A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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ORDER VII.—METAL WORKERS (NOT ELECTRO PLATE OR PRECIOUS METALS)

Sub-order 5.—Smiths and Skilled Forge Workers

190.—Smiths and Skilled Forge Workers



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agricultural machine knife plater, agricultural machine knife swager
a blacksmith (hand) q.v. or a machine forger q.v. who hammers out steel bar or sheet which he has heated in forge, till it takes, roughly, shape of knife required; cuts of blade so formed from rest of bar by bringing hammer down on sharp edged tool which he holds on bar; reheats forging in forge fire as required.
angle iron bender
an angle iron smith q.v. who specialises in work of bending angle and channel iron; is assisted by two or more strikers q.v. and sometimes by a forge furnaceman (171) q.v.; supervises heating of angle iron in furnace and withdrawal (with assistance of crane if necessary! on to steel table; directs strikers in clamping one end to table, in bending free end round template and in clamping bent bar to table; holds flatter (a fiat steel block) against bar and directs blows of strikers to hammer out buckle caused by bending.
angle iron smith, anglesmith
a smith q.v. who specialises in working in angle and channel iron (such as girders); work includes that of angle iron bender, angle iron straightener. welder q.v.; cf. boilersmith.
angle iron smith's hammerman, angle iron smith's striker, anglesmith's hammerman, anglesmith's striker
a striker q.v. who assists angle iron smith q.v. in drawing out angle iron from furnace when ready for forging, using tongs and, if necessary, attaching it to crane; clamps down angle iron on smith's steel table, assists in bending or straightening, welding, etc., by hand hammering on hot metal or on hatting or other forging tools held in position by angle iron smith; removes damps when iron is cool and removes angle iron from smith's table; places fresh piece of angle iron (which may be up to 10 yards long) in furnace for next forging operation.
angle iron straightener
as for angle iron bender, except that angle iron which has got bent since being rolled, is heated and then clamped down on steel table so as to straighten it, i.e., it is not bent round a template.
axe spreader
a smithy q.v. who receives steel blank which has been stamped out hot by drop stamper, and "spreads" or hammers out blade to shape on anvil or beneath pneumatic hammer.
axle forger, axle tree maker
a smith q.v. or, more usually, a forge hammerman q.v. who forges axles from heated bar steel under a power hammer.
axle setter, axle straightener
a smith q.v. who welds two halves of coach or carriage axles together and makes whole axle straight by heating it, hammering it on flat steel table.
axle worker (perambulators)
an Oliver man q.v. who forges axles of perambulators from steel bar.
back hander (shipbuilding)
manipulates, by means of tongs, steel bar, rod, etc., under power hammer whilst forge hammerman q.v. holds forging tool on it on which power hammer descends; moves heated steel or iron about, according to forge hammerman's instructions; cf. inside mate (engineering).
bar flattener, bar former
shapes copper and brass bars cold on an anvil, by bending and hammering, for fitting together to form armatures, transformers, commutators, rotors and stators.
barrel forger
a forge hammerman q.v. who hammers steel ingot, from which central core has been removed on a, lathe, under power hammer roughly into shape of inner tube of big gun; directs work of leverman, furnaceman, press driver and crane driver in manipulating ingot which may weigh 100 tons; directs play of water in and around tube to keep it cool; continues hammering and turning of ingot until it approximates to length and shape of big gun barrel; removes barrel to be heated in vertical furnace for purpose of tempering in oil bath.
barrel ribber (rifles, guns)
a smith q.v. who forges by hand, barrel ribs for sporting guns or rifles.
barrel welder (twist)
obsolescent; a highly skilled smith who makes Damascene gun barrels used for sporting rifles; beats strips of iron and steel and welds together by rolling between rollers and shaping with hand tools; twists and winds work on a mandrel in a lathe; heats again and completes welding on a former.
bar straightener (rolling mill)
straightens bars of iron or steel which have been rolled, by heating them and hammering curved or bent parts on flat steel table.
becking hammerman
a striker q.v. who forms flange on tyre of railway wheel, hammering steel on a beakiron or becking anvil; assists tyre becker q.v. generally.
bender, axle
an axle forger q.v. who specialises in cranking or bending and welding of axles, e.g., for tub carts, milk floats.
bender (bedstead)
a smith q.v. who heats steel tubing in forge fire and bends it whilst hot to fit steel pattern, gripping it with tongs and fixing it with clamps to pattern till cold; places flatting tool (a large hammer with flat square head) on bends of tube and causes striker q.v. to hit tool with sledge to keep tube flat and prevent buckling.
bender (rolling mill, safe, etc.)
see plate bender.
bender, wheel spoke
a smith q.v. who operates a small press in which he places rolled steel bars heated at middle point; moves lever which causes press to force bar to V-shape thus forming spokes of wheel on to centre of which a hub is subsequently cast.
bill hook maker, bill maker ; dhaw maker
a cutlery forger q.v. who forges bill hooks from bar or strip steel, bonding them to shape whilst hot.
blacksmith
see smith ; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., locomotive blacksmith (railway).
blade forger
a smith q.v. who receives short strip of heated steel (specially made cutlery steel) from his striker q.v. and hammers it out with assistance of striker on anvil, roughly to shape of blade to be made.
body maker, safe
a plate bender q.v. who bends stout steel plates to shape of body of safe in a powerful hydraulic press, ready for welding; welds sides of plate and also welds on back of safe; welds lugs and hinges on side of safe.
boilersmith
a smith q.v. who forges angle iron (see angle iron smith) to shape of boiler or tank frame, and welds ends of angle iron together; also welds steel tubes into boiler plates of water-tube or fire-tube boilers.
boiler welder and danger
does work of flanger q.v. and welder q.v. on boiler plates and tubes.
bolsterer, bolster maker, bolster stamper (goffed blade)
(i) (hand forging) a hand forger q.v. who welds a holster iron, out of which shoulders and tang of knife are shaped, on to hand-forged blade of knife; heats both blade and bolster iron and, with use of a flux and rapid blows of small hand hammer, shapes shoulders and welds two parts together;
(ii) (drop stamping) a drop hammer smith q.v. who takes knife blade and bolster,, which has been made in one piece by means of pneumatic hammer, and stamps out bolster into shape of shoulders of table or other knife.
bolt dresser
(i) a smith q.v. who finishes off machine-made bolts by hand forging, using a swage;
(ii) an Oliver man q.v. who does similar work by means of Oliver hammer.
bolt maker (forged), boltsmith ; machine bolt forger
receives heated short lengths of steel rod from heater (171) q.v. and places them in special bolt forging machine; pulls lever which causes hammer to fall on heated end of bolt and to squeeze heated part to shape of bolt head in a die, which is counter-sunk in steel table of machine or cut in bottom of machine hammer; removes bolts as made to cool by means of tongs.
bosser
see wheel boss maker.
boxer
see glutter.
