A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 2.—Makers of Other Products

099.—Other Workers

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abrasive wheel maker's helper
carries material for abrasive wheel fireman (092) q.v., helps in firing furnace and removes fired wheels in a barrow.
asbestos fuel maker
pours asbestos cement, in a liquid state, from a can or other receptacle into iron moulds; applies special composition to these moulds, to prevent cement sticking.
ash and muck man (patent fuel) ; muckman
removes ash from furnace, and keeps furnace stoked and clean.
asphalt block maker
attends a large boiler in which ground rock asphalt is "cooked"; empties sacks of asphalt into top, or mouth, of boiler, together with a certain proportion or lump bitumen; sometimes also stirs mixture (where boiler is not fitted with mechanical stirrers); feeds furnace which heats boiler with coke or other fuel; runs off asphalt (now liquid) through a cock from boiler into buckets or draws it off in ladles; empties buckets or ladles into moulds in which asphalt is left to cool and harden.
asphalt maker, asphalt mixer ; mastic maker
(i) cooks asphalt in a boiler (see asphalt block maker); sometimes turns over ingredients with a shovel, before cooking, to mix them thoroughly; sometimes also adds lime and gravel, as well as bitumen, to asphalt, which may or may not be run into moulds for making blocks;
(ii) (North of England ) sprays tar, usually from a hand-manipulated pumping engine, on to granite chips, which are then turned over and over with shovels until thoroughly saturated.
bagger (concrete)
fills bags or sacks with crushed or ground clinker, granite, or other stone, mixed with sand, for use in making concrete.
bagman (cement)
see filler, cement.
bath brick maker
makes a yellow brick of siliceous material by mixing sand and clay; puts it into a moulding machine, and subjects it to great pressure.
beater (cement), bag beater, sack beater
cleans sacks by beating them with a stick, to dislodge particles of cement adhering thereto.
belt conveyor attendant
a conveyor man q.v. in charge of a conveyor of the endless-belt type.
belt coverer, belt repairer
warms pot of glue, spreads glue on leather belt and applies emery powder to make or repair polishing belt for cleaning iron castings: renews emery on belt when worn off by use.
belt man (patent fuel)
takes briquettes off travelling belt connected to press, and piles them on trollies ready for despatch.
binman (patent fuel) ; bunkerman
loads bins in which pitch, coal, or coke is stored, from trucks, by hand, using a shovel; sees that bins are kept filled for use in manufacture of briquettes.
black lead labourer ; black lead mill hand, lead mill man
brings raw material to mill (if not equipped with automatic feed apparatus), and removes material therefrom after grinding; handles casks of plumbago (graphite, black lead); charges grinding and mixing plant, and does any other labouring work in black lead mill.
black lead maker ; stove polish maker
a black lead labourer q.v. who minds automatic mixing pan, which mixes together ingredients of black lead.
bosh cinder getter
rakes cinders from bottom of water bosh.
breaker ; cracker, cracker works labourer
shovels or throws material into breaking or crushing machine, where machine is not fed by conveyor belt or buckets; breaks material by hand with a cracker hammer, if it is too large to enter machine; watches machine as it breaks up material, automatically sorts it by size and throws it out, for faulty working; cleans and oils working parts; controls machine by means of levers; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. , cinder breaker, ganister breaker, gypsum breaker, silica breaker, slag breaker, stone breaker.
brick mill boy
assists pugger-up (cement) q.v.; takes bricks, automatically cut from a plastic bar as it issues from pug mill, to be dried.
briquette maker
general term for any person employed in manufacture of patent fuel briquettes, including bin man, mixer q.v.
bucket man
see elevator attendant; sometimes further designated, e.g. pitch bucket man.
bunkerman (patent fuel)
see binman.
calcimeter boy (cement) ; chemist's boy, sample boy, test boy (cement)
takes samples of calcined products ("clinker") from kiln to analyst or to cement tester (098) q.v. for examination.
carrier ; trotter
fetches and carries bags or sacks; wheels cement, salt, or other minerals or materials from place to place in a hand or mechanically-driven truck; or does other similar carrying jobs; sometimes further designated, e.g. bag carrier, sack carrier.
cementer (cement works), cement worker
general terms for any person employed in cement works; includes kiln loader (092), conveyor man, clinker drawer, cement filler, grinder, mill hand, pug mill man, saturator, slurry man, spout man, trimmer, washmill attendant, weighman q.v.
chemist's boy (cement)
see calcimeter boy.
clay fuel maker
a briquette maker q.v. who makes briquettes by mixing coal dust and clay, and stamping mixture into blocks.
clay tank attendant
is in charge of a slurry tank, in which clay is mixed with water to form a paste or slurry; directs labourers shovelling in clay, controls flow of water by means of cocks and mechanical agitators by means of levers; runs off slurry and directs labourers in digging out gravel, etc., from bottom of tank.
cleaner, washmill (cement)
cleans and keeps in order, washmill in which "slurry" is made, see washmill attendant.
coal chucker (slang)
see coal man.
coal man (patent fuel) ; coal chucker (slang)
general term for any worker engaged in handling coal for manufacture of patent fuel, including binman, coal tipper, nut coal man, screenman, trimmer q.v.
