A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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ORDER VII.—METAL WORKERS (NOT ELECTRO PLATE OR PRECIOUS METALS)

Sub-order 2.—Furnacemen (not Foundry) and Puddlers

171.—Skilled Furnacemen (including Keepers and Melters)



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air furnaceman
a furnaceman q.v. who attends to and controls reverberatory furnace, in which charge is heated by flames of furnace fire set at side of hearth and directed so as to play on surface of charge on furnace hearth; charges, by hand or machine, material on to hearth and removes it when action is complete, either by means of tongs or by running it off as molten metal; as a rule no blast is employed.
alloy furnaceman
see distiller (lead).
annealing furnaceman
a furnaceman q.v. who charges, by hand, tongs or crane according to nature of material, iron or steel bar, rod, or plate on to hearth of furnace; superintends firing of furnace and allows charge, when heated to fixed temperature, to cool slowly by regulating fires.
anode furnaceman (copper)
a furnaceman q.v. who charges partly purified copper on to hearth of reverberatory furnace, stirs molten copper, and skims off slag formed by oxidation of impurities; shovels on to surface of copper, charcoal or anthracite to prevent oxidation of copper and pushes pole of "green "wood into metal to reduce any partly oxidised copper; extracts samples at intervals, with hand ladle, to test state of purity; when action complete, runs molten copper into ladle for casting into copper anodes in final electrolytic purification of metal,
antimony furnaceman, antimony refiner
charges crucibles with crushed stibnite, wrought or tinned iron scrap and salt and heats in reverberatory furnace; pours crucible contents into a mould and knocks off slag when cold; recharges crucibles with metal (after crushing) and heats with sulphide and antimony flux to refine it; pours into ingot moulds,
arsenic burner, arsenic calciner, arsenic calcinerman ; arsenic roaster
shovels or tips crushed arsenical pyrites on hearth of reverberatory, revolving, or muffle furnace; feeds furnace fires to produce white arsenic as vapour which passes over and is condensed on cool sides of large brick-chamber,
arsenic furnaceman
general term for any worker employed at or about arsenic calciners or refining furnaces including arsenic burner, arsenic refiner q.v.
arsenic refiner
shovels powdered mixture of arsenic and charcoal into earthenware retorts in a furnace setting; attends to firing of furnace and thus drives over pure arsenic into receiver; at end of action, detaches sublimed arsenic from sides of receiver.
arsenic roaster
see arsenic burner,
arsenic smelter, arsenic smeltman
shovels crushed arsenical ores into fireclay retorts set in a furnace, and tends fires; detaches, by hand, with scraper, arsenic which has sublimed into fireclay receivers, ready for refining.
assistant furnace keeper, assistant keeper ; under keeper (furnace)
assists furnace keeper q.v. and takes his place when he is away; sometimes done by first hand slagger (278) q.v.
axle furnaceman
a bloom heater q.v. who sometimes also assists axle forger in heavy work.
bismuth maker, bismuth smelter
Shovels crushed bismuth ore into iron retorts set on an incline in a furnace, and tends to fires which heat retorts carefully watches pyrometer to control temperature; ladles bismuth, which runs down retorts and out at end into iron basins, into iron moulds to form ingots.
blast furnace tenter
see furnace keeper (blast furnace).
bloom heater
sets blooms, i.e. bars power-hammered from ingots of iron and steel, on hearth of furnace by means of overhead cranes and tongs; attends to furnace fires which heat blooms, and, when at correct temperature for next process, i.e. , rolling, forging, etc., removes them in same way; judges temperature of bloom by its appearance or colour; cf. furnaceman.
bronze crucible man, bronze furnaceman, bronze smelter
a furnaceman q.v. engaged in smelting copper and tin ores, combined in fixed proportions to make bronze.
burner
see roaster.
burner (tinplate)
a heater q.v. who heats and reheats sheets of iron and steel in rolling of tin plate, etc.
bustler
a furnaceman q.v. who bundles up (rakes together) in a furnace, iron turnings, punchings, etc., and draws out bundles at welding heat ready for blooming under steam hammer.