Bradley hammer smith
a drop hammersmith q.v. who uses a special machine known as a Bradley hammer for forging iron or steel.
brass bit forger (fender making)
a smith q.v. who forges brass rod into shape of bits for uee in fender making.
breech maker (gun)
a forge hammerman q.v. who, by means of power hammer, forging tools (swages, etc.), and with assistance of strikers, hammer driver, etc., forges roughly into shape breech blocks of guns from ingot steel, ready for machining.
bull dozer smith
a hot presser q.v. who operates a special type of press, i.e., a "bull dozer" machine, -the press of which is actuated by a reciprocating ram.
cable maker
see chain maker.
cased hame maker
hammers brass strip over a mould or template to required shape; fits over iron hame and brazes edges together; often done by hame forger q.v.
centre glutter (wheel)
see glutter.
chain joiner, chain jointer ; joiner (chains)
a welder q.v. who welds links of chain bent to shape by machine ready for welding, by link bender q.v.
chain maker, chain cable maker (iron and steel), chainsmith ; cable maker, linksmith
(i) (hand) a smith q.v. who forges iron and steel rod into shape of chain link and welds ends to close link thus made; in case of large chains, is assisted by a striker q.v. who heats steel rod and helps at forging and welding;
(ii) (machine) a forge hammerman q.v. who bends stout steel bars into form of link on swage block under steam hammer and welds ends (and sometimes short cross bar in middle of link), or a drop forger q.v. who forges links from heated steel bars by means of dies, i.e., weld less chains; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., block chain maker, curb chain maker (harness), dollied chain maker, hammered chain maker, mooring chain maker, steering chain maker, tommied chain maker, twist chain maker.
chain maker, dollied
roughly welds link (see hammered chain maker) omitting finishing blows; inserts end of roughly welded link in lower die of dolly, i.e., a tool holding a pair of dies, which together correspond in shape to section of iron used for making the chain, lower half is stationary and upper half, which is hinged, consists of an iron bar about one foot long, with top die fixed at end; brings top half down on it and smooths the end of link by striking several blows on iron bar, turning the link about so that each part of weld is strongly made and smoothly finished; for large sizes of dollied chain, is assisted by striker who holds top half of die and strikes the bar.
chain maker, hammered
a chain maker q.v. who makes chains, having hammered welds, entirely by hand; prepares fire on hearth; blows fire with bellows by means of long lever placed beneath left hand; takes a rod of iron (received in bundles, packed according to size) and heats end in fire; withdraws heated rod from fire and pushes end up against right-angled piece of iron which has been "set" on block behind chisel, according to length of iron required to form the link; rests rod on chisel and hammers over this pointy thus nicking the rod at point where it will be knocked off to form one link of chain; sets gauge by eye, to make correct number of links per foot required; hammers nicked iron roughly to shape of link on hooked end of anvil and knocks it off with a blow of the hammer, at nick previously made: overlaps ends of rough link to form the weld; returns roughly shaped link to fire and heats for welding; welds link flat on anvil, not more than six blows usually required for commonest quality chain; for better class chain, goes round the weld again with lighter blows to make stronger and better finished weld; subsequent links .are linked into the last after being roughly turned; measures chain to ensure that right number of links per foot is produced; if not quite correct, alters gauge.
chain maker, tommied
makes medium sized chain between large and small sized dollied chain; operates tommy (Oliver machine) by a foot treadle instead of striking top arm of dolly; cf. dollied chain maker.
cleek forger, cleek head maker (Scotland )
shapes golf cleeks and similar iron heads from heated bar iron on anvil with hand hammer; forges neck of head and hammers out blade, following specifications as to size, angle, etc.
coachsmith ; iron forger
a, smith q.v. who forges by hand or under power hammer (drop hammer, steam hammer or small running hammer) iron work used in building railway or tramway coaches, motor vans, carts, etc., including work of angle iron smith q.v.; repairs, cleans and tempers coach springs, and welds axle arms (of carts) together.
coach spring forger, coach spring machineman
as for spring smith (laminated springs).
coilsmith
see spiral spring smith.
coke fork maker
a forksmith q.v. who forges by hand on anvil or under belt-driven rapid spring hammer, shovel-shaped forks used in handling coal and coke breeze; nicks out prongs in bar and draws out singly each prong to desired length, and bends to shape whilst still hot.
cutlery forger
a smith q.v. who forges out blades from heated steel bar for cutlery by hand forging or, under a small rapid automatic hammer, or a drop forger q.v. who stamps out blades in dies from heated steel rod, bar, sheet or plate; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. butcher's blade forger, chopper maker, cleaver maker, gaff hook maker, harpoon maker, hatchet maker, matchet maker, reaping hook maker, sickle maker.
cutter, horse-nail
as for Oliver man.
cutter-out (spade and shovel)
a drop forger q.v. who cuts out metal part of spades and shovels from heated steel shoot by a die forging machine.
cyclesmith
a smith q.v. who makes parts of cycles by forging, welding, etc., by hand, or more usually by means of drop forge, see drop forger.
dhaw maker
see bill hook maker.
die forger
a smith q.v. who makes by hand, out of special steel, dies which are to be used for drop forging or stamping machines; when die is made, heats it to correct temperature and quenches it in water or oil to harden surface.
die stripper, die stripping machinist
a drop hammer smith q.v. who knocks off, or "strips" the fins (excess metal) from drop stampings, made by another drop hammer smith, by placing forgings on die which is pierced throughout whole block; moves lever causing hammer to descend and strike forging so that it is knocked right through die, leaving fins of metal behind on die block; usually done by die forger q.v.
dolly maker
a tool maker q.v. who forges (see forger) dollies, i.e. steel tools held under rivets during riveting process.
drawer
a smith q.v. who draws, i.e., heats out, strips of heated iron or steel by hand or under an automatic hammer to make them thinner and longer.
dresser (holts, nuts, etc.)
a smith q.v., who hammers with hammer and forge tools on anvil drop-forged nuts, heads of holts, etc., to give them a better finish for high-class work: usually done by Oliver man q.v.
dresser ; puddler's toolsmith
a smith q.v. who reshapes with hammer on anvil puddler's rabble after use in raking iron up into halls by puddler.
drill sharpener (mine or quarry)
a general smith q.v. who sharpens drills by hammering out on anvil fresh points; hardens points by quenching in water or oil.
driver
a smith q.v. who drives a hole in head of anchor to form loop, using a punch (or drift) or heavy sledge.
drop forger ; drop hammerman, drop hammer smith, drop stamp forger, flier-out
bolts two halves of steel dies to steel table and under drop hammer, adjusting them so that, when hammer falls on table, two halves of die exactly coincide; receives heated bar of iron or steel from heater q.v. and holds it, with tongs, firmly on lower die, pulls or kicks lever which causes drop hammer to descend and stamp out hot metal into shape of die; pulls lever again to raise hammer and, with longs, takes out die forging from die; drop forging is carried on when large numbers of small forgings of same shape are required, e.g., parts of guns.
