A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 2.—Workers in Bone, Horn, Ivory, Celluloid, etc.

618.—Other Skilled Workers

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accumulator case maker
cuts accumulator case parts from sheet celluloid, using knife and straight edge; sometimes also does work of accumulator case cementer (619) q.v.
bag clasp maker
makes ornamental fittings of ivory, tortoiseshell, etc., for use in finishing ladies' hand bags by cutting out sketched design, on ivory, etc., blank, with hand fret saw, or sometimes, by means of treadle saw.
ball maker, celluloid ball maker
(i) attends and feeds a machine in which sheet celluloid (xylonite, etc.) is pressed into shape of a hemisphere which, with another, is afterwards jointed with liquid celluloid by cementer (619) q.v. to make complete balls;
(ii) attends and feeds a machine in which celluloid is blown into spherical die in a semi-liquid state, and dried by heat.
bone brush driller ; borer (bone brushes)
drills holes in handles of bone brushes, ready for insertion of bristles, using power drill.
bone brush fashioner, bone brush profiler ; bone handle maker
finishes off rough bone tooth brush shapes to required size, with hand file; is usually engaged on special orders; cf. profiler (619).
bone brush planer
roughly fashions lengths of bone, by means of hand plane, into flat brush shapes.
bone brush propper
a hone cutter q.v. who cuts rough pieces of bone on a circular saw to length required for toothbrush making.
bone handle hafter, bone handle fitter
files hone hafts or handles, scrapes or shaves them to shape and fixes them to blades.
bone handle maker
see bone brush fashioner; cf. handle cutter (613).
bone jigger, bone jumper
see bone scorer.
bone sawyer
see cutter, bone.
bone scorer ; bone jigger, bone jumper
cuts bone into grooves, or "jumps," in imitation of stag or buck horn; generally uses a small circular saw or rasp.
bone worker
general term for any worker engaged in cutting, turning, polishing, etc., bone articles.
borer (bone brushes)
see bone brush driller.
borer (fancy combs and slides)
cuts designs in fancy combs and slides, of celluloid, erinoid, &c.., by drilling holes with an electric hand drill, for reception of ornamental pieces of glass, stone, etc.
brush fashioner (celluloid), xylonite brush fashioner
finishes corners and edges of rough brush with a file by hand.
buffalo horn worker
general term for any worker engaged in cutting, sawing, staining, pressing, &c., horn (other than stag horn); includes horn cutter, horn opener, etc.
burrgrailer (celluloid) ; grailer
rounds-off teeth of combs and their bases, removing burrs and other irregularities with a "grele" or file; cf. burrgrailer (machine) (619).
celluloid layer (piano keys)
scrapes surface of sheet celluloid and of wooden base of piano or organ keyboard with an iron toothing tool; glues celluloid on to keyboard by hand, and presses in hand press; cf. ivory layer.
comb maker (bone, born, &c.)
general term for any worker engaged in cutting, grinding, polishing, &c., combs or horn, bone, ivory, tortoiseshell; includes sway knife cutter, setter, comb dollier (619) comb fluter (619), comb grinder (619), comb circle cutter (619), polisher (619) q.v.
cooler (erinoid)
has charge of a set of presses in which erinoid dough or articles made of erinoid are cooled under pressure to prevent warping ; inserts dough or articles in press, which he operates, and removes them when cooled.
cutter, bone cutter ; bone sawyer
removes joint knuckles and cuts animal bones (usually shin bones) into desired shapes, e.g. blanks for tooth brushes, on a power-driven band or circular saw, ready for fashioner.
cutter, bone disc
a bone cutter q.v. who cross-cuts out bone discs on a power-driven band or circular saw ready for bone disc turner (612) q.v. cutter (celluloid collars, etc.); places sheets of celluloid in guillotine by hand and, by pulling lever, cuts out shapes of collars and cuffs; cf. collar cutter (rubber) (608).
cutter, horn
cuts horn with a hand saw, or on circular saw into sizes suitable for making into required articles; may also finish articles, e.g. cutlery handles, cf. handle cutter (613); sometimes specifically designated, e.g. buck horn cutter, buffalo horn cutter, stag horn cutter.