calciner, furnace calciner, ore calciner ; calciner attendant, calciner watcher
heats ores in a calcining furnace; stokes furnace fire, charges furnace with ore and in some cases coke, e.g. spelter, by tipping or shovelling; rakes over by hand or mechanically and discharges roasted or calcined ore by raking out into barrows; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. arsenic calciner, blende calciner, nickel calciner, spelter calciner, tin calciner; cf. roaster, ore furnaceman.
calciner, calciner man (copper extraction) ; loader
a furnaceman q.v. who feeds, stokes and attends furnaces which roast or calcine copper ore to eliminate portion of sulphur or roast granulated coarse metal (or matte) to oxidise sulphide of iron contained therein.
calciner (scruff) ; scruff man, scruff melter, scruff refiner
a tin furnace smelter q.v. who calcines skimmings from tinning pots (tinplate making) in a small reverberatory furnace.
calciner attendant, calciner watcher
see calciner.
charger
a heater q.v. who charges furnace with billets; guides billet into position whilst suspended by overhead crane and tends to furnace fire and air blast, which heats billet up to forging or rolling temperature; judges by colour of billet when to withdraw it from furnace by means of tongs and attaches it to crane by chains and grips to be taken to roller or steam hammer for next process.
charger (tubes)
with tongs places in oil or gas furnace small pieces of flat iron for heating in process of socket making by machinery; withdraws them when at proper heat and when required by machinist.
clock operator (electric furnace)
watches "clock" indicating temperature of electric furnace and maintains furnace at desired temperature.
coach spring furnaceman
an annealing furnaceman or heater q.v. who anneals and tempers leaves of coach spring.
cobalt furnaceman, cobalt matte calcinerman
(i) an ore furnaceman q.v. who heats a paste of cobalt oxide and carbon, pressed into cubes and placed by hand on hearth of muffle furnace; rakes out metal with long rake or rabble;
(ii) general term for men employed in roasting or calcining cobalt ores or oxide in a furnace,
crucible man (not brass foundry), crucible steel maker ; melter (first hand)
makes special "crucible" steel by shovelling weighed quantities of broken blister steel into special fireclay crucibles, and adds chemically determined weights of vanadium, tungsten, chromium, or other, metal; places crucibles, by means of tongs, into muffle or other furnace; when steel is made, removes crucible from furnace and sends it to teemer (278) q.v. for pouring into moulds.
cupel furnaceman
see refiner (lead),
cupola furnaceman (copper smelting) ; cupola man, cupola tenter, smelter, smelting furnaceman
is in charge of a blast furnace or cupola, and directs men employed in loading, feeding furnace, removing slag pots, etc.; supervises operations of charging furnace from top with copper ore, coke and flux (lime, etc.), and controls valves to regulate blast of air delivered under pressure at tuyeres near bottom of furnace; directs breaking of clay hole with iron bar and "taps" off copper at intervals; slag is removed as it runs out into pot through slag hole by potters; controls cocks to regulate flow of water in jacket round furnace.
cupola man, cupola tenter
see cupola furnaceman.
cupola tenter (Bessemer steel)
as for furnace keeper except that molten metal is run into ladle for pouring into Bessemer converter (or run direct into converter) in manufacture of Bessemer steel.
distiller (lead) ; alloy furnaceman
shovels triple alloy of lead, zinc and silver into stout graphite retort, heats it to about 1,000 C., when zinc distils over and is condensed in condenser attached to retort; when all zinc has distilled over, removes condenser and hood, ladles out residue of lead and silver alloy, and casts it into bars; taps molten zinc from condenser by breaking clay hole with iron bar.
distiller (zinc)
see smelter (zinc).
first hand at furnace
see leading furnaceman.
forehand (copper)
general term applied to men in charge of any process or apparatus in copper extraction works; usually used as prefix, e.g. , forehand furnaceman.
