A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—In Coal and Shale Mines

044.—Persons Making and Repairing Roads

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Note: The occupational terms marked with an asterisk * are also applied to workers doing similar work on the surface for other workers above ground. see (049).

airman, airwayman, airway repairer ; returnman, wasteman, wind-road man, wind- way man
keeps in repair underground air passages and ventilating roadways in coal or shale mines; removes debris with pick and shovel; loads debris into tubs.
assistant repairer
(i) assists road repairer (q.v.) in repairing roadways, and maintaining proper height and width; carries tools; pushes tubs for transport of debris; generally employed at night;
(ii) in some districts also helps in repairing roadways above ground : this is done in daytime.
assistant timberman
see timberman's labourer.
back brasher, back ripper
a brusher (q.v.) working on back bye, i.e., not at coal face.
bargain man, bargain taker
makes contract with manager to take down, brush or rip and clear away stone, etc., from roadways at an agreed piece rate; engages and pays his working assistants.
see pucking cutter.
Welsh term, see brusher.
fixes small blocks or wooden keys for tightening rails on tramways in coal mine, using a hammer.
bordroom man, boardroom man ; fall ridder
removes fallen debris in tubs; repairs timbers to roof, etc., in unused roadways or bords which have been driven in pillar and stall system of working.
bottom cutter, bottom shooter ; seggar man (Cumberland)
cuts away stone from floor of underground roads to increase headroom.
brusher ; bencher, canchman, cenchman, cencher, henchman, metal man, metal miner, rock blower, roofer
cuts away thickness of stone in roof, floor, or side of coal working to improve height or gradient of road; may also drill holes for blasting by fireman; builds stone thus obtained into pack walls alongside and parallel to roadways to support overlying strata.
byeman, byeworker, byeworkman ; oncostman
general terms for any man working underground, not employed at coal face, and paid by the day, generally on repairing work, etc., or getting material other than coal.
canchman, cencher, cenchman
see brusher.
contractor's dayman
is engaged and paid by contractor in tunnel work, enlarging roadways, etc., in coal or shale mine; includes brusher, repairer, stone- man, etc. (q.v.).
dataler, dataller, dateler ; dilker (Lancs)
general terms for workers paid by the day, including repairers.
Lancashire term, see dataler.
a bottom cutter (q.v.) who may also blast away floor to heighten roads.
engine roadman
keeps rails and points in order, and cleans dirt off road.
fall ridder
see bordroom man.
a road repairer (q.v.) who looks after gateway, i.e., road kept through "goaf" in longwall working; in parts of Durham also builds gateway packs.
see pack builder.
grey cutter
takes up or cuts away, with pick, grey coal (inferior coal or shale at bottom of seam) to make height in roadway.
incline keeper, incline traveller ; plane cleaner, plane walker, slope cleaner
a road repairer (q.v.) who keeps incline planes free of obstructions due to fallen stone, etc.
see brusher.
a brusher (q.v.) who takes down lip or roof to make height.
metal man, metal miner
see brusher.
night repairer
a repairer (q.v.) working on night shift.
see byeman.
packbuilder, packer, packwall builder, packwaller, stone packer ; gobber, waller, mailman
builds walls of stone or dirt, and packs in debris to support roof, in longwall working, along sides of headings, stalls, gateways and roadways.
takes down pelt (shale stone) with pick, bar and shovel, after coal has been taken out in very thin seams, to raise height and allow coal cutting machine to get through.
plane cleaner, plane walker
see incline keeper.
pucking cutter ; bater
cuts away floor with pick in cases of creep or upheaval towards roof, caused by weight of overlying strata.
redder, stone redder, reddsman ; ridder, riddle lad, riddler
clears away stones left by blasting, falls, etc.; fills rubble into tubs, pushes full tubs away and empty tubs back; builds up packwalls of stone.
(i) general term covering road repairer, roof repairer, incline keeper (q.v.);
(ii) in South Wales, enlarges roadways, and sets timber; of . timberman.
return man
see airman.
ridder, riddle lad, riddler
see redder.
ripper, road ripper, rock ripper, top ripper
a brusher (q.v.) who takes down with pick and bar roof of road to gain height.
road cleaner ; road sweeper, way cleaner
keeps underground roads clean, by sweeping up debris and loading into tub.
road cod (slang)
a road cleaner (q.v.) who may also assist road repairer (q.v.) in any odd labouring work.
road fettler
Yorkshire term, see road repairer.
roadman ; roadsman
general term for any man employed on haulage or ventilation roads, including airwayman, incline keeper, platelayer (577), rolleyway man (043), etc. (q.v.).
road repairer ; road fettler (Yorks.)
keeps roadways in repair below ground; levels road with pick and shovel; repairs broken timber and sets any necessary light timber which can be handled by one man; raises bottoms under rails where dropped; generally keeps road between shaft and putters flat, trim and secure.
see roadman.
road sweeper
see road cleaner.
rock blower
see brusher.
see brusher.
roofman, roof repairer
keeps roof in repair, by resetting pit props, where necessary, to allow for falls of stone, etc.; work sometimes done by timberer (q.v.).
seggar man
Cumberland term, see bottom cutter.
shifter, shiftman, shiftsman, stone shifter ; waste worker
general terms for labourers assisting repairers, timberers, etc., in building stoppings and clearing falls of stone.
slope cleaner
see incline keeper.
timberer, timberman ; timber setter
props roof or sides of main roadways, branch roads and bye-pass in mine with timber supports (pit props); uses pick and shovel to make footing; cuts prop to length and shape with handsaw and hatchet; directs byemen or labourers under him.
timberman's labourer ; assistant timber- man
assists timberman (q.v.) generally in handling and setting timber, carrying tools, filling and pushing tubs of rubbish.
timber setter
see timberer.
waller, wallman
see pack builder ; may also build walls at side of roadways; cf. waller (047).
Durham term, see airman.
waste worker
see shifter.
way cleaner
see road cleaner.
windroad man, windway man
see airman.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.