drop forge worker
general term for any man engaged in making die forgings in a drop forge works, or assisting drop forger q.v. to do so; includes Bradley hammer smith, cutter-out (spade and shovel), die stripper, die stripping machinist, drop forger, drop stamp hammer driver, edge tool stamper, flyer maker, goffed blade stamper, gun action forger, mooder (goffed blade), oddwork forger, Oliver man, Oliver smith, Oliver assistant, Oliver hammerman, pocket blade flier-out, pocket blade forger, razor forger, roving flyer maker, shell stamper, socket maker, spur forger, stamper, steel toy maker, table blade stamper q.v.
drop hammer assistant
see drop stamp driver.
drop hammerman, drop hammer smith
see drop forger.
drop stamp driver, drop stamp hammer driver ; drop hammer assistant
assists drop forger q.v. by pulling lever which causes hammer, to lower side of which a die is bolted, to descend violently on table of drop forge; also brings heated bar from forge or furnace to drop forger q.v.
drop stamp forger
see drop forger.
drummer (Birmingham, and S. Wales )
see striker.
edge tool stamper
as for drop forger.
engine smith
a smith q.v. and sometimes an angle iron smith q.v. employed in forging by hand or machine, and welding, when necessary, parts of locomotive or stationary engines; work which is of heaviest kind is usually done by a forge hammerman q.v. or in case of repetitive forging of small parts may be done by drop forger q.v.
engine tool smith
as for toolsmith.
farrier ; horse shoer, shoeing smith
shoes horses, mules, donkeys; cuts hoof to shape, nails on iron shoe and knocks points of nails over that may protrude; may also make shoe from strip wrought iron working as a smith (hand) q.v. with hammer on an anvil, and if using ready made shoes, may adjust them, by heating in forge and hammering, to fit hoof; may possess skill in treatment of minor ailments of horse's feet; in small country farrieries, frequently combines occupation of farrier with that of wheelwright (475) q.v. and general smith q.v. repairing agricultural machines and implements.
file forger, file maker, file smith
(i) a smith q.v. who rapidly beats out heated strip, of steel or wrought iron, into form of file using a rapid automatic (bolt) hammer; holds strip of steel in tongs arid slides it about, under hammer until shaped ready for file cutter (232) q.v.; in same way shapes tang of file ready for insertion in handle;
(ii) a drop forger q.v. who forges blanks of files by means of dies.
fire box frame smith
an angle iron smith q.v. who bends, cuts and welds hot angle iron to shape of frame of fire box of locomotive.
fishplate presser
a forgo pressman q.v. who, by means of dies bolted to bed plate and head of powerful hydraulic press, presses out fishplates from heated plates of steel which he holds by means of tongs under press; is assisted by press driver q.v.
fitter's pressman
a pressman q.v. who operates a small forging power press to modify machine parts under instruction of fitter (210) q.v.
flange maker (beams, tubes) ; flanger, flanging smith
a forge pressman q.v. who places by means of tongs, a tube (or beam or angle iron girder) one end of which has been heated in forge fire, into press and moves lever bringing down press carrying a die which slowly forces out end of tube (or beam) into shape of flange; raises press and removes tube (or beam) to cool, or sends back to furnace for heating of other end.
flanger
(i) (hand) a smith q.v. who hammers over edge of heated plate or heated end of tube to form a flange;
(ii) see flange welder;
(iii) see flange maker (beams, tubes).
flange welder, flange welder-on ; flanger, flanging smith
a smith q.v. who specialises in welding flanges on to tubes or other iron or steel articles; receives from striker q.v. tube, heated at end, and whole of flange at welding heat; cleans surfaces to be welded by scraping off scale, ash, etc.; adds a flux (borax powder) and by means of tongs holds tube and flange in position on horn of anvil whilst striker hammers two together causing them to weld.
flanging machinist
see flanging press attendant.
flanging press attendant ; flanging machinist, flanging smith
a forge pressman q.v. who operates heavy hydraulic press which he causes to bring down die on to end or edge of heated steel tube, or plate, etc., causing edge of same to turn over and form a flange.
flanging smith
(i) see flange welder;
(ii) see flanging press attendant;
(iii) see flange maker (beams, tubes).
flanging smith's striker
a striker q.v. who assists flange welder q.v. by heating tube, or other iron or steel article to be flanged, and flange in forge fire; brings both to flange welder when at welding heat, and strikes them, when ready, with sledge causing them to weld again.
flier-out
see drop forger.
flyer maker ; fly forger, fly maker
a drop forger q.v. who stamps out parts of flyers for textile spinning machinery; work may be sectionalised and performed by following persons:—flyer logger, flyer necker, flyer pressor forger q.v., flyer rougher-out, flyer socketer.
fly forger, fly maker
see flyer maker.
forge assistant, forge helper
general terms covering any man or boy engaged in forge assisting smith, forge hammerman, drop forger or forge pressman q.v.; may be engaged in (a) tending power hammer or press, moving lever operating same, under instructions from smith, etc., (b) heating bars, rods, etc., of iron or steel in forge fire, (c) bringing bars, or rods when heated from (ire to anvil or power hammer, by hand, using tongs, or, if large, attaching bar or billet to hand or power crane, for transference from forge lire to steam hammer, (d) as lift driver q.v. (e) as striker q.v. (f) as Oliver jumper q.v. to an Oliver man, (g) holding metal with tongs on anvil during forging operation, (h) holding forging tool on forging under direction of smith, or may be engaged on any other unskilled labouring work in a forge, e.g., sweeping up, keeping forge fires supplied with powdered coal and quenching tanks with water, or oil, assisting in holding forging on anvil.
forge hammerman ; forgeman
a smith q.v. who forges articles of iron or steel under a power hammer, hydraulic, steam, electric, pneumatic or drop; receives heated steel bar, etc., from forge fire in which one of his assistants (or "mates ") has heated it to forging temperature, holds metal under power hammer by means of tongs, and instructs hammer driver q.v. as to the kind of blow to be delivered (light, heavy, etc.); when special forging tools have to be used, e.g. flatter, swager, punch, etc., holds these tools on heated steel bar and has an inside mate q.v. to hold steel in position for him; instructs inside mate as to moving about of forging, hut when special work is to be done, takes over work of holding and moving forging under hammer, until it is completed; is responsible for seeing that metal is heated to correct temperature, and forge furnaceman (171) q.v., where employed, is responsible to him.
forgeman
(i) general term for any skilled man employed in a forge in which forging is done by means of power hammers, usually steam hammers;
(ii) see forge hammerman; usually specifically designated, e.g., first forgeman (in charge of large forging shop), second forgeman (supervises heating and transport of metal); "forgeman," without qualification, usually means first forgeman; sometimes specifically designated according to article being forged, e.g., anchor forgeman, hook forgeman, reaping hook forgeman, scythe forgeman, or according to kind of forge, e.g. hydraulic forgeman.
forge pressman ; steel presser, steel pressman
in charge of heavy hydraulic press which carries die which pressman bolts into position; supervises heating of iron or steel bar, etc., and places it by crane and hand tongs under press, which he instructs press driver q.v. to actuate, bringing down die on to hot metal, thus shaping it.
