A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 2.—Makers of Glass and Glassware

124.—Blowers and Finishers (not Machine Hands)

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blower ; mumbler
duties vary greatly; in general, when not himself gathering, takes blowing-tube with molten glass attached from gatherer (123) (q.v.) and blows with his mouth down tube to shape glass into required shape, with or without aid of mould, holding mould closed over glass until glass fills mould; when not using mould, rolls glass on polished iron table, marver, to assist shaping; measures glass for size with calipers; in some branches of glass manufacture, often carries production further, e.g. , doing work of foot maker (q.v.), using blowing iron, marver, shears, pincers, and punty rods; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. , bottle blower, chemical glass blower, electric bulb blower (q.v.); cf. machine glass bottle blower (125).
blower, bottle
bottle hand: a blower (q.v.), in bottle branch of glass trade; blows glass and hands it to bottle maker (q.v.).
blower (lamp) ; tube drawer
(i) heats tubes or other glass formations in lamp having from one to three jets, heat of which she controls, and forms chemical ware, e.g., test tubes, stoppers, U tubes, by shaping plastic glass in flame, using tweezers, files and other hand tools;
(ii) see blower, chemical glass.
blower, chemical glass; scientific and chemical glass blower ; blower (lamp)
a male lamp blower (q.v.) making complicated scientific and chemical glassware by combining work of several girl lamp blowers, using lamp and hand tools similarly.
blower, lamp (electric)
see maker, bulb.
bottle hand
see blower, bottle.
bulb worker
see maker, bulb ; cf. bulb worker (318).
see maker.
coverer ; parison maker
gathers, from furnace pot hole, more glass upon foundation received from ball blower (123) (q.v.), until, by size and weight, he decides sufficient glass gathered; shapes to form parison, or thick cylinder for drawing, by working glass to and fro on marver, a steel plate, while rolling blowing iron in his hands to spread glass evenly; hands-on to drawer (138) (q.v.).
finisher (glass bottles) ; bottle maker
a maker (q.v.) in glass bottle trade; receives bottles from two or more blowers (q.v.); directs that more glass be blown on bottles if necessary; puts bottle nock into by-hole of furnace; rolls neck on metal "arms" of chair wherein he sits and when approximately correct size, slips neck in a die, inserts plunger in neck and covers edge of die with a metal plate; removes shaped neck, when set.
(i) makes crown glass by rotating, in his hands, bulb of glass on attached pontil rod, at mouth of auxiliary furnace, until it spreads out, by centrifugal force, into broad disc;
(ii) plain glass trade, a servitor (q.v.) who rotates glass, as above, until blower is ready;
(iii) stained, glass trade, rotates, as above, to burn-in colour.
footblower, foot maker, footman
is one of gang or "chair," in hand made glass trade; precisĀ© duties vary with size of chair and distribution of work by worker (q.v.); in general, gathers and blows glass, shapes on marver table and otherwise prepares for servitor (q.v.); sometimes makes parts of articles on which chair is engaged, e.g. foot of wine glass, using special hand tools; mounts on punty rod and attaches to part made by servitor.
maker ; chairman
is head of a chair or set of men employed at a furnace hole; precise duties vary; usually directs and supervises other members of "chair," apportions duties and is responsible for finished production; usually also finishes articles, i.e., adds necks to bottles and adornments to other articles, and shears off superfluous glass; in bottle making, usually known as finisher; hand made glass trade, usually known as worker (q.v.), maker, artificial eye, bead and bugle, figured glass, photo-frame; a maker (q.v.) who specialises in making artificial eyes, beads and bugles, figured glass, or glass photograph frames, respectively.
maker, bottle
see finisher (glass bottles).
maker, bulb ; lamp blower (electric), bulb worker
blows bulb for electric lights or for chemical use. e.g., flasks: gathers requisite quantity of "metal" on blowing iron; places between halves of a mould closed by hand or by foot lever; blows "metal" to shape of mould and lifts blowing iron to form long neck to bulb; throws iron and bulb on to grid so that bulb neck breaks; bulb is then ready for annealing.
maker, crown glass
a maker (q.v.) who rolls crown, or thin sheet, glass on an iron table by means of heavy steel rollers to produce a perfectly level sun ace.
maker, shade
a blower (q.v.) who specialises in making lamp-shades.
see blower.
parison maker
see coverer.
pontyer, puntyer, punter
see servitor ; cf. pontyer (139).
receives article, e.g. , flower stand, from blower (q.v.), heats in furnace and shapes with wooden hand tool to form thereon crinkled edges.
servitor ; pontyer, puntyer, punter
second in gang or "chair," in hand made glass trade; precise duties vary; usually , receives "metal" from foot maker (q.v.), casts it to body of article and fashions attachments, e.g. , wine glass stem, using band, tools; measures blown bulb with compasses and chalks for shearing by worker (q.v.); cracks-off superfluous glass by touching with cold moistened iron tool; sometimes also makes foot, cf. foot maker.
splitter, cylinder splitter, glass splitter
splits cylinders of sheet glass with a diamond cutter, as they lie on floor of flattening kiln; or, less frequency, by placing along inside length a long red-hot iron rod touching glass, and then chilling line of contact with touch from cold iron rod; removes split cylinders to hotter zone of kiln to soften and open out flat.
tube drawer
see blower (lamp).
worker, workman
a maker (q.v.) in hand made glass trade; arranges work of servitor, foot maker, taker-off (139) (q.v.); receives article from servitor, heats in furnace, shears where marked, re-heats, and smooths sheared edge; opens-out and otherwise shapes body of article by eye alone, using calipers, compasses, measuring rod, to obtain correct dimensions; releases article from clutch wherein secured, for taker-in (139) (q.v.).

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.