A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Workers in Rubber, Vulcanite, Ebonite

602.—Mixers, Spreaders and Moulders

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balata belt coverer
a balata solutioner q.v. spreading balata on one side of fabric used for belting.
base builder
see tyre base builder.
bottle maker
a moulder q.v. engaged only in moulding bottles from uncured rubber; cf. hot water bottle maker (608).
case maker
builds-up as for tyre maker (pneumatic), inner fabric only, of pneumatic tyres.
cementer, card cloth; cloth cementer (card clothing)
a spreader q.v., who covers cloth for textile card clothing with a thin layer of rubber, and so cements two or more layers of cloth together.
coverer, rubber (surgical bandage)
a spreader q.v. who covers surgical bandages with rubber.
dough and solution maker ; india rubber mixer (wet), mixer (wet), rubber mixer (wet), solution maker, solution mixer, wet rubber man
receives dry uncured rubber from mixer (dry) q.v. and feeds it to mixing machine; adds a solvent to form paste ready for spreading and vulcanising; operates machine by hand levers.
dry rubber man ; dry mixer, india rubber mixer (dry), rubber mixer (dry)
feeds by shovelling, etc., and operates, by hand levers, rubber mixing and warming machine previous to wet mixing (see dough and solution maker); adds stock chemical powders while rubber is being mixed, to strengthen, fill, and colour it.
ebonite forcer
see forcer.
ebonite maker ; ebonite worker, fibre worker, hard rubber maker, hard rubber worker, vulcanite maker, vulcanite rubber maker
general term for any worker engaged in any process of making articles from ebonite or vulcanite, before vulcanisation; includes ebonite maker-up, ebonite mixer, ebonite moulder q.v.
ebonite maker-up
(i) cuts uncured ebonite sheets with hand knife or scissors and builds-up, on mandrel, articles which cannot be made by forcer or moulder (ebonite) q.v.; if necessary solutions sheets together with special solution;
(ii) see moulder ebonite.
ebonite worker
see ebonite maker; cf. ebonite worker (608).
see forcer.
fibre worker
see ebonite maker.
forcer, forcing machine driver ; extruder, spewing machine attendant
(i) feeds and operates, by hand, forcing machine or squirter, which forces dry uncured rubber through dies, to make tubes, hose, cable insulating rubber, and other articles; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., inner tube maker;
(ii) makes articles of "reclaimed" rubber (i.e., old, used rubber) by forcing process, as in (i) above;
(iii) ebonite forcer; makes articles of ebonite (a preparation of rubber) from ebonite "dough," by forcing process, as in (i) above.
hard rubber maker, hard rubber worker
see ebonite maker.
heel pad and sole maker, rubber heel maker, india rubber heel maker
a moulder q.v. engaged in moulding rubber soles and heels.
mixer, dry; rubber mixer (dry), india rubber mixer (dry)
see dry rubber man.
mixer, ebonite
a dry rubber man q.v. who shovels or feeds from chute ebonite mixture (a preparation of rubber) to a pair of heavy rollers; repeats operation until whole mass is well mixed; operates machine and regulates roller pressure by hand levers.
mixer (wet), india rubber mixer (wet), rubber mixer (wet)
see dough and solution maker.
moulder, rubber moulder, india rubber moulder ; india rubber presser, india rubber pressman, presser, pressman, rubber presser, rubber pressman
moulds or presses uncured rubber, or rubber mixture or dough, in steam or hydraulic press, which gives it required shape; fills moulds, places in press, actuates press by and lever and removes moulds; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. gutta percha moulder, heel pad and sole moulder, rubber heel moulder.
moulder, ebonite ; ebonite maker-up
rams small pieces of ebonite dough into moulds to shape article before vulcanising, and places moulded ebonite into vulcanising press.
moulder, golf ball cover
heats a rod of gutta percha in boiling water to soften it, cuts off exact amount required; places it in mould; places top on mould (which is made in two halves), and puts mould in press.
moulder (rubber stamp making), vulcaniser and moulder
moulds rubber dough into type matrix set up by type-setter and also vulcanises the stamp when set; cf. vulcaniser (603).