cutter, ivory ; ivory blocker-out, ivory shiver, ivory slabber
cuts ivory tusks into slabs on a circular saw; cf. handle cutter (613).
cutter, ivory nut
see cutter, vegetable ivory.
cutter, ivory piano key ; ivory piano key maker
cuts block ivory into thin strips on a circular saw, and bleaches strips, when necessary; cf. bleacher (619).
cutter, pearl
(i) shell cutter; cuts mother of pearl (along the natural curve of shell, to prevent subsequent splitting) into required sections or shapes on high speed circular saw supplied with water for cooling and dust allaying;
(ii) pearl splitter, pearl worker; cuts or splits oyster pearl, and dresses it into suitable form for stringing; work seldom performed in this country.
cutter, shell
see cutter, pearl, or cutter, tortoiseshell.
cutter, sway knife
cuts horn (other than stag horn) sections longitudinally, with a hand sway knife, into sizes suitable for scale pressing, or for door plates, combs, &c.
cutter, tortoiseshell ; shell cutter
cuts tortoiseshell into required shapes and sizes with a fret saw or with a circular saw.
cutter, vegetable ivory ; ivory nut cutter
cuts vegetable ivory into required sizes and shapes with a hand saw or with circular saw.
cutter, whalebone
cuts softened whalebone into lengths of required thickness with spokeshave or circular saw; usually does work of whalebone sorter (619) q.v.
cutter, xylonite
cuts articles of xylonite to shape with a knife, or with a press and guillotine.
see bone brush fashioner or brush fashioner (celluloid).
filterer, filter man, filter machinist (celluloid)
puts celluloid dough in filter press and controls press by means of levers to squeeze out dirt and foreign matter.
a tooth brush worker q.v. who (i) polishes brush frames on felt buff with whiting;
(ii) seals bristles by means of resin;
(iii) trims bristles on a trimming machine.
fluter, handle fluter
(i) scores and shapes cutlery handles by means of glass paper, wheels, or saws;
(iij carves flutings, or other grooved ornamentations, by hand or on a lathe, on handles of table carvers, fruit knives, &c., made of ivory, bone, etc.; may also polish them on buffs or dollies, see handle polisher (619); sometimes specially named according to material worked, e.g. ivory fluter.
grailer (celluloid)
see burrgrailer.
guillotine hand
cuts up into required sizes, sheets of celluloid, mica, erinoid,, &c., with an ordinary printer's guillotine, operated by hand.
hackler (whalebone brushes)
draws by hand fine strips of whalebone repeatedly through a hackle, a type of comb, to sort them into lengths for brush-making.
horn opener
opens a section of horn by cutting it longitudinally with saw, warms it in stove and flattens it out for comb making in a press.
horn worker
general term for any worker engaged in cutting, pressing, turning, polishing, etc., horn articles; includes horn cutter, horn opener, presser (613), horn turner (612), horn polisher (619) q.v.
ivory artist; vegetable ivory artist
(i) paints, decorative work on Ivory or vegetable ivory (corosa nut);
(ii) see ivory carver and ivory engraver.
ivory bleacher
bleaches ivory by soaking tusks of ivory in hydrogen peroxide; is usually also an ivory turner (612) q.v.
ivory blocker-out
see cutter, ivory.
ivory carver ; ivory artist
carves ivory articles, with hand or machine tools e.g. handles, fittings to bags, bottles, etc., chessmen.
ivory engraver ; ivory artist
engraves designs or carves in relief, with delicate hand tools upon ivory.
ivory layer
(piano keys); skivers edges of ivory with a plane where joint is made between head and tail of ivory keys; fits and glues pieces of ivory (cut in shape of piano keys) on to a board which is then passed on to ivory piano key cutter q.v.
ivory matcher ; ivory sorter
sorts out, matches for colour, and marks for cutting, ivory tusks, before manufacture; sorts slabs, handle blanks, piano key scales for colour marking, etc.
ivory piano key maker
see cutter, ivory piano key.
ivory polisher
scrapes ivory keys with a plane and scraper; cleans them with fine glass paper, and polishes them with methylated spirits and whiting.
