A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Makers of Bricks, Pottery and Earthenware

119.—Other Workers

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bag room boy
sorts bags and does any odd job in works.
bailer, thrower's bailer
a thrower's attendant (q.v.) who weighs out a lump of clay, and shapes it with his hands into a ball for use of thrower (105) (q.v.); takes ware made by thrower to drying stove on a board.
bank oddman
fetches and carries materials or ware and does other miscellaneous labouring work in a pottery (or pot bank).
barrow loader
loads barrows with clay for transport from pit to mixer, or from mixer to maker; or loads barrows at press, as bricks emerge; or loads barrows with bricks for conveyance from dryers to kiln; commonly also wheels bricks away, cf. wheeler.
batter, batter-out
bats or tempers a suitably sized lump of pugged clay ready for jiggerer, jollier or presser (105) (q.v.), by beating it with cheese-shaped Plaster of Paris bat, turning it over and over during the process; may bat out by placing lump of clay in batting machine; cf. batter (bricks) (102).
shovels chalk and clay in given quantities into a mill where they are ground to a batter or mal; regulates flow of water to mill to ensure that batter acquires correct consistency for slip.
bearer, clay
see carrier, clay.
biscuit emptier, china biscuit emptier
removes china biscuit ware from baskets in which it has been carried from oven to china scouring shop.
boiler, clay
see fireman, slip kiln.
brickcroft labourer, brickel labourer
see brickyard labourer.
brickel lad
see brickyard boy.
brick factory girl ; day girl
does various minor unskilled jobs in brickyard, such as "taking off" from press, etc.
brick kiln labourer
carries out general labouring duties in connection with a brick kiln; trims coal round kiln, wheels coal to kiln mouth, etc.
brick kiln lad
a boy who carries out minor labouring duties in connection with a brick kiln.
brick maker's assistant
see moulder, clot.
brick sorter
sorts bricks into grades i.e. first, second and third, according to quality after they have been fired in brick kiln; may also sort tiles.
brickyard boy ; brickel lad
boy employed in minor labouring work in brickyard.
brickyard labourer ; brickcroft labourer, brickel labourer
does any unskilled work in brickyard, such as wheeling, loading, and unloading, etc.
carrier ; carrier-up
carries ware to warehouses or to packers, or carries clay to potters, etc.; sometimes further designated according to ware handled, e.g., sanitary pipe carrier.
carrier, brick
carrier-off, flat carrier, kiln carrier, lifter-off, off-bearer; takes off from brick-making machine and carries away bricks, often also placing them on drying flats or floor near at hand; or loads them on harrow and wheels them away to drying sheds or tunnels, or thence to kilns.
carrier, clay ; clay bearer
carries clay from filter press to pug mill machine, or from pug mill to thrower, jollier, turner, or presser (105) (q.v.).
carrier, dust ; dust drawer, dust mill wheeler
carries powdered clay, i.e. clay "dust," to shops where tiles or other articles are made by compression of powdered clay.
carrier, flat
see carrier, brick.
carrier, kiln
(i) see carrier, brick;
(ii) carries ware to hardening-on or enamel kilns, to be set in; helps kilnman in setting in.
see carrier, brick.
carrier-off, dipper's (brick) ; dipper's taker-off
carries away bricks, etc., from dipper (107) (q.v.) to drying flat, rack, or barrow; cf. dipper s assistant (pottery).
see carrier.
carrier-up, biscuit
carries ware, drawn from biscuit oven (in which first firing takes place), to biscuit warehouse.
clamp man
builds, fires and generally attends to "clamps," i.e., a rough kind of kiln built of the bricks themselves, and of layers of coal, and covered .'with clay to retain heat; when bricks are fired, breaks away covering and removes bricks.
clay treader
mixes clay and spreads it on floor; moistens it and treads it with bare feet to render it homogeneous for making into crucibles; often done by crucible maker (103) (q.v.).
removes, by hand, sieves and magnets from washing machine (which takes out impurities from clay slip); washes them with hose and sponge and replaces in machine; sometimes done by slip maker (104)
arranges flat ware on "cranks" (fireclay stands) for glost firing.
a brick carrier (q.v.) who loads band made bricks on "crowding barrow" for conveyance to dryer or kiln.
cutter, paper cutter
assists printer (108) (q.v.) by cutting up into suitable pieces sheets of paper containing printed or lithographed designs, for use of transferer (108) (q.v.).
day girl
see brick factory girl.
dipper's assistant, dipper's boy (pottery)
(i) helps dipper (107) (q.v.) by taking off articles as they are dipped;
(ii) see putter up; cf. , taker-off.
drawer, dust
see carrier, dust.
dust man, dust mill hand
general terms for workers employed at or in connection with "dust" mill, including dust carrier, clay grinder (104) (q.v.).
