A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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410.—Hat—Sewers, Finishers, Trimmers

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turns in and tacks, i.e., sews by hand with long stitches, bottom part of cloth hat or cap, after it has been stitched by machinist q.v. to keep it in position before the lining is inserted.
a trimmer q.v. who sews bands and bow to hats, by hand or machine.
binds brim of hat with galloon, etc., by hand or by machine stitching.
biretta maker
stitches together and tapes four shaped pieces of cardboard; covers and lines, by hand, with materials cut out by cutter (403) q.v., finally sewing all together and attaching a tassel.
brusher (felt hats)
brushes and polishes nap on hat crown, usually on a lathe, to the buffers of which brushes are fixed, after pressing; sets machine in motion and holds hat against buffer.
brusher (velour hats) ; velour finisher
as for brasher (felt bats).
buttoner (cap) ; needle hand
covers button mould with material and clips it on to middle of cap, by hand or by button machine.
cap maker
general term for any worker engaged in any process of cap making, including bodymaker, cap finisher, cap machinist, cap presser q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. Army and Navy cap maker, military cap maker.
carder, velour carder
raises nap of velour hat with wire brush, moved by hand or by power-driven machine.
clipper (velour hats)
cuts, by hand, nap, or hair, on velour hats to make surface even.
coverer, helmet; cork hat coverer
covers body of helmet with cloth (made up from pieces by sewer) cementing it with shellac and methylated spirit or other dope.
finisher, bright
a felt hat polisher q.v. who polishes plain felt hate by "bright" process, i.e. places hat on revolving block of hydraulic machine, bringing it into contact with wheels on which glass, emery paper, or brushes may be fixed; brushes by machine (see brusher (felt hats)) and removes hat when gloss on felt is satisfactory.
finisher (cloth hats and caps), cap finisher ; hand sewer (cloth hats), trimmer (cloth hats)
sews, by hand, bands, peaks, or buttons of caps and inserts linings; finishes off cloth hats or caps generally, and stitches in labels by hand.
finisher (felt hats) ; scrutter
removes roughnesses on felt hat by holding against revolving glass paper covered buffer on lathe, thus giving hat a dull finish; sometimes specifically designated according to whether working upon hard or soft hate, e.g. hard finisher, soft finisher.
finisher, felt velour ; velourer (felt hats)
operates a machine, the metal teeth of which scratch up wool out of soft felt body, so making a "nap " in imitation of fur (real) velour.
finisher, helmet
inserts eyelets by hand, trims leather binding on edge of helmet, attaches ventilator cleans helmet and attaches labels.
finisher (silk hats)
places silk or plush cover on body of hat; blocks hat and applies hot irons to bring out gloss in the covering material.
finisher (straw hats)
attaches brim to crown of hat, by hand, and inserts lining by hand or machine.
finisher, velour
see brusher (velour hats).
flanger (felt hats)
presses brim of soft hat into shape with hot irons.
sews together by hand, ready for machinist q.v., parts of cloth hats or caps in special work requiring careful machining.
half blocker
see presser, cap.
hat carder
see ruffer; obsolescent.
helmet underer
fixes green merino, thin leather or other material under brim of helmet, by means of rubber solution.
lining fitter-in
stitches hat linings in felt hats, by hand.
lurer, lurer-off ; velourer (silk hats)
gives final polish to hat, by means of heated velvet, fustian or moleskin pad held against the hat revolving on a block or wheel operated by treadle, in readiness for packing; frequently does work of tipper-off and capper (429) q.v.
machinist, sewing machinist ; machine sewer
sews together, by power-driven or treadle machine, parts of material to make hats or caps; may test shape during machining by placing over wooden block; may quilt material of cloth hats, may also sew in linings, etc.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. box machinist, cap machinist, cloth hat machinist, concealed stitch machinist, lining machinist, outside stitch machinist.
see ruffer.
needle hand
see buttoner.
plush cutter
cuts out silk plush crown, sides and brims for silk hats from stock patterns, with shears, by hand; sometimes also sews hats; cf. crown sewer.
polisher, felt hat
(i) polishes plain felt hats (not veloured or beaver), generally by bright finishing process (see bright finisher), but sometimes, e.g., for men's soft felt hats, by dull finishing, see finisher (felt hats);
(ii) hood polisher; takes hood (felt velour or veloured felt) after it has been steamed, but before it has been blocked, and fixes it over a bar which draws hood up and down so that its surface comes into contact with revolving wheels of polishing machine, one of which is covered with sandpaper, and one with felt.
polisher, hood
(i) see polisher, felt hat;
(ii) see shaver.
polisher, straw hat
varnishes straw with gum and shellac, by hand, using brush, to give it a glossy appearance.
pouncer (felt hats)
a finisher (felt hats) q.v. who grinds surface of felt hats to get proper shape and curl; (pounce or pumice once used).
presser, cap; seam presser ; half blocker
presses open with a hot iron, by hand or machine, seams of cap crowns, after they have been sewn by machinist q.v.
ruffer ; hat carder, napper
(i) (veloured hats) a felt velour finisher q.v. who ruffs up wool, of wool felt hood, to create a nap, by bringing hood into contact with carding machine, and finishes off in imitation of real velour, by clipping with shears and polishing with glass paper, cf. felt hat polisher;
(ii) (beaver hats) takes strip of imitation beaver, lays it round hood of plain wool felt, beats and presses it into substance of felt by repeated blows, by hand, with bristles of scrubbing brush, which is dipped repeatedly in boiling water.
Scotch bonnet maker
stitches together material for Glengarry or Balmoral bonnet, by machine; also lines bonnet and adds ribbons where necessary.
see finisher (felt hats).
see shaper.
sewer, crown; plush crown sewer or stitcher ; silk stitcher
sews together, by hand, silk or plush cover for silk hats in preparation for finisher (silk hats) q.v.; sometimes done by plush cutter q.v.
sewer, hand (cloth hats)
see finisher (cloth hats).
sewer, hand (straw hats)
sews straw plait by hand, spirally, to make hats and tests shape on a block at intervals.
sewer, hat leather ; hat leather stitcher
attaches hat leathers inside hats by hand sewing or sometimes by machine.
sewer, machine (straw hats)
see machinist.
shaper (hats, etc., not felt) ; setter, tipper-off
shapes brims of hats with hot iron, by hand, in accordance with pattern; cf. shaper (felt hats) (409).
shaver, cone shaver, hood shaver ; hood polisher
a finisher (felt hats) q.v. who operates sandpapering machine, which takes off or shaves irregularities from surface of hood.
stitcher, hat leather
see sewer, hat leather.
stitcher, lining
see machinist, lining.
stitcher, silk
see sewer, crown.
a cap machinist q.v. who sews tapes over seams of unlined caps using power-driven or treadle machine with a single or double needle.
see shaper ; obsolescent.
general term for any worker engaged in putting bands, bows or other trimmings on hats, including bander, binder, lining fitter-in q.v.
trimmer (cloth hats)
see finisher (cloth hats).
trimmer (silk hats, opera hats)
binds edge of brim, by hand or machine; inserts lining, and attaches band to silk hat or to opera hat. velourer, velurer; general terms for a worker engaged in any process of making real fur velour hats from hood stage to finished condition, including brusher, carder, finisher q.v.
velourer (felt hats)
see finisher, felt velour.
velourer (silk hats)
see lurer.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.