forger (hand or power)
general term for any man who shapes hot metal on anvil with sledge or hammer (see smith) under drop hammer (see drop hammer forger) or under steam, pneumatic, or automatic hammer; term is frequently a synonym of smith, but has a more particular application to machine forge workers; it it not often used alone but usually specifically designated, e.g., action forger (gun actions), anvil forger, axle forger, bayonet blade forger, bayonet forger, beam forger (scale beam), bit forger (harness), blade forger, blade hand forger, blade power forger, blade steam forger, bolt forger, bolt machine forger, buckle forger, butcher blade forger, cart gear forger, curb bit forger (harness), cutlery forger, edge tool forger, fleam forger (surgical lancet), file forger q.v., flyer presser forger (textile machinery), fly forger q.v., fork forger, furniture forger (gun making), gimlet forger, golf club forger, gun action forger, gun furniture forger, gun lock forger, gun work forger, hame forger (harness), hammer forger, hammer forger (guns) hand forger (cutlery), harness name forger, hoe forger, horse nail forger, ingot forger q.v., iron forger q.v., iron harness forger, key forger, knob forger (for stoves), lance forger, machine bolt forger (machine forging), machine knife forger (i.e. forging machine knives), magnet forger, mounting forger q.v., midwork forger (iron hollow-ware) q.v., palette knife blade forger, pocket blade drop forger (cutlery), pocket blade forger (cutlery), press tool forger, rasp forger, razor forger q.v., rib forger (gun) q.v., ring forger (textile machinery) q.v., scale beam forger, scissors forger, scythe forger, shackle forger q.v., shot forger (scissors) q.v., shuttle spring forger, shuttle tip forger, spade and shovel forger, spanner forger, spike forger, spindle forger, spring bar forger, spur forger, steel component forger (cycles), stiletto forger, stirrup forger, sword blade forger, table blade forger q.v., tool forger, vice forger, wrench forger.
fork drawer, fork moulder, forksmith (agricultural, etc., forks)
a smith q.v., or a forge hammerman q.v., who forges garden, etc., forks by hand or with steam hammer: roughly cuts out blank from heated plate and then cuts out triangular pieces between prongs; splits open triangular holes (see fork splitter) and draws out by forging each separate prong to suitable length and then roughly points each prong.
forksmith (cycles)
a smith q.v. who welds strips of steel into end of steel tube and cold presses it to shape in hand; press; when drilled in machine shop, welds two tubes to fork head.
fork splitter (agricultural, etc., forks)
a smith q.v. who cuts out triangular spaces between prongs of fork by causing striker q.v. to hammer sharp cutting tool which he holds, by means of tongs, on heated plate of metal; usually done by forksmith q.v.
fork strap maker (garden forks)
a smith q.v. who forges, by hand, tang of garden fork into form of straps into which handle of fork is to be fastened.
framesmith
an angle iron smith q.v. who, by bending and welding angle iron, makes framework of boilers, buildings, tanks, etc.
frost cog maker, frost nail maker, frost screw maker, frost stud maker
an Oliver man q.v. who forges frost nails from iron or steel rod.
gaff hook maker
a smith q.v. who forges from steel rod, by hand, gaff hooks or harpoons.
general smith
a smith q.v. who is skilled in repair of machinery of any special kind, or of every general kind; is usually attached to manufacturing works, colliery, etc., for repair of any broken parts of machinery or plant; is sometimes also a farrier q.v. who acts as tyresmith and coachsmith in villages or small towns.
glutter, wheel glutter ; boxer, centre glutter, veer
a smith q.v. who fills up small gaps between V-sections of metal wheels, after wheel boss has been cast on in foundry, by hammering red hot steel bar into interstices between sections, whilst wheel is firmly fixed in vice; is assisted by striker q.v. who heats steel bar and does some of the hammering; after glutting, wheel is ready for shrink-in on of tyre.
goffed blade stamper, goffer
a drop forger q.v. who stamps out cutlery blades by means of dies from heated steel sheet, rod. bar or plate; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., pocket blade goffer.
gun action forger
a smith q.v. or more frequently, a drop forger q.v. who stamps out parts of gun actions by means of dies; in specially delicate and expensive work, may do forging from heated steel rod or bar by hand.
gun lock forger
as for gun action forger.
gun work forger
may be either a gun action forger or a gun lock forger q.v.
hammer attendant, hammer driver, forge hammer driver ; leverman (steel forge)
assists forge hammerman q.v. by operating power hammer in forge; moves lever which causes hammer to descend or rise in accordance with verbal instructions of forge hammerman, on forging, or on forging tool which forge hammerman holds on forging, thus shaping it ns required; when not engaged on power hammer, assists forge hammerman generally.
hammerer, carriage (textile)
a striker q.v. who assists smith in forging parts of carriages for textile spinning machinery.
hammerman
(Scottish ) see striker: also applied to men who do hand hammering on forging held in position on anvil of steam hammer by hammer itself, i.e. ., steam hammer is used as a vice; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., axle hammerman, becking hammerman q.v. blacksmith's hammerman, blade hammerman (machine knife), pneumatic hammerman q.v., smith's hammerman, tyre hammerman.
hand forge smith
a smith q.v. who forges iron or steel articles by hand, as distinct from machine forger; is usually assisted by a striker q.v.
horse shoe maker
a smith q.v. or a drop forger q.v. who makes horse-shoes by hand or drop forging from wrought iron strip or plate, or shapes horseshoes from wrought iron strip in a special combined bending and rolling machine.
horse shoer
see farrier.
hot presser
bolts dies to press head and bottom plate of hydraulic press; holds heated bar, sheet, etc., with tongs on lower die and gives signal to press driver q.v. to move lever bringing down upper half of die, thus pressing out forging; removes forging from die when press-head is raised; work is of smaller nature than that of forge pressman q.v.
hot straightener ; straightener
(i) a smith q.v. who straightens axles, bars, angle iron, or other iron or steel goods, by beating them in forge fire and causing striker q.v. to hit them at suitable points on flat steel table, till buckle has been removed; may bold "flatter" (a hammer with a large flat-faced hammer head) on forging and cause striker to hit this with sledge, to straighten out bends;
(ii) straightens heavy bars, rods, angle iron, etc., whilst hot, by pressing under steam hammer (see forge hammerman) or hydraulic press (see forge pressman).
hubber
a forge pressman q.v. who presses a relief steel die into heated steel block, leaving an impression which forms matrix for die stamping; process termed "hubbing in."
hydraulic pressman (Siemens Martin)
a forge hammerman q.v. who manipulates steel ingot under hydraulic press to improve grain and texture of steel prior to rolling, and may also roughly forge it to shape suitable for rolling.
hydraulic press smith
(i) a forge hammerman q.v. who forges iron or steel under hydraulic press;
(ii) a drop forger q.v. who uses a hydraulic press to obtain forging from large dies, too large to be stamped on ordinary drop forge.
hydraulic press worker
general term for any man engager! on forging by means of hydraulic press; is usually applied to assistants of hydraulic press smith q.v.; helps in bringing heated billet or bar of steel from furnace or forge to press, holds it firmly with tongs whilst forging is in operation, turns or moves it as required, attaches it to and detaches it from crane according to smith's instructions; may operate press itself by moving levers admitting water power to press, raising or lowering it as required.