feeder, day
feeds with a shovel, pan of grinder, mixer, pugmill, or other brick making machine, with clay, or regulates automatic feed by means of lever; cf. mill top man, pugger (pottery) (104).
feeder, pan
feeds pan of grinding-mill, in brickworks.
feeder, pot mill
feeds pugging mill with clay to be used by glass pot maker (103) (q.v.); cf. pugger (104).
finisher, clay tobacco pipe
scrapes marks of mould connections off pipes with knife; rejects all pipes when stem is not free from obstruction.
fireman, slip kiln, slip house stove fixer ; clay boiler
stokes, cleans and attends to firing of furnaces for use in drying excess of water in slip.
firer, stove
stokes, cleans arid attends to firing of stoves in "green house" in which pottery is dried before baking.
removes dipped ware from "mangle" (series of stationary or travelling shelves) on which it has been placed to allow glaze to dry before firing, and puts ware on glost placer's bench or on board to be carried to glost placer (109) (q.v.); cf. taker-off.
glost oven labourer
wheels coal, and does other unskilled work at or 'in connection with glost ovens.
grog mill worker
attends to mill which grinds "grog" (lumps of hard-burnt clay "bats" or broken brick) to a powder, for admixture with clay in making certain kinds of brick, or saggers.
homixer ; omicer
in Sussex , mixes clay for use of potter (105) (q.v.).
see pusher-off.
lather, lathe treader
assists china turner (105) (q.v.) by working treadle of lathe and handing ware.
a brick carrier or a wheeler (q.v.) who lays down bricks, etc., in drying sheds and tunnels.
see carrier, brick.
loads articles of earthenware, fireclay, etc., in wagons or railway trucks.
machine man, machine minder
general terms for worker who operates one or more machines in brickworks, e.g., grinding mills, mixers, pug mills, etc.; includes grog mill man, mixer, pug miller.
malaxerman (plate glass works)
a pug miller (q.v.) who mixes fireclay, of which pots (to melt glass in) and tweels (clay coverings for mouths of furnaces) are made.
mill top man
(i) superintends the work of feeding clay grinding plant with clay which is tipped from wagons into hopper; watches automatic feed from hopper into grinding pan and elevators which carry ground clay to top screen at top of mill; sees that screens or sieves work properly and oils machinery;
(ii) feeds clay to pan with shovel, where feed is not automatic.
a pug miller (q.v.) who attends to mixing machine, which mixes clay, lime, or ganister, etc.
assists mixer (q.v.) generally.
moulder, clot; slop moulder ; brick maker's assistant
prepares table and moulds for brick maker (102) (q.v.); works and forms lumps of clay ("clot") for his use, and assists brick maker generally.
mould runner
(i) a pager (q.v.) who carries moulds to maker (102) (q.v.);
(ii) takes moulds containing ware shaped hut not fired, from jollier or presser (105) (q.v.) to drying stoves, or stillages, on a board by hand.
nipper ; tile maker's assistant
nips or turns up two small projecting portions of clay by pressing with his thumbs to form "lugs" or ears on edge of roofing tile (to facilitate its being fastened in position); carries to drying chamber and lays on floor or shelves.
general term for any unskilled labourer employed in brick or pottery works; cf. oddman (110).
see carrier, brick.
see homixer.
oven labourer
wheels coal, or does other unskilled work about biscuit or glost ovens.
page, pager
holds tools, and hands them to maker (102) (q.v.) as required; makes lumps or "clots" of clay, washes moulds, and helps maker generally.
picker, clay
examines semi-plastic clay, and picks out from it stones, earth, or any other impurities.
stacks bricks or other articles in drying sheds, in kilns, or in warehouse.
pitcher, bullet
carries lumps of clay in a brickfield.
pony driver
drives horse or pony used for machines driven by horse-power.
pot bank labourer, pot bank worker (North Staffs )
general terms for any labourer or worker in a pottery factory (called a "pot bank" in North Staffs).
potter's assistant, potter's attendant
general terms for any worker who assists potter (105) (q.v.), including mould runner, fettler (105), tower (105), hat maker (118), lathe treader, etc. (q.v.).
potter's helper (zinc)
assists zinc pot maker (103) (q.v.) by bringing and preparing clay, according to size of pot being made, and taking away finished article.
pug boy
assists pug miller (q.v.) generally.
pug miller, pugger, pugman, pug mill attendant (brick work)
attends to feeding and working of pug mill (clay tempering machine) in brick works; shovels or throws lumps of clay into pan; adjusts water spray to add sufficient water to give required consistency; cf. pug miller (pottery) (104).
receives clay wagons as they are hauled from pit by means of a power-driven endless chain and pushes to mill top; in some oases, where power is not used, winds up chain by hand, using a windlass.
pusher-off, pusher-out ; hooker-on
starts loaded clay wagons from pits on power-driven endless chain, which causes empty wagons to descend by gravitation, on light railway track; often done by puller-up (q.v.).
putter-up, dipper's putter-up ; dipper's assistant, dipper's boy (pottery)
hands up ware, e.g. , bricks or biscuit ware, to dipper (107) (q.v.) and assists dipper generally.
retort dresser (brickyard)
carries clay and scrapes inside of brick kiln or retort with a knife.