ivory rounder
takes rough edges off corners of ivory key pieces with a file, and polishes edges of ivory with a piece of felt, before key pieces are glued on to keyboard.
ivory sawyer
saws ivory into required sizes with a hand saw or power-driven band saw.
ivory shiver, ivory slabber
see cutter, ivory.
ivory slipper
glues piece of ivory, called a slip, on to front of board, from which keys are cut; is usually an ivory layer, q.v.
ivory sorter
see ivory matcher.
ivory worker
general term for any worker engaged in cutting, sawing, turning, etc., ivory articles; often works interchangeably, e.g., cuts, turns, bleaches and polishes billiard balls, and cuts knife handles from blocks of ivory; includes ivory turner (612), ivory handle cutter (613), ivory cutter, ivory bleacher, ivory carver, ivory engraver, ivory layer, ivory matcher, ivory polisher, ivory rounder, ivory sawyer, ivory slipper q.v.
looker-over (piano keys)
examines finished keys, before they leave factory, to see if they are up to standard quality; wipes keys and sandpapers out scratches; returns faulty keys to workshop concerned; sometimes specially named if specialising in ivory or celluloid, e.g., celluloid looker-over, ivory looker-over.
machinist (celluloid)
general term for any worker operating a rolling, slicing, extruding, etc., machine; see roller, sheer, tube shop man.
maker-up (celluloid collars, etc.)
places cotton base on celluloid shape, cut by cutter q.v., applies adhesive, turns over edges of celluloid and places in press to stick down turned edges.
micanite maker
(i) more usual, oils a metal plate, builds thereon layers of mica splittings into a sheet, brushing-on shellac to bind layers; hardens in hand press;
(ii) feeds a mixing and crushing machine with mica and binding composition, which is pressed while hot, into sheets; operates levers to start, and stop machine.
micanite washer maker
cuts micanite sheets into squares, on circular saw or hand guillotine, and reduces them to washers by turning them on lathe.
micanite worker
general term for any worker engaged in making micanite articles by cutting, shaping, pressing, turning, etc.
mother of pearl worker ; pearl worker
general term for any worker engaged in cutting, grinding, polishing or finishing-off mother of pearl articles, e.g. pearl carver, pearl cutter, pearl grinder, pearl polisher (619) q.v.
parasol tip maker
see umbrella tip maker.
pearl box maker
cuts, grinds and polishes pieces of mother of pearl, by holding against mechanically driven saw, grinding wheel and buff, respectively, and cements pieces together in a framework of metal, wood or other material.
pearl button maker
shapes mother of pearl buttons by cutting, turning and grinding button blanks in lathe to form holes and recesses; holds tools against revolving blank, applies abrasive or polishing composition, starts and stops lathe by means of hand levers.
pearl card case maker
as for pearl box maker.
pearl carver (hand) ; piercer (mother of pearl)
marks, by hand, designs, flutes, etc., on mother of pearl and carves, by hand, with special tool.
pearl carver (machine)
guides mother of pearl articles on revolving carborundum wheels or steel cutters of varying pattern, either by dry method, or by using water as a dust allayer and cooling agent.
pearl dyer
dyes mother of pearl, and articles made therefrom; first prepares pearl by immersing it in solution of ammonia and silver nitrate for about eighteen hours; then thoroughly washes it in running cold water to rid surface of ammonia and nitrate; finally, immerses pearl in vat containing dye, not necessarily aniline.
pearl fluter
ornaments mother of pearl articles by fluting; as for handle fluter.
pearl grinder
grinds mother of pearl articles, after they have been cut to pattern, by pressing them against mechanically driven carborundum wheels or natural sandstone, generally using water for cooling and dust allaying; operates lever to start or stop grinding wheel.
pearl handle borer
bores mother of pearl handles or scales, for cutlery and other articles, under a power drill, in readiness for fixing of blades, etc.
pearl shaver
holds shell against revolving blade of power-driven machine and shaves off brown back in very small particles until back is a white and even surface.
pearl splitter
see cutter, pearl.
pearl worker
see mother of pearl worker, or cutter, pearl.
piercer (mother of pearl)
see pearl carver (hand).