ingot forger
a forgo hammerman q.v. who forges steel ingot under steam hammer roughly into shape of forging required for large axles, crankshafts, stern frames, etc., or into bar, ready for rolling in preparation of steel bars or sheet.
inside mate (engineering)
as for hack hander (shipbuilding); when not required to hold work under power hammer, resumes duties as striker, assisting forge hammerman generally.
iron forger
(i) see forger;
(ii) see coachsmith.
iron straightener, iron stretcher
general terms for smiths who specialise in straightening iron or steel articles, rods, bars, angle iron, etc., including angle iron straightener, bar straightener, hot straightener, plate straightener (278) q.v.
joiner /chains)
see chain joiner.
laminated spring maker
see spring smith (laminated springs).
leverman (steel forge)
(i) see hammer attendant;
(ii) see press driver.
lift driver
attends to crane, either hand or steam, which is used to carry heavy forgings from forge furnace to power hammer and hack as required, and to hold forging whilst under power hammer; assists in moving and turning forging under hammer by raising and lowering it according to forge hammerman's instructions; exercises great care to ensure that forging is firmly held on table of power hammer, as blow of hammer on ill-balanced forging would bring down crane and tend to wreck whole forge; may also manipulate lever controlling rise and fall of hammer.
lighter (files)
a smith q.v. who trues files on an anvil after they have been annealed.
link bender (chain)
a chainsmith q.v. who heats rod or bar of wrought iron, or steel in forge, places it in die under steam hammer, or on swage block; moves lever actuating press or hammer, thus squeezing strip of metal into shape of link ready for final welding.
linksmith
see chain maker.
machine bolt forger
see boltmaker (forged).
machine forger
(i) screws suitable tools or "heads" on to special forging machine which has from two to six arms or slides; on moving lever as many "slides" as are required to do so, move to a central point bringing all tools together and leaving small space between them which is to be occupied by heated metal rod, bar, plate, etc.; receives heated metal from assistant and places it, using tongs, against one of tools or dies; pulls lever causing other tools to move slowly towards heated metal and press it between them into required shape; moves lever again, causing tools to withdraw, and removes forging with tongs, placing it on one side to cool;
(ii) see drop forger.
machine knife and section swager
a smith q.v. who hammers out roughly to shape machine knives and sections by hand from heated steel bar, or by means of automatic hammer; in latter process, holds piece of heated steel in tongs and passes it back and forth under rapidly moving small automatic hammer, which he actuates by placing his foot on a lever.
machine knife smith, machine knife smither ; section smither (machine knife)
a smith q.v. who hammers machine knife blade after tempering, to make it straight or curved as required. and again (if necessary) after grinding.
machine nut maker
see nut cutter.
machine smith
(i) a smith q.v. who makes forgings for subsequent machining into parts of machines;
(ii) a drop forger q.v. who makes large number of similar articles on machine designed for repetition work, popularly termed mechanical blacksmith.
mooder (goffed blade)
a drop forger q.v. who blanks out by means of dies roughly shaped forgings of cutlery blades ready for final forging by hand or automatic hammer.
motor smith
a smith q.v. who forges Parts of motors for subsequent machining, or who welds broken parts of motors in a large garage.
mould squeezer
a smith q.v. who welds heated tang on to cutlery blades by squeezing them together in a mould with flux.
mould steeler (edge tools)
a smith q.v. who welds on a hard steel cutting edge on hack plate of iron or cheaper steel; may weld plates, bars or rods of iron and steel together ready for subsequent forming, by toolsmith into edge tools.
mounting forger
see oddwork forger.
nail maker (forged)
an Oliver man q.v. who makes nails from iron rod; cute off heated lengths of rod after making point with four blows of hand hammer; inserts heated length in hole in anvil and brings down Oliver hammer to form head of nail.
nut cutter, nut forger ; machine nut maker
a machine forger q.v. who places heated steel bar or rod in special nut forging machine and presses lever with hand or foot, causing specially shaped tools or dies to squeeze or stamp heated bar into shape of nut.
oddwork forger ; mounting forger
a smith q.v. or a drop forger q.v. who forges fittings for hollow-ware.
Oliver assistant, Oliver hammerman, Oliver jumper
an assistant to an Oliver man q.v. who heats up bars, rods, etc., of iron or steel in forge furnace, and passes them to Oliver man, and then helps him to stamp out die forging on Oliver machine by kicking foot lever which actuates drop hammer.
Oliver man, Oliver smith
a drop forger q.v. who operates a special forging stamp called an "Oliver"; fixes upper and lower dies and controls hammer by kick lever or by directing assistant to actuate lever; removes forging and receives fresh bar of heated iron or steel from assistant, Oliver jumper q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. horse nail Oliver man.
pansmith (salt works), salt pansmith
a general smith q.v. who does forging work required to keen in repair evaporating plant in salt works consisting mainly of large steel pans in which brine is evaporated; bolts and welds steel plates together to form pan, and repairs pan by welding on fresh plates.
perambulator fire smith, perambulator smith ; undercarriage maker
a smith q.v. who bends to shape and welds as required, iron rod. tube and strip to form parts of undercarriage of perambulators, mailcarts, etc.
permanent way smith
a smith q.v. who resharpens and repairs platelayers' tools, e.g. crowbars, picks, jim-crows, usually by hand forging.
pick drawer
see picksmith.
pick repairer, pick sharpener, pick sharper
a smith q.v. who sharpens picks of miners, quarriers, road repairers, etc., by hand forging fresh points on ends; quenches heated ends in water to harden them for nsİ.
picksmith
(i) see pick stamper;
(ii) ; a smith q.v. who forges heads of picks by hand from heated steel bar.
pick stamper ; picksmith
a drop forger q.v. who stamps out heads of picks from hot stool bar by means of dies; quenches pick heads in water to temper them for use.
pipe welder
a smith or welder q.v. who joins together edges of steel -plate which has been bent round in form of pipe; obsolescent; cf. welder (249).
plate bender (pinto mill, or boiler making) ; bender (rolling mill, safe, etc.)
bends steel plate to required curvature for making boilers or for shipbuilding, by beating in furnace and placing it, by means of travelling crane on rolls of plate bending machine, guides plate on to rolls so that it rests on two lower rolls and is beneath centrally fixed upper roll; screws down upper roll till it bolds plate tightly and bends it slightly forcing plate down between the two lower rolls; moves lever imparting rotary motion to rolls causing plate to be rolled between them and thus bent over all its length; increases curvature of plate by screwing down upper roll as required, and attaches plate to crane for removal when sufficiently bent.
plater (cutlery, etc., forging)
(i) a smith q.v. who hammers out to shape of cutlery blade, heated bar or rod of steel using a hand or belt-driven hammer; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., edge tool plater, hoe plater, scythe plater, shovel plater;
(ii) see setter.
plate smith
a smith q.v. who is engaged in bending, straightening, or welding iron or steel plates.