forge furnaceman
attends to and feeds furnace in forge department: places by means of tongs, etc., bar, rod or billet of metal in furnace, and withdraws it when sufficiently hot, using tongs, and takes it to forge; if heavy, moves metal by means of overhead crane, using tongs to guide it; generally assists forger (190) q.v.
forgeman's heater
a- forge furnaceman q.v. who heats plates for scythe forger (190) q.v. and assists him generally.
founder
S. Wales; see furnace keeper (blast furnace),
frame fireman ; plate fireman
a furnaceman q.v. who attends to furnaces used by frame turners (222), plate benders (190), etc., q.v. in shipyard.
fume roaster (lead smelting) ; sinterer, slagger (lead smelting)
a furnaceman q.v. who attends a slagging or sintering furnace in which he roasts flue dust or fume, collected in furnace flues, to free it from sulphur preparatory to treatment in blast furnace; charges furnace at top from a hopper and discharges into pot through tap hole by breaking clay with iron rod.
furnace first hand (zinc extraction)
a furnaceman q.v. who is in charge of series of fireclay retorts set in a furnace, into which retorts he shovels a mixture of zinc oxide and coal dust; is assisted generally by a furnace second hand; lutes, with soft clay, a receiver on to end of each retort; supervises firing of furnace usually using producer gas, regulates flow of gas by means of valve, also regulates flow of secondary air for burning with gas; when zinc has distilled into receivers, removes latter and heats zinc till it runs out into ladles and casts it into ingots or plates in iron moulds,
furnace keeper (blast furnace), blast furnace keeper ; blast furnace tenter, founder (S. Wales), keeper (blast furnace)
is in charge of a blast furnace and of men engaged on it; superintends charging, slagging and tapping of furnace, making of pig moulds and breaking up pigs for removal; taps furnace by driving with heavy hammer, steel rod into baked clay plug in pouring hole of furnace, thus breaking up plug, which is swept aside by stream of molden iron (or lead, as the case may be); superintends and may assist at replugging furnace pouring hole; gives instructions when large lump of clay is to be thrown into hole and assists gang of men in driving plug home with long metal rods,
furnaceman, blast furnaceman
general terms for any worker employed around a blast furnace; includes furnace keeper, cupola furnaceman (copper), smelter (copper) q.v.
furnaceman, drop stamp
attends furnace, coal or gas fired, in which he places small lengths of iron or steel bar or rod to be heated for drop forger. (190) q.v.; withdraws bars or rods, when sufficiently hot, by means of tongs, and passes them to drop forger.
furnaceman (open hearth steel)
general term covering melters, first hand, second hand, third hand, fourth hand q.v.
furnaceman, ore furnaceman
is in charge of furnace in which he roasts natural ores, usually crushed to powder, either alone or mixed with suitable substances; superintends heating of ores by tending fires below furnace or regulating valve admitting producer gas and secondary air to gas jets in furnace; charges ore on to hearth of furnace or into top of furnace, by hand shovelling, tipping from barrows, or by mechanical conveyor, and rakes it over by hand, or mechanically, to ensure equal heating of charge; withdraws charge when action has proceeded to correct stage by hand or machine raking, or by other mechanical means; may also regulate flow of air to furnace if charge is not to be oxidised during roasting, by opening or closing dampers; cf. calciner, roaster,
furnaceman (rolling mill or steel forge) ; mill heater (rolling mill), sheet mill furnaceman, sheet millheater
tends furnace and superintends firing of same, carefully controlling temperature to ensure that bars, billets, or rods of iron or steel, which he sets in it, are brought to correct temperature for rolling or forging; judges (frequently) correct temperature by appearance of iron or steel or by pyrometer readings; removes heated metal bars, etc., by means of tongs and travelling crane to steam hammer or rolling mill; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. guide rolling furnaceman, plate furnaceman, sleeper mill furnaceman, spindle furnaceman, wire rod mill furnaceman.
furnace watcher
keeps up requisite temperature by stoking and feeding furnace; removes slag from time to time, by hand, using a kind of rake through slag hole; usually works at night; cf. watcher (278).
