see drawer.
*wagon man, wagon road man, wagonway man
see rolleyway man.
weigh end Jad
unshackles tubs from rope and from each other at weighing end of haulage system.
(i) see drawer;
(ii) see brakesman.
wheel lad
see brakesman.
wheel man
see pulley man.
wheel minder
see brakesman.
wheel wedger
see lockerer-up.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.