pneumatic hammer driver, pneumatic hammer man, pneumatic hammer smith ; pom-pom worker
a smith q.v. who forges small articles by means of a small pneumatic hammer; receives heated pieces of steel bar, rod, etc., from heater q.v., and moves them about under continuously striking hammer on small steel table, using tongs to hold and manipulate heated metal; continues till metal is forged to required shape.
pocket blade flier-out, pocket blade forger
(i) a drop forger q.v. who stamps out blanks of blades for pocket knives;
(ii) a smith q.v. who forges from heated strip steel, blades of pocket knives by hand forging; almost obsolete.
pom-pom worker
see pneumatic hammer driver.
pot welder
a welder q.v. who fixes iron handles on iron pots.
press driver, press driver man, press hand, pressman, press operator ; leverman (steel forge), smith's pressman
controls lever which applies power (hydraulic, steam, electric, etc.) to forging press, receiving instructions from forge pressman q.v.; in case of small forging presses, may do both forging and operate lever of press; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. wheel press operator.
presser (rolling mill)
a forge pressman q.v. who is in charge of powerful hydraulic press under which he presses steel plates to improve grain of steel, or by means of which be shapes them to form of railway sleepers, etc., or cuts them into smaller plates using special cutting tool; holts steel die to under side of press-head and sets lower die in bed plate of press; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. sleeper mill presser.
puddlers' tool smith
see dresser.
punching hammerman
a forge hammerman q.v. who reduces steel ingots to shape suitable for subsequent forging into railway wheels, using heavy punch, fitted on steam hammer bead; also punches contra! hole in wheel for axle.
quarry smith
a general smith q.v. employed in a quarry; does smith's work on repairs to plant and toolsmith's work in keeping drills, picks, shovels, and other tools sharp and otherwise fit for use.
railway spring maker
see spring smith (laminated springs).
rapier maker
a smith q.v. who cuts off length of special strip or bar steel, and when boated, forges it roughly to shape of rapier under a rapid running (belt) hammer; cuts off rapier to required length and forges point on finely tapered blade; welds on wrought iron tang or forges steel tang to shape ready for fitting into rapier handle; may also attach hilt and band guard to rapier.
razor forger
a drop forger q.v. who stamps out. by means of dies, from heated steel bar. blanks of shape of razor blades ready for razor blade grinder (237) q.v. when ground, reheats and tempers blades by plunging them into cold water or oil.
reducer (bolts)
a smith q.v. who by swaging reduces thickness of end of bolt that is to be threaded for purpose of screwing on nut,
may be done by band or by Oliver man q.v. on an Oliver machine.
rib forger (gun)
a smith q.v. who welds steel ribs on sides of gun barrel so that, when barrel recoils, ribs run in slides and subsequently ensure that barrel comes back into original position.
riffler, riffler maker
a file forger q.v. who makes special concave forgings for files, called rifflers.
rim welder (motor) ; wheel welder
a welder q.v. who joins together ends of strip of steel that has been bent round in heavy hydraulic press to form rim of motor wheel.
roving flyer maker
a drop forger q.v. who stamps out of steel rod flyers for textile roving frames, by means of dies.
saw file forger
as for file forger.
saw tang maker
a hot presser q.v. who operates small press in which he presses out heated steel tang of saw ready for punching and riveting on to saw handle.
scale smith ; weighing machine smith
a smith q.v. who forges parts of scales by hand or by drop forging
see drop forger; repairs scales as required by welding, bending or remaking broken parts.
scale stamper (cutlery)
a stamper q.v. who stamps out, from heated metal plate or sheet, scales which are to be riveted to tangs of cutlery blades to form metal handled knives, pocket knives, etc.
scissors forger, scissors smith
a smith q.v. who makes scissor blades by hand forging or drop forging; may also weld rivet to one side, and screw other side on to it; after scissors have been ground, reheats them and tempers them by plunging in water.
scythe back bender, scythe back maker
a smith q.v. who forges to shape, steel bar used to stiffen back of scythe blade.
scythe finisher
a smith q.v. who hammers forged scythe to shape, hammers out tang and thickens back of scythe by hammering; marks scythe with trade mark using die and hammer.
scythe forger
a cutlery forger q.v. who forges blade of scythe to shape from a strip of heated steel or from composite bar of iron and steel previously welded together, under a rapid (belt) hammer; passes forged blank on for finishing, grinding, etc.
seal forger
as for die forger.
section smither (machine knife)
see machine knife smith.
setter (cutlery) ; plater (cutlery, etc., forging), smither (cutlery)
sets and straightens cutlery blades by bending them between two upright steel pillars on an anvil, using a hammer if necessary; hardens and tempers them by heating in fire and cooling in water and oil respectively; sometimes also marks shoulder of blade with trade and other marks by use of hammer and steel dies.
shackle forger, shackle smith
a chainsmith q.v. who forges shackles from iron or steel rod or bar by hand or power hammer.
shanker (scissors and hand shears)
see shot forger.
sharpener, gear; tool sharpener
a general smith q.v. who repairs, by forging processes, points and cutting edges of tools, e.g., points on miners' or navvies' gear or tools, picks, drills, automatic coal cutters, etc.
shell stamper
a drop forger q.v. who stamps out parts of shells, steel nose caps, etc., by means of dies.
shingler (forging)
roughly hammers heavy forgings into shape under power hammer, assisted by hammer driver q.v. to get them ready for forge hammerman q.v.
ship blacksmith, shipsmith
a smith q.v. or forge hammerman q.v. employed in a shipyard who forges by hand or power hammer, frames, etc., of ships, assisted by group of strikers, hammer drivers and labourers -who manipulate forging under shipsmith's directions.
ship packing maker ; tapered packing drawer
a forge hammerman q.v. who forges metal packing to correct shape for use in packing space between ship-frame and plates where necessary.
shipsmith's striker
as for striker.
ship thimble maker ; thimble maker
a smith q.v. or a drop forger q.v. who makes metal eyelet (called a ship's thimble) round rim of which rope is spliced so that eyelet forms end of rope which is thus easily attachable to a hook or another rope by means of eyelet.
shoeing smith
see farrier.
shot forger ; shanker (scissors)
a smith q.v. 'who welds strip of iron on to steel hand-forged scissor blade, and forges it to shape of shank and bows of scissors; in drop-forged scissors, blade, shank and bows are forged in one piece of steel.
shovel plater
a smith q.v. who forges, by hand or power hammer, block of heated steel into shape of shovel.
sickle back maker
as for scythe back bender.
sickle bender
(i) bends sickle blank to right curvature by hand whilst hot, round template, using tongs, and clamps firmly to cool;
(ii) sets gauges in roller bending machine, inserts sickle blank, either hot or cold, and controls bending operation by means of levers.
signal smith
a smith q.v. who is responsible for maintenance of signal wires and rodding, point and crossing rodding and locking frames; makes small adjustments, repairs or replaces bent or broken rods and cleans and oils joints in signal and point apparatus; does repairs to broken or bent rods, etc.; works in railway shops, not on permanent way; cf. signal lineman (261).
smiddie man
a general smith q.v. in a colliery.