gas furnaceman
general term given to any furnaceman q.v. engaged on a furnace in which producer gas is used as medium of heating, e.g. in manufacture of open hearth steel (see melter, first, second, third and fourth), in heating ingots, blooms, bars, and sheets for rolling or tube making, in roasting ores, etc.; regulates supply of gas to gas jets by means of valve, and opens or closes dampers admitting secondary air with which gas burns; is responsible for charging of furnace by hand, or by crane, using tongs for manipulating hot metal, or by mechanical means, and for discharging product from furnace hearth; includes gas reverser' man q.v.
gasman (blast furnace)
is responsible for part of blast furnace plant in which blast furnace gas is cleaned, and for maintaining intact series of pipes leading gas from furnace to cleaning plant (dust catchers) and thence to blower (air pump) for transmission to stoves (see stove man), to gas engines (where used) and to boiler house where gas is burned to raise steam; ensures, by inspection, that pipes carrying gas are gas-tight and that explosion doors-in top of blast furnace are in good order; cleans out, or supervises cleaning of, gas pipes and dust boxes which extract dust from gas before it is burned; sometimes also acts as stoveman q.v.
gasman, sparehand (blast furnace)
does odd jobs around blast furnace; performs duties of regular gasman q.v. when necessary through sickness or holiday.
gas reverser man (iron and steel works)
is engaged on furnace heated by means of producer gas, in which gas is passed through large heated brick regenerators, thence to furnace where it is burnt, and then through similar regenerating chambers which it heats; periodically reverses direction of flow of producer gas by means of valves so that it flows through one set of heated regenerators till heat is absorbed from them, then causes gas to flow through other set and out through first set after being burnt.
German's patent furnace man, worker
a furnaceman q.v. who smelts, melts, or roasts charges of material, e.g. copper ore, in a patent furnace, either gas, see gas furnaceman, or electrical.
head melter
(i) is in charge of furnace in which crucible steel is made; superintends work of men who place crucibles containing fixed weights of blister steel and steel scrap in crucible, and place crucible, covered with fireclay lid, into furnace; instructs men as to withdrawal of crucible and personally adds special quantities of various hardening agents, i.e. chromium, tungsten, etc., and sees to final heating of crucibles to ensure thorough mixing of contents; instructs assistants as to time for removal of crucibles to teeming or pouring shop, where teemer (278) q.v. pours steel into moulds;
(ii) see melter (first hand).
heater
attends to coke, gas or electric furnaces used for heating metals for forging, rolling, case-hardening and for hardening and tempering; watches pyrometer readings to maintain correct temperature; places metal bars, sheets, etc., in furnace with tongs, and if necessary with cham tackle; withdraws heated metal when ready; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. bar mill heater, (putter s heater, ingot heater, mill heater, plate heater, wheel disc .wheel heater, wire rod mill neater; in forges, may also hold forging under hammer for drop hammer man (190) q.v. or on anvil for smith (190) q.v.; cf. smith's assistant (279).
improving furnaceman, improver (desilverising) ; pan man (lead), softener, softening furnaceman
a reverboratory furnaceman q.v. who charges impure lead, i.e., pig lead or scrap, on to hearth of reverberatory furnace by tipping into chute or by hand shovelling; attends to furnace which melts lead and stirs it to promote oxidation of hard metal impurities which he raises out as dross; taps off purer lead at intervals,
ingot maker (zinc)
see refinery man (zinc).
keeper (blast furnace)
see furnace keeper (blast furnace),
kilnman (iron)
see mine burner,
kilnman (zinc)
a calciner man q.v. who roasts large lumps of calamine ore (zinc carbonate) in kiln for elimination of moisture and carbon dioxide.
lead furnace man (white lead works)
places, by hand, pig and scrap lead in cupola; feeds and tends furnace fire; runs it into ladles for casting into strips (gates or wickets) for blue beds, or ladles direct into gate or wicket moulds.
leading furnaceman ; first hand at furnace
is senior furnaceman, e.g. furnace keeper, melter (first hand), etc., q.v. , who is in charge of furnace operations of charging, firing, slagging, rabbling, tapping, etc., and of men engaged thereon; on week-end shift docs work of gas reverser man, i.e. second hand.
litharge furnaceman
see refiner (lead).
loader (copper)
see calciner (copper extraction).
