A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 2.—Printers, Bookbinders, and Photographers


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artist, ferrotype
see photographer, street.
artist, photographic
a photographer q.v. who aims specially at artistic results.
assistant, camera man's
is understudy and assistant to camera man q.v.
assistant, photographer's; photographer's shop assistant, photographic assistant ; photographer's receptionist
deputises for photographer q.v. in shop or reception room; arranges style of portrait and adjusts pose of sitter; sometimes also takes photograph.
camera man
a technical operator who manipulates cinema camera; sets up camera on stand, adjusts shutter and diaphragm for correct exposure; fixes film in place; takes photographs by turning handle under direction of producer (882).
general term for any person skilled in cinematography, including camera man, film developer, and sometimes film producer (882) q.v.
developer, film
developes [sic] film negatives or positives in laboratory or dark room, using special film developing apparatus; fixes film on supports in tank, runs in developing solution for given time; places in fixing solution and washes in running water; hangs in drying chamber to dry; for cinema film developing, see machine minder (film developing).
developer, photographic
immerses plate or film in solution until it is sufficiently developed; rinses it in water and places in hypo (sodium thiosulphate); washes plate or film in running water, and allows it to dry; works in subdued light that will not injure sensitive surface of plate.
drummer ; drying room hand
winds cinema films from frames used in developing tank on to large revolving drums to dry- rewinds them, when dry, on to reels.
drying room hand
see drummer.
enameller, photographic
polishes surface of finished photographs by spreading special polishing mixture on a smooth surface, e.g., glass, placing print face downwards thereon, and pressing it with a small rubber squeegee.
places original negative of photograph in an enlarging lantern; projects enlarged image, focussed to required size and sharpness of outline, on to a screen; shuts off lantern and superimposes sensitised paper on screen, and exposes it to light of lantern; subsequently develops enlarged print.
equalizer (machine printing)
adds fine semi-transparent mineral paper, etc., to back of thin negatives, so that in machine bromide printing, where several negatives are printed on one sheet, density of all is uniform and exposure facilitated.
finisher, photographic
combines functions of mounter, print trimmer, retoucher, and spotter q.v.
fixer ; hypo boy, washer
keeps prints which are being fixed, i.e., made permanent, under surface of solution of hypo (sodium thiosulphate) and prevents them from clinging together, which would interfere with fixing process.
hypo boy
see fixer.
increases contrast or density of a negative or of a print by immersing it in a bleaching agent, and then rebuilding image with an intensifying solution.
lantern slide maker
makes positives from original negative by re-photographing on a special lantern plate; binds up with plate of clear glass, to protect film side of plate.
see retoucher.
machine minder (film developing)
fixes film spool in developing machine and fastens end of film to frame; fills tank with developing solution; sets machine in motion to take film through solution in a given time; supervises washing and winding on drum for drying.
machine minder (film printing)
operates machine which prints cinema films from negatives; fixes negative and positive films in machine, adjusts light and sets machine in motion to print from negative to positive at correct exposure.
(i) prepares adhesive and rubs it over back of print with a stiff brush; places print in position, previously marked on mount; applies roller squeegee to ensure perfect contact;
(ii) sticks piece of adhesive tissue to back of print with a hot tool; sticks tissue to mount, in correct position, with same tool; then puts mount and print in hot press.
operator, photographic
see photographer.
perforator minder
is in charge of machine which perforates blank films.
photographer ; photographic operator
obtains images by chemical agency of light upon sensitive surfaces; may be directly responsible for all processes, from exposing plate in camera to producing finished print; or may only expose plate, leaving further action to assistants.
photographer, street; itinerant photographer ; ferrotype artist
does photography out of doors by ferrotype process; uses a tin or iron sheet as support for pictures, and prepares face of metal by immersing it in collodion sensitised with a silver salt; exposes it in camera while wet; builds up pictures with an iron developing agent, and fixes it by soaking in a solution of sodium cyanide.
photographer, title
see title maker.
photographer, travelling
travels about the country photographing special subjects, e.g., scenery for picture postcard agency, or machinery for an engineering contractor.
photographer's receptionist
see assistant, photographer's.
printer, bromide
exposes paper, coated with a gelatine emulsion of silver bromide, under a negative to artificial light; develops, washes and fixes print, generally by hand, but sometimes by machinery; gives further toning treatment if print other than black is required.
printer, carbon
prints photographs from negatives by using sensitised gelatine tissue, which is subsequently washed to remove portions unacted upon; mounts remaining tissue which forms picture upon glass, paper, or other support.
printer, collodion
see printer, P.O.P.
printer, film printer
takes charge of machine by which cinema films are printed from negatives.
printer, photographic
(i) in photographic industry, combines duties of bromide printer, carbon printer, P.O.P. printer, and platinotype printer q.v., etc., in small establishments;
(ii) in lithographic industry, prints from photograph, on photo-lithographic paper, image which can then be transferred to lithographic stone.
printer, platinotype
exposes paper, coated with a solution of potassium chloroplatinite mixed with a solution of ferric oxalate, under a negative to daylight; develops exposed print in a solution of neutral potassium oxalate, producing a picture in pure metallic platinum black; clears print by passing it through three baths of acidified water, to remove all traces of iron; washes print, and dries it off.
printer, P.O.P. ; collodion printer
prints photograph by placing specially prepared paper behind a negative in a printing frame and exposing it to fight; tones print in a bath containing chloride of gold; washes it; fixes image by immersing print in a bath of hypo (sodium thiosulphate); washes it in running water, and allows it to dry.
print trimmer
cuts off with a knife, from finished print placed on cutting board, parts which disturb balance of picture.
retoucher ; liner-up
works up negative by hand to remove defects; lessens density by scraping film of negative with a knife, or increases it with a lead pencil; also paints in titles at edge of negative.
(i) fills in holes and other defects in negative with water colour paint or pencil to match surrounding tints;
(ii) remedies defects on finished prints.
stainer, film
see tinter, film.
trims and mounts pictures, by hand, so that each is in correct relation for use in stereoscope.
tinter, film ; film stainer
measures out quantity of dye required, and puts it in a tank containing water; places cinematograph films on tray, and submerges tray in dye tank, by hand; removes tray for drying process; sometimes also performs work of washer and tinter q.v.
title maker, title printer ; title photographer
is in charge of camera with fixed lighting stand for photographing title cards, for cinema films.
paints in titles at foot of lantern slide or photographic negative with small retouching brush and opaque quickdrying paint; cf. retoucher.
changes colour of a photograph by altering its chemical composition or by adding another metal deposit; passes print through toning solution; fixes, washes, and dries it.
see fixer.
washer and tinter ; washing room hand
is in charge of washing cinema films wound on frames after development; if film is to be tinted; also does work of film tinter q.v.
washing-room hand
see washer and tinter.
winder, frame
winds exposed cinema film on frames in dark room before development.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.