smith ; blacksmith
general term for any man engaged in heating iron or steel bars, rods, plates, etc., in small furnace (forge) to a white heat and shaping it by hammering on an anvil or other metal block; work may be done by hand, by hand operated machine or by powTer machine, according to size of job and whether a special order or repetition work; may perform any of the following operations: (i) fullering or swaging, i.e., reducing size of- rod, bar, etc., by means of hand hammering on special swage tool on hot bar;
(ii) upsetting, i.e., hammering on end of heated bar to cause it to increase in width, or by allowing heated bar to drop from a height on to steel block;
(iii) bending, either by hammering bar, etc., which is heated at point where it is to bend, on an anvil, or by levering it round a fulcrum; it is usually necessary to upset a bar or rod, before bending to avoid making bend thinner than rest of metal;
(iv) (welding) see welder;
(v) punching, i.e., driving a pointed steel punch through heated bar, plate, etc., so that hot metal is forced aside, or by driving a larger sharp-edged punch through metal so that piece of metal before punch is driven right out of metal;
(vi) cutting off, i.e., hammering sharpened tool on heated bar, plate, etc., to cut it off at that point; smith may also forge metal by hammering directly on to heated part without use of special tools mentioned above, assisted or not by striker q.v. according to size of job; smith is usually assisted by hammerman or striker q.v. who hammers on heated metal or tool held on it by smith himself; cf. forger; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., agricultural machine knife smith, anchor smith, angle iron smith, anglesmith, anvil smith, axle box smith, axle smith, blade smith (cutlery), hoilersmith, boltsmith, Bradley hammer smith, bull dozer smith, carriage smith, chain-smith. coach smith, coach spring smith, coil smith, cyclesmith, drop hammer smith engine smith, engine tool smith, file smith, firebox framesmith, firebox smith, flanging smith, fork-smith (cycles), foundry smith, frame-smith, general smith, band forge smith, hook smith (reaping hooks), iron wheel smith, link smith (chain making), machine knife smith, machine smith, motor smith, Oliver smith, pansmith, perambulator (fire) smith, pick smith, plate smith, pneumatic hammer smith, puddler's tool smith, quarry smith, razor smith, reaping hooksmith, salt pansmith, scale smith, scissors 6mitn, scythe smith, section smith (machine knife), shackle smith, ship blacksmith, shipsmith, ship toolsmith, shoeing smith, spiral spring smith, spring hammersmith, spring smith, stamp smith. steam hammer smith, stern frame smith (shipbuilding), tilt hammersmith, toolsmith, tube smith, turret clock smith, tyre smith, wagon smith (railway wagons), wagon spring smith, wheelsmith.
smither (cutlery)
see setter (cutlery).
smither (files)
a smith q.v. who trues files after annealing by hammering them flat on anvil by hand.
smith's finisher
(i) a forge helper q.v. who finishes off rough forgings either by hand filing or on emery wheel;
(ii) a smith q.v., assembling and fitting up general smith's work.
smith's fitter, smith's work fitter
erects fittings for buildings made by smith q.v.
smith's hammerman
see striker.
smith's pressman
see press driver.
socket maker
a drop forger q.v. or Oliver man q.v. who forges sockets for welding on to pipes and tubes.
socket welder
a smith q.v. who specialises in welding sockets on ends of tubes, by hand hammering heated socket on heated end of tube.
sparrow bill maker
see wrought nail maker.
spiral spring smith ; coilsmith, spring smith (spiral springs)
(i) a spring smith q.v. who makes spiral springs by winding heated iron or steel wire cr rods round circular metal core by means of hammer and tongs;
(ii) drags heated metal from furnace with tongs and fixes end in grips of power driven mandrel; sets mandrel in motion and allows coiled metal to cool gradually whilst clamped in position.
spring bar and swivel maker
a smith q.v. or a drop forger q.v. who forges spring bars and swivels for harness making.
spring hammer smith
a smith q.v. who operates a spring hammer, i.e., a belt driven hammer used for light and rapid forging and having a laminated spring or other shock preventing device between hammer and source of power.
spring smith ; (laminated springs), laminated spring maker, railway spring maker
receives straps of tough steel of graduated lengths and suitable shape; heats them in fire of forge and bends them to spring shape on metal template, clamping them into position and leaving them to cool; hammers heated ends of springs to taper them off, and by means of punch, hammers two notches, one at each end of spring layer, so that notches coincide with bumps (which are undersides of notches) in next layer, thus helping to strengthen spring; fastens series of layers together by suitable bolts, and welds on to each end of spring, a steel ring by which spring is subsequently attached to vehicle; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. wagon spring smith.
spur forger, spurrier
a drop forger q.v. shaping spurs, or, a smith q.v. who makes spurs by hand; almost obsolete; spurs are mostly cast in malleable iron or nickel.
stamper, drop stamper, hot drop stamper, hot stamper ; stamp smith
general terms for man employed in stamping out articles from hot iron or steel rod, bar, sheet or plate by means of dies; may be a drop forger, Oliver man, fly pressman, forge pressman, or use any other type of forging stamp; work done as for drop forger; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., bolster stamper (knife), edge tool stamper, flyer stamper, golfed blade stamper, hammer stamper, handle stamper (cutlery), heavy edge tool stamper, hoe stamper, horse shoe stamper, pick stamper, pocket blade drop stamper, ring stamper, scale stamper, shell stamper, spade stamper, stamper (iron and steel stamping and drop forging), stamper (iron tube fittings), stamper (rolling mill), stamper (smithy), stamper (steel tube' sockets), table blade stamper, tyre stamper, wheel stamper.
stamp smith
see stamper.
staple maker
an Oliver man q.v. who makes staples from heated iron rod or stout wire.
steam hammer driver
as for hammer attendant.
steam hammerman, steam hammer smith
a forge hammerman q.v. who is in charge of forge in which power hammer is operated by steam.
steel presser, steel pressman
see forge pressman.
steel toy maker
a drop forger q.v. who stamps out steel toys from hot steel plate or rod by means of drop forge.
steel tyre presser
a forge pressman q.v. who places strip of steel in heavy hydraulic press and by operating press causes it to be bent round steel template into shape of tyre ready for welding by rim welder q.v.
straightener
(i) see hot straightener; sometimes specifically designated. e.g., angle iron straightener q.v. axle straightener, bar straightener, drill straightener, iron straightener, twist drill straightener;
(ii) a tilter (steel) q.v. who while drawing out steel into long thin strips by means of a tilting hammer, so hammers steel that it is kept straight.