Manhes patent furnaceman
a blast furnace keeper q.v. who tends a blast furnace fitted with Manhes patent tuyeres, usually in copper extraction works.
melter (first hand) (steel works) ; head melter
(i) (in "open-hearth" process), is in charge of Siemens-Martin or other open-dearth furnace; directs charging of materials; regulates temperature of furnace by reversing gas and air in regenerators at proper intervals, and by charging cold or molten material; cracks and makes visual examination of sample of steel or "button"; orders addition of ore, flux, spiegeleisen, or other materials, as required; superintends and assists in operations of tapping furnaces when instructed -by manager, foreman, or sample passer by breaking through clay plug and allowing steel and slag to run into ladle, and of making and repairing bottoms to furnaces, i.e. basic or acid linings;
(ii) (in crucible steel process), see crucible man.
melter (second hand)
generally assists melter (first hand) q.v.; is also in charge (under direction of first melter) of back, or casting, side of Siemens-Martin or other open-hearth furnace; where furnace is hand charged, may assist in charging blocks of pig iron, or steel scrap on to hearth of furnace or shovelling in limestone or other flux; directs work of workmen specially employed to assist melters in charging; dries tapping hole and spout; on tapping, drills out ganister or magnesite clay used to close tapping holes in case of stationary furnaces, or, if furnace is of tilting type, signals to first melter to tilt it; keeps molten steel running, using a long bar for the purpose; assists in repairing dolomite (basic) or acid hearths and linings of furnaces by scraping out small residual pools of liquid steel on hearth of furnace by means of long iron rabble, shovelling crushed dolomite or other repairing medium into hollows in furnace bed by means of a long-handled shovel, and rams it home till smooth and firm; turns on gas of furnace to harden bed before re-use.
melter (third hand)
does heavy manual work around Siemens-Martin or other open-hearth furnace in steel works, under direction of first and second melters q.v. , in repairing lining of furnace; helps in tapping of furnace; and shovels in ore, flux, spiegeleisen, pig iron, or other materials, as directed by first melter.
melter (fourth hand)
often employed at large basic steel furnaces; duties similar to those of melter (third hand) q.v.
melter (zinc)
see smelter (zinc),
melting furnaceman
(i) see open hearth furnaceman;
(ii) general term, including melters (second, third and fourth hand) q.v.
mill furnaceman (copper)
general term for men employed on or about blast furnace, or other type of furnace used in reducing copper from its ores, including furnace keeper (blast furnace, copper), furnaceman (ore furnace), reverberatory furnaceman q.v.
mine burner (iron) ; kilnman (iron), stone burner
burns ore, i.e. , roasts or calcines it with limestone in open heaps or in kilns before it is charged into blast furnace; sometimes done by head gantryman (278) q.v.; cf. calciner, roaster.
nickel calciner man, nickel furnaceman, nickel retort man
a furnaceman (ore furnace) q.v. who attends calcining furnace in which nickel ore, or "matte," i.e. , partially purified nickel ore, is roasted to expel impurities and to convert ores into oxides; may also attend to mechanical apparatus for raking over ore during calcination, or may rake it over by hand; reads pyrometer scale and controls temperature of calcination by opening or closing dampers,
nickel shed man (Mond process) ; nickel watcher, watcher
in charge of and attends to plant in which nickel, after calcination, is passed mechanically through reducers, volatilizers and decomposers; oils working parts and reports any faults to foreman in charge; sometimes specifically designated according to the floor upon which he works, e.g. nickel shed bottom man, nickel shed middle man, nickel shed top man.
open hearth furnaceman ; melting furnaceman
general term for furnacemen engaged on open hearth furnace making steel from pig iron and steel scrap and includes mainly melter (first hand, second hand, third hand and fourth hand) q.v.
pan man (lead)
see improving furnaceman.