planing machinist (celluloid)
see sheer (celluloid).
polisher (piano keys)
see ivory polisher (piano keys).
rod machine hand (erinoid)
attends and feeds machine in which erinoid dough is forced through a die to make rods or tubes.
roller (celluloid), roller attendant, roller machinist ; machinist (celluloid)
passes celluloid dough through steel rolls (hot or cold) to make it homogeneous, producing sheets or thin blocks; also "figurates" xylonite, if required, by rolling together sheets or masses of different colours to produce patterns resembling ivory, agate, tortoiseshell, onyx, etc.
sawyer (whalebone)
cuts strips of whalebone to length by pressing them against mechanically-driven band saw; operates machine saw by means of hand lever.
setter (fancy combs and slides)
(i) sets brilliants, stones, etc., in fancy combs and slides of celluloid, erinoid, etc.; heats stones, etc., on stove, picks them up with electrically-heated rod, drops them into prepared holes and presses stones, etc., in by means of metal cap fixed to thumb;
(ii) sets up or straightens bent or mis-shapen teeth in combs.
shell worker
general term for any operative engaged in cutting, carving, or grinding mother of pearl or tortoiseshell articles, e.g. tortoiseshell presser, pearl grinder, q.v.
solution maker (celluloid)
dissolves nitro-cellulose or scrap xylonite (celluloid) with a solvent to make varnishes, enamels, or coatings used for cover ng croquet balls, etc.
joins together two pieces of bone, by sawing or skiving ends splicewise and sticking them together with a cement solution.
tooth brush maker, tooth brush worker
general terms sometimes applied to workers employed interchangeably on different processes of tooth brush making, e.g., cutter (bone brush making), bone brush propper, bone brush fashioner, bone brush planer, bone brush driller, finisher, q.v.
tortoiseshell assembler and finisher, tortoiseshell mounter
assembles component parts of tortoisehell articles, e.g., boxes, cigarette cases, and fixes hinges, locks, handles, etc., and mounts monograms, etc., by hand, using pins and screws.
tortoiseshell presser
heats the natural tortoiseshell in hot salt water and wraps it in wet rags; places it between hot iron tongs or moulds, and presses it into sheets or into required shapes by means of dies; if it is to be used in making articles of thick tortoiseshell, cements several layers together with a transparent adhesive before pressing.
tortoiseshell worker
general term for worker engaged in any process of making tortoiseshell articles, e.g., tortoiseshell assembler, tortoiseshell presser, polisher (tortoiseshell) (619) q.v.
trapping machinist
operates and controls a machine which draws out, smooths and shapes tubular lengths of bone, horn, celluloid, and similar materials; rounds-off and points crochet hooks, shoe horns, knitting needles, and other articles of bone.
tube shop man (celluloid) ; machinist (celluloid)
operates tube and rod extruding machines, which squeeze and extrude xylonite, etc., through dies, forming rods or tubes, used for making cycle pumps, handle bars, etc.; sets, dies and controls and regulates machine by means of screws and levers.
umbrella tip maker ; parasol tip maker
makes, by turning out of bone, wood or ivory or by moulding from casein, ornamental tips for ribs of umbrellas, parasols, etc.
vegetable ivory engraver
engraves or carves designs, images, etc., in vegetable ivory with delicate hand tools.
whalebone sorter
sorts, for size and colour, whalebone according to purposes for which it is to be used, cf. cutter (whalebone).
whalebone splitter
splits cut whalebone to required thickness, by passing it under rollers feeding knives of splitting machine; operates starting and stopping levers and fits cutting knives.
whalebone worker
general term for any worker engaged in preparation and dressing of whalebone; includes whalebone cutter, sawyer, whalebone sorter, whalebone splitter, whalebone finisher (619), cleaner (619).
xylonite comb maker
(i) makes xylonite combs throughout, by stamping, cutting, profiling, scouring, polishing, etc., by machine;
(ii) general term for any worker engaged in stamping, cutting, profiling, scouring, polishing, etc., xylonite in manufacture of combs therefrom; includes comb cutter, comb polisher, cropper, sander (619) q.v.
xylonite worker
general term for any person engaged in making articles from xylonite.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.