straightener, frame shop
an angle iron straightener q.v. who straightens heavy frame work of locomotive undercarriage, by pressing it whilst hot, under a steam hammer or striker, forge striker; drummer (Birmingham and S. Wales), hammerman, smith's hammerman (Scotland)-, assists smith q.v. in forging iron or steel articles from bar, rod, plate, sheet, etc., by placing bar, etc., in furnace or forge fire, tending to damper which admits blast to forge fire under direction of smith; withdraws metal when smith judges it to be sufficiently hot for forging process, e.g., welding, bending, swaging, etc., and places it, by means of tongs, on anvil of steel table, using sledge hammer, strikes hot metal, or forging tool held on hot metal by smith, in accordance with smith's instructions; may hold metal in tongs during forging process and turn it during forging as instructed, or this may be done by smith himself; seizes article made with tongs and places it in forge fire for further heating, if necessary, or removes it to one side to cool; acts as general assistant to smith (there may be one striker or more according to nature and size of work); may also feed forge fire with small coal, usually damped, as required, except where there is a special forge furnaceman (171) q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., anchor smith's striker, angle iron smith's striker, anglesmith's striker, anvil smith's striker, anvil striker, auger striker, back maker's striker (scythe), blacksmith's striker, blade striker, chain striker, coach smith's striker, edge tool forger's striker, edge tool striker, fork striker (agricultural implements), general smith's striker, hand forge smith's striker, hand forge striker, from wheel striker, shackle striker, ship blacksmith's striker, smith's striker, wagon spring smith's striker.
stud cable maker
a chainmaker q.v. who forges large chains which have central crossbar in each link.
swager, swaging machine worker
operates swaging machine by means of which he swages or hammers out to thinner dimensions rods or bars of heated iron or steel, which he holds in tongs; sits in front of machine and moves heated bar backwards and forwards beneath swaging tool which automatically rises and falls on lower swaging tool fixed on steel blocks; moves from one set of swaging tools to next as required (machine has three or more sets usually, and swaging, i.e., reducing, is done gradually); receives heated bars of metal from heater q.v. and returns them to him for re-heating if necessary; swaging by hand is part of smith's work, see smith; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., agricultural machine knife swager, machine knife and section swager.
swivel maker
a chainmaker q.v. specialising in making swivels for chains or anchors.
table blade forger (hand)
a cutlery forger (hand) q.v. who hammers out blades of table cutlery roughly to shape from heated strips of special steel; welds on bolster and hammers out iron tang of knife.
table blade stamper
a drop forger q.v. who, by means of dies cuts out, from heated sheet of special cutlery steel, blades for table knives; may stamp out blade and handle in one piece in case of cheaper class' of knife.
tanger (goffed blade)
a smith q.v. who welds bar of iron on to forged blade, cuts it off about one inch or less from weld, heats it up in forge fire and hammers it out by hand or machine to form tang which is to be bedded in handle of knife: may only draw or hammer out a stub of metal left on blade to length and thickness of tang.
tapered packing drawer
see ship packing maker.
thimble maker
see ship's thimble maker.
tilter (steel), tilt hammersmith
a smith q.v. who holds, by means of tongs, heated bars of steel under an automatic hammer and moves them backwards and forwards under hammer so that steel is beaten out into long thin strips of definite size and length (hammer is known as a tilt hammer and is raised by leverage of a series of projections, i.e., cams, on a revolving shift, and allowed to fall by its own weight as soon as released from cam and before next cam raises it again); steel is prepared in this form for sale; cf. filter (279).
tool forger, toolmaker, toolsmith
a smith q.v. who heats bars of special steel in small forge, hammers them to required shape by hand, re-heats them to definite temperature, usually in gas or electric furnace, and tempers tool made, by quenching ft in water or oil; in case of large tools, e.g., metal shears, forges small piece of special steel to shape by hand, and welds it on to tool so that it is in position to do work required; sometimes referred to according to nature of tool made, e.g., bit maker, brace bit maker chisel maker, caulking mallet maker, chasing tool maker, crowbar maker, drill maker, mattock maker, punch maker.
tram hammerer and inspector (rolling mill)
hammers plates for faults by hand, using a hammer and gauge plates, trammels or trams (special gauges for testing alignment); rejects faulty plates, marking fault with chalk.
tramsmith
an angle iron smith q.v. who shapes and welds together angle iron to make framework of colliery or other industrial trams and their undercarriages; usually also carries out smithing repairs.
T-ring welder
an angle iron smith q.v. who bends hot angle iron round a pattern and welds ends together to form rings of steel of T-section, i.e., angle iron.
tube smith
a smith q.v. who specialises in tube welding, flange welding on to tubes, and tube bending.
tyre becker
a smith q.v. who forges railway and tramway tyres, assisted by becking hammerman q.v. and using a beakiron anvil.
tyre shrinker ; wheel tyrer
heats steel tyre in gas fired furnace, withdraws it when hot by overhead crane and places it, by means of tongs, on wooden or steel wheel centre, in hydraulic press; revolves press, by means of lever, and so brings tyre under hydraulic hammer; may also hammer on by hand a retaining ring.
tyresmith
a smith q.v. who makes steel tyres for motors by hand forging, bending and welding from steel strip; cf. steel tyre presser.
tyre stamper
see wheelman.
undercarriage maker
see perambulator fire smith.
upsetting machineman
a smith q.v. who operates by chains and levers an upsetting machine, by which metal bars, etc., can be thickened or widened; heats part to be thickened, sets up in machine by means of overhead tongs and crane and with assistance of helpers, either hammers on end of bar or allows bar to drop vertically on steel block.
veer
see glutter.
vertical man (shipyard)
heats steel plates in large vertical furnace, and then withdraws them by crane, and bends them in plate bending machine; cf. plate bender.
wagon smith
as for tramsmith, making and repairing steel framework of wagons.
wedge maker
a smith q.v. or a drop forger q.v. who forges wedges, i.e., wedge-shaped chisels used in road mending.
weighing machine smith
see scale smith.
welder
a smith q.v. who joins two pieces of iron or steel together, whilst hot, by hammering them; receives two parts to be welded from striker q.v. who has heated them to welding temperature in forge furnace; seizes them with tongs and holds parts together on anvil, having first scraped off scale and ashes and sprinkled a little powdered borax on surfaces to be welded to act as flux; holds parts together firmly whilst striker hits them with sledge causing them to weld; welding by above method, is usually part of work of smith; cf. oxy-acetylene welder (249), electric welder (249), tube welder (266), wire welder (268); sometimes specifically designated, e.g., barrel welder, chain welder, end welder, flange welder, pipe welder, rim welder, side welder, socket welder, T-ring welder, wheel welder.
wheel boss maker, wheel centre maker ; bosser
a smith q.v. who forges to required shape boss, or centre, of railway or other steel wheels.
wheel disc presser
a forge pressman q.v. who presses out wheel discs for motors, etc., from heated sheet steel.
wheel drummer
a striker q.v. who assists wheel smith q.v. in forging steel wheels for motors, railway coaches, etc.
wheelman ; tyre stamper
a forge pressman q.v. who presses out steel tyres for railway, etc., wheels from heated steel strip.
wheel smith, iron wheel smith
a smith q.v. who makes wheels by forging; may include work of rim welder, steel tyre presser, wheel glutter, wheel spoke bender q.v.
wheel spoke bender
a forge pressman q.v. who bends heated steel bar in a press fitted with dies, into shape of closed V so that sides of V form spokes and top arc forms part of rim.
wheel tyrer
see tyre shrinker.
wheel welder
see rim welder.
wrought nail maker ; sparrow hill maker
an "Oliver" man q.v. who forges wrought iron nails from iron rod.

Back to List of Occupational Codes


From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.