Piltzman
a cupola furnaceman q.v. in charge of Piltz blast furnace or cupola.
plate fireman
see frame fireman,
potman ; sintering hand, tilterman
a furnaceman (ore furnace) q.v. in which load ore is roasted or calcined before being smelted; performs such duties as feeding fire, tipping in charge of ore, turning on and regulating blast, discharging furnace, etc.
pyrometer attendant (metal works)
watches pyrometer, a special high temperature thermometer, to ensure that furnace is kept at a definite temperature, or that in heating it does not exceed a certain temperature; is usually employed on special furnaces, i.e. gas or electric, in the production of tempered steels, but may be employed on any furnace where definite temperatures are required; notes temperatures and may open or close valve admitting gas to furnace, or inform furnaceman of temperature at intervals and act on his instructions,
reducer, reducing furnaceman
a reverberatory furnaceman q.v. who shovels dross and oxides, from furnace tended by potman q.v. , on to hearth of furnace and so regulates dampers that insufficient air is admitted to furnace causing furnace gases which pass over charge to reduce it to metallic lead; taps off lead at intervals into sand moulds forming pig lead.
refiner, refining furnaceman, copper refinery man (copper)
a reverberatory furnaceman q.v. who shovels "blister" copper (95 per cent, pure copper with a mixture of iron) on hearth of furnace; stirs copper when molten to assist oxidation of impurities; poles metal with log of green wood to reduce oxidised copper; takes sample or button for test by chemist; taps off purer copper at intervals into ladles or mould,
refiner, refining man (iron)
a furnaceman q.v. in charge of process of refining pig iron by re-heating it in furnace before puddling,
refiner, refining furnaceman (lead) ; cupel furnaceman, litharge furnaceman
a reverberatory furnaceman q.v. who shovels or tips impure lead, e.g. , pig lead, containing silver and/or gold on to movable hearth of special cupellation furnace; pushes hearth, which is on wheels, into position in furnace; when charge is melted, opens valve which causes blast of air to be directed to surface of lead thus oxidising it to lead oxide which, as it forms, is blown by blast to one side of hearth and away through special channel out of furnace; continues process until silver and /or gold only is left which cannot be oxidised in this way; hauls out hearth on its rails at intervals to ascertain when action is complete, and taps furnace to extract silver and/or gold at end of process,
refiner, spelter
see smelter (zinc),
refiner, tin
a reverberatory furnaceman q.v. who places blocks of impure tin on sloping hearth of furnace, and gradually raises temperature of furnace by adjustment of dampers so that purer tin melts first and runs down to lower level of hearth; ladles metal at intervals into cast iron kettle, allows it to settle and runs off less pure tin scum from surface of tin in ladle for further refining; pours purer tin into moulds,
refinery man (zinc) ; ingot maker (zinc)
melts zinc plates or ingots produced from distilling furnaces in cast iron pot; skims off oxides, thoroughly agitates molten metal with pole of green wood; reduces temperature by closing .dampers, when lead present collects at bottom of pot, then ladles off zinc and casts it in iron moulds of form and size of plates or ingots required,
re-heater
a furnaceman (rolling mill) q.v. who takes metal sheets, rods, bars, etc., that have become cool during rolling operation, and heats them up again to rolling temperature; seizes sheets, etc., with tongs, places them by hand, or by crane if too heavy, into furnace, watches them to observe colour change which indicates that they are again fit for rolling, and then withdraws them, using tongs and crane, handing them over to roller (178) q.v. again,
reverberatory furnaceman
is in charge of a reverberatory furnace in which fire is at one side of hearth of furnace and so constructed that flames and hot gases are conducted over top of metal and are bent down by a sloping roof on to surface of charge on hearth; superintends charging of furnace by hand shovelling or tipping into hoppers over hearth; rakes charge during heating, if necessary, and rakes it out when process of roasting is completed; regulates admission of air to fires by means of fire doors if charge is to be oxidised or reduced, by opening or partly closing them respectively,
revolver man, revolving furnaceman ; rotary furnaceman
a furnaceman (ore furnace) q.v. in charge of a furnace having revolving platforms at different levels on to which ore is automatically raked, used for calcining or roasting copper and other ores; oils and greases working parts of machinery; maintains flow of water in cooling chamber; watches njitfa.il of calcined ore on to conveyor at. bottom of furnace and reports to foreman if fault in process arises,
roaster, ore roaster ; burner
a furnaceman q.v. who attends to hand or mechanically charged furnace in which crushed ores are heated directly by a fire beneath the hearth or by hot gases which pass under and over it; may rake over ore by hand or controls levers of machines which do it mechanically; when ore is sufficiently roasted, it may be ejected from furnace mechanically or shovelled out by hand into barrows; also attends to furnace fires; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. , arsenic tin roaster, tin roaster; cf. calciner, mine burner, ore furnaceman.