moulder, tyre
cycle tyre moulder, india rubber tyre moulder, motor tyre moulder; one of a gang, usually three or four men, who mould and vulcanise tyres from tyre maker or tyre finisher q.v.; places tyre mounted on wheel shaped core, or, for corded tyres, specially mounted by air bag fitter q.v. in mould; removes mould to vulcanisation pan and press, secures pan cover with bolts, regulates cocks supplying steam to pan, operates levers controlling press and removes moulded and vulcanised tyre.
presser, india-rubber presser, rubber presser
see moulder ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. heel presser.
presser, golf ball
places mould containing two half-covers and core in a steam-heated press, which he operates so as to close covers and mould their outer surface to specific design.
presser, hot
(i) a moulder q.v. using a steam press;
(ii) a press vulcaniser (603) q.v. moulding and vulcanising in a steam press.
pressman, india rubber pressman, rubber pressman
see moulder.
see spreader.
roller coverer (tyres)
see tyre base builder.
sheet maker
a spreader q.v. making sheeting waterproof; cf. sheet maker (608).
sole maker, rubber
see heel pad and sole maker.
solutioner, balata
operates a machine which spreads balata solution on fabric for making engine belts; duties as for spreader q.v.
solution maker, solution mixer
see dough and solution maker.
solution maker, balata
places balata (a substance resembling rubber) and solvent in mechanical mixer; starts and stops machine by means of levers; withdraws solution when mixing process is complete by opening outlet valve.
spewing machine attendant
see forcer.
spreader, rubber spreader, india rubber spreader ; proofer, waterproofer
operates spreading machine, by which prepared rubber dough is spread over woollen or cotton cloth or canvas, and is then subjected to heat on steam-heated tables of machine; sees that unrolling of cloth or canvas, spreading of rubber dough, and rerolling of material after spreading, proceeds evenly and correctly; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. card clothing rubber spreader.
tile maker, rubber (moulding)
a moulder q.v. who makes floor tiles from uncured rubber.
tube hand
is in charge of machine extruding uncured rubber for tyre treads; operates levers, etc., to adjust roller pressure and to start and stop machine; directs warmer (extruding), feeder (extruding) (609) q.v.; cf. forcer.
tube maker, tubing machine hand, india rubber tubing maker
a forcer q.v. making rubber tubes by "forcing" or extruding process ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. elastic tube maker, motor tube maker, inner tube maker.
tube maker, inner
(i) winds rubber sheeting cut by cutter (pneumatic tubes) (609) q.v. tightly round a shaping mandrel ready for tube wrapper (609) q.v.; joins up ends with solution after vulcanisation;
(ii) see forcer;
(iii) is capable of performing all work of inner tube making as done by cutter (pneumatic tubes) (609), inner (i), tube maker, tube wrapper (609), vulcaniser, steam (663), etc., q.v. and is usually engaged on one or more operations.
tube maker, motor
an inner tube maker q.v. making inner tubes for motor car tyres.
tyre base builder ; base builder roller coverer (tyres)
rolls vulcanite in layers with hand tools into the grooved surface of a steel rim, which is basis of a solid rubber tyre for motor buses or lorries.
tyre maker (pneumatic), india rubber tyre maker (pneumatic), rubber tyre maker (pneumatic)
builds up foundation of tyre cover by hand or machine, wrapping layers of rubber coated canvas, or alternate layers of canvas and raw rubber, on a wheel-shaped core, and pressing layers together with hand rollers, see casemaker; forms beading with special roller or by pushing tyre edge against mechanically-driven ruler; affixes rubber tread with hand roller, ready for tyre moulder q.v., when not done by tyre finisher (608) q.v.; uses special canvas for cord tyres; cf. case maker.
tyre maker (solid), india rubber tyre maker (solid), rubber tyre maker (solid)
general terms for any worker engaged in manufacture of solid tyres by any process, usually by squirting, or forcing process; includes forcer, tyre base builder, tyre moulder, tyre wirer.
vulcanite maker, vulcanite rubber maker
see ebonite maker.
see spreader.
wet rubber man
see dough and solution maker.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.