(i) attends to mechanical riddle attached to clay-breaking machine;
(ii) riddles clay, after grinding, with screens, sieves, or riddlers; returns coarse particles to mill; cf. mill top man.
carries ridge-tiles from ridge-tile maker (102) (q.v.) to drying sheds or tunnels.
raises tempered mass for silica bricks from floor to bench on which moulder works; sometimes done by clay weatherer (q.v.).
roller, clay
attends to clay rolling machine, i.e. , edge runners or cylindrical rolls for crushing, breaking down, and tempering plastic clay; usually also does work of clay scraper (q.v.), cf. pug miller, clay grinder (104) .
roller, clay tobacco pipe
makes rolls of pipeclay for clay tobacco pipe moulder (118) (q.v.).
runner, clay runner ; serving boy
general term for worker who carries wedge of clay from slip house to potter's bench, feeds potter (105) (q.v.) with moulds, and removes mould, etc., when processes are complete.
sand paperer, clay tobacco pipe; clay tobacco pipe scourer
smooths surface of pipes with sand-paper after burning.
scraper, clay
removes clay from edge-runner mill or mixer with a specially formed long-handled shovel unless machine is entirely automatically fed, and provided with a bottom discharger; usually done by clay roller (q.v.).
serving boy
see runner.
(i) sifts powdered flint in a hand sieve, or by shovelling against a screen, after it has been used for bedding or Hinting, to remove any large particles of mixed flint and clay that may have been formed;
(ii) sifts "dust" (powdered clay) which has been ground in disintegrator, by shovelling into sifting machine; if necessary, damps ready for tile presser (105) (q.v.).
opens out "hacks," or stacks of half-dried bricks in drying-shed, into such formation as will allow free passage of air; usually done by stacker (q.v.).
stacks bricks in drying shed as they come from maker (102) (q.v.) in such a manner as to allow free passage of air.
stacker, clay
stacks clay in readiness for use of moulders and pressers (105) (q.v.).
stoker (brickyard)
cleans, fires, and generally attends to boilers and furnaces of dryers.
taker-off (bricks)
takes off bricks from pressing machine or from brick wire-cutting machine and places on trolley for removal to drying chamber or kiln.
taker-off, dipper's (bricks)
see carrier-off, dipper's.
taker-off (pottery)
takes dipped ware from dipper (107) (q.v.) and carries it to drying stillages; cf. gatherer.
thrower's attendant
removes article from thrower's table when it is made, and takes it to turner (105) (q.v.) to be turned on lathe, or to drying stove to be dried; sometimes also acts as bailer (q.v.).
thrower's bencher (stoneware)
a thrower's attendant (q.v.) who also does work of bailer (q.v.).
tile lifter
carries tiles from maker (102) to placer (109) (q.v.).
tile maker's assistant
see nipper.
turner's attendant
brings ware to turner (105) (q.v.) to be turned, and then removes it to drying stoves.
unloads raw material, fuel, etc., from trucks in siding.
varnisher, clay tobacco pipe
applies generally with a brush, a varnish which dries hard without firing; cf. clay tobacco pipe dipper (107).
wad squeezer
throws old bricks and clay into a small pug-mill, which ejects long sausage-like wads of clay or grog marl, used for sealing up interstices between saggers when in oven, thus preventing entry of oven gases, etc., into saggers.
wagon filler, wagon loader
loads finished articles on wagons for removal.
washer, clay tobacco pipe
washes finished pipes prior to packing.
waterer, clay
tempers clay by sprinkling it with water, and either kneading it by hand, or treading it with bare feet; also covers clay with wet cloths for the night; may also tread clay, see clay treader.
weatherer, clay
disintegrates clay by spreading it out in layers to expose it to weather; examines and turns it from time to time as needed.
wheels raw materials, in barrows, to makers, or wheels finished goods away to dryer or to kiln, or rom kiln to stacks or wagons; sometimes specifically designated., e.g. wheeler-away, wheeler-off, wheeler-to-kiln, clay wheeler, crest wheeler, grog wheeler.
wheeler, dust mill
see carrier, dust.
wheel turner
turns a handle which makes thrower's wheel revolve; obsolescent.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.