roaster, roaster furnaceman, roaster man (copper ore)
a roaster (ore) (q.v.) who attends to furnace through which hot air is Jed to convert white metal (containing about 70 per cent, pure copper) into "blister" copper (95 per cent, pure copper and 5 per cent, iron, sulphur, arsenic etc.),
rod mill furnaceman
a furnaceman q.v. who combines duties of furnaceman (rolling mill) and annealing furnaceman q.v. in a rod rolling mill.
rotary furnaceman
see revolver man.
scale melter
collects scale, i.e. , partially oxidised iron which forms on iron and steel plates during rolling operation, and, being stiff, chips off as plates bend; shovels it into furnace with powdered coke, and taps off melted iron at intervals into ladle,
scrap furnaceman
shovels or tips steel scrap into crucible, or cupola of melting furnace; tends furnace and taps off melted steel into ladle,
scruff man, scruff melter, scruff refiner
see calciner (scruff),
scythe smith's heater
heats blades for scythe smith or scythe forger (190) q.v. and assists him generally,
sheet mill furnaceman, sheet mill heater
see furnaceman (rolling mill).
Siemens-Martin furnace man
general term for melter (first hand, second hand, third hand, or fourth hand) q.v. engaged in making open hearth steel by the Siemens-Martin process.
sinterer (lead smelting)
see fume roaster.
sintering hand
see potman,
slagger (lead smelting)
see fume roaster.
slagman
a furnaceman q.v. who heats copper slag (produced at first melting of bullion lead) until "matte" (result of molten lead mixing with sulphides of metals such as iron and copper) separates by gravity from "speiss," i.e., metallic compound containing nickel, cobalt, iron and arsenic, with traces of other metals; cf. slagman (279).
smelter, smelting furnaceman (copper)
see cupola furnaceman (copper smelting).
smelter (open hearth steel)
as for melter (first, second, third or fourth hand).
smelter (zinc) ; distiller (zinc), melter, spelter refiner
a furnaceman q.v. in charge of process of smelting and distilling zinc; controls workers carrying out process; is responsible for proper working of furnaces and for quality of spelter produced.
smelt mill man (lead)
attends to Scotch hearth or roasting furnace for lead ores; feeds fires, charges, discharges and regulates heat of furnace,
soaker fireman, soaking pitman
is in charge of large brick chambers (soaking pits) into which he causes to be lowered, by travelling crane, large steel ingots, moulded by teemer (278) q.v. , whilst still very hot; places lid on chamber and leaves ingot in it until temperature of metal is uniform throughout the mass, and then removes it ready for rolling by attaching it afresh to travelling crane; regulates, by a valve, flow of producer gas and, by series of dampers, flow of secondary air to burners around pits, thus keeping pit and ingot hot during soaking process,
softener, softening furnaceman (lead)
see improving furnaceman.
spare hand keeper
acts as furnace keeper q.v. in absence of regular furnace keeper; is usually a chief or senior slagger (278) q.v. and is so employed when not required to act as furnace keeper.
spelter furnaceman
(i) a reverberatory furnaceman q.v. who charges spelter, i.e. , partially purified zinc ore, on to sloping hearth of reverberatory furnace, and tends furnace so that lead in spelter melts first and runs into hollow; ladles out lead; raises temperature to melt "hard zinc," an alloy of zinc and iron, and finally melts nearly pure zinc which he ladles off from hollow in hearth; cf. refinery man (zinc);
(ii) a calcinerman q.v. who roasts zinc blende or calamine to prepare it for smelting,
spiegel cupola man
a cupola tenter (Bessemer steel) q.v. who is in charge of a cupola for melting spiegeleisen to be added to charge of pure iron in molten state in Bessemer converter,
steel furnaceman, steel melter
general terms covering melter, first hand, second hand, third hand, fourth hand q.v.
steel press furnaceman (forge)
as for furnaceman (rolling mill).
stone burner
see mine burner,
stove fireman, stove firer (blast furnace)
see stoveman.
stoveman (blast furnace), stove minder ; stove fireman, stove firer
attends to stoves in which blast furnace gases are burnt to heat brickwork inside stove until brickwork is sufficiently hot; moves lever diverting blast furnace gases from one stove into another and opens valve admitting air, blown in under pressure, to pass through stove; changes passage of blast furnace gas into different stoves, usually four to each furnace, and passage of air from blower (air pump), through stoves to furnace, at regular intervals, usually every hour; sometimes done by gas man q.v.
Talbot furnaceman
(first hand); is in charge of Talbot furnace, in which steel is made as a continuous process by the open hearth method; work similar to that of melter (first hand) q.v. except that tapping of steel is done at regular intervals by moving lever which tilts hearth thus pouring out steel into ladle;
(second hand) assists Talbot furnaceman (first hand) q.v.; work similar to that of melter (second hand) q.v.;
(third hand) assists Talbot furnaceman (first and second hands) q.v.; work similar to that of melter (third hand) q.v.
tilterman
see potman,
tin cupola smelter, tin furnace smelter ; tin smelter
a reverberatory furnaceman q.v. who tips or shovels an intimate mixture of roasted tin ore ("black tin") and powdered coal on hearth of furnace; keeps furnace doors nearly closed to avoid oxidation duo to excess of air in furnace gases; rakes over charge till tin is reduced and melted, ladles off tin and slag (dross) from furnace in a kind of ladle, allows it to settle and skims off dross, leaving tin ready. For pouring into moulds to make ingots.
tinhouse fireman
controls valve regulating supply of producer gas and opens "ports" admitting secondary air to combustion chamber set beneath tin pots in tinplate dipping machine; replenishes tin at intervals by adding blocks as required; also replenishes grease pot by adding palm oil; generally done by tinman (263) and/or his helper,
tin smelter
see tin cupola smelter,
underhand furnaceman
(i) assists furnaceman q.v. in any way as required;
(ii) general term covering melter (second, third or fourth hand) q.v. at open hearth furnace;
(iii) on small furnace may be engaged on purely unskilled labouring work under direction of furnaceman, furnace keeper, reverberatory furnaceman, etc., q.v. such as charge wheeling, sweeping, preparing moulds, removing ingots, breaking pig iron, etc., etc.
underhand heater
assists heater q. v. in a mill (not puddling forge); feeds furnaces, etc., and sometimes also does work of dogger (279) q.v.
under keeper (furnace)
see assistant furnace keeper.
vertical furnace heater
a furnaceman (rolling mill) q.v. who heats large steel plates or sheets by lowering them into large vertical furnace by means of crane.
watcher, nickel watcher
see nickel shed man.
wet process furnaceman (copper)
(i) a furnaceman (ore furnace) q.v who attends to furnace, usually heated by producer gas, in which he calcines copper ore before it is treated by wet process;
(ii) attends furnace, on to hearth of which he shovels or tips precipitated copper, i.e., copper after its treatment by wet process, in order to melt it; stirs molten copper to assist oxidation of impurities to form a slag and taps off purer copper into ladle.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.