coke boy (cement)
loads coke into baskets, which are pulled up to kilns.
concrete block worker
general term for any worker engaged in manufacture of concrete blocks; includes concrete block maker (098), fibre cement wall maker (098), concrete mixer q.v.
concrete tube worker
general term for any worker engaged in manufacture of concrete tubes; includes concrete pipe maker (098), concrete mixer q.v. .h conveyor man (cement); is in charge of conveyors (generally screw conveyors) which transport cement in grinding mills, warehouses, etc.; clears them when choked, and maintains them in running order.
conveyor, screw
see screw attendant.
cracker, cracker works labourer
see breaker ; sometimes further designated, e.g. , ganister cracker, gypsum cracker, silica cracker.
crusher, crusherman, crusher feeder
minds a crushing machine, which may either be for pulverising material, or (more commonly) for breaking up large masses, in preparation for grinding, or for calcination, etc.; throws or shovels material into machine, unless it is fitted with automatic feed apparatus; other operations similar to those of grinder q.v.; sometimes further designated according to material crushed, e.g. clinker crusher, emery crusher, slag works crusher.
digger, pitch
see pitch man.
(i) unloads barges, trucks, etc., with shovel and barrow:
(ii) feeds conveyor with material for removal;
(iii) removes goods from conveyor, and piles them on trollies, etc., for removal; often further designated, e.g. fuel discharger, pitch discharger.
dodger (salt)
removes "sand scale" from salt pan with dodging hammer; also rakes salt off fireplates to side or pan during precipitation.
drammer, lime
pushes trucks ("trams" or "drams") of lime along a light railway track either to crusher or kiln.
drawer, clinker ; kiln drawer, kiln thrower-out (cement), thrower-out
rakes out "clinker," i.e. cement in large unbroken masses, after calcination, from furnace; shovels it into trucks, or rakes it on to conveyor or travelling belt, for removal to grinding machine.
drawer, coke (cement)
pushes trucks or barrows, loaded with coke from coke stack to kiln; pushes empty trucks back again; often done by kiln attendant q.v.
drawer, kiln (cement)
see drawer, clinker.
drawer, lime; stone drawer
rakes out lime, after it has been burnt, from opening at bottom of kiln; usually also loads trucks or barrows therewith; sometimes' further designated, e.g. , blue lias lime drawer, hydraulic lime drawer; work sometimes done by lime burner (092) q.v.
dryer, salt; dryer man (salt)
adjusts supply of steam, hot air, etc., to drying machine; also regulates supply of salt to sieves (in vacuum process) by adjusting speed of automatic discharge.
dryer, slurry (cement)
works valves to regulate escape of waste gases from cement kiln, used to heat floor on which "slurry" (mixture of chalk or limestone and clay with water) is dried as it comes from mixer.
elevator attendant ; bucket man
attends to elevator, i.e. , a series of small buckets, mechanically-drawn on an endless chain, for lifting material; controls power by means of levers; cleans and oils working parts; sweeps up spilt material.
emery grader and washer
see washer, emery.
shovels or throws material into hopper of machine, or on to belt or other conveyor or elevator, for conveyance to machine; or controls automatic feed apparatus of machine; often also controls, by means of levers, starting, stopping, and speed of running of machine; sometimes further designated, e.g. , mill feeder, basic slag mill feeder.
feeder, ball mill
feeds and operates ball mill (rotating cylinder partly filled with stones or with steel balls) in which shales, clays, limestone, etc., are crushed.
filler, cement ; bagman (cement), cement packer
as for filler, lime.
filler, coal (cement)
loads coal, from wagons or from dump, into trams or tubs, to be taken to kilns by coal wheeler q.v.
filler, coke (cement)
charges cement kiln with coke.
filler, lime ; lime packer, stone filler
(i) shovels lime, in lump or non-powdered state, into sack; ties mouth of sack with string, and carries it to store;
(ii) hooks sack on to chute, through which powdered lime from grinding machine automatically runs into sack; sack is then automatically weighed, and mouth automatically sewn up with wire; lifts off sack and carries it away.
filler, salt
see loader, salt.
filler, slag ; slag getter
knocks down slag from dump or tip; fills wagon or tub therewith, and runs it to crusher.
filler, stone
see filler, lime.
filler, whiting ; whiting packer
fills boxes or other packages with powdered whiting, either by hand with a small trowel or by placing the packages, etc., under a mechanical feeder and operating hand lever which allows a quantity of whiting to run into each; seals boxes or packages for despatch.
filter press man (whiting)
pumps liquid containing pure chalk in suspension (see washer, whiting) into a filter-press, which squeezes out water, leaving filter bags filled with whiting.
finer, black lead
refines graphite (plumbago, black lead) by washing it with hydrochloric acid; stirs up charge of graphite with acid, and runs off liquor containing impurities, leaving sediment of pure graphite.
fire block maker (patent fuel)
see pressman (patent fuel).
flue attendant (cement)
regulates dampers, in flues, conveying kiln and furnace gases round kilns, through drying chambers, etc.; sweeps or rakes out dust from time to time through flue doors.
ganister maker ; ganister pug grinder
a ganister grinder q.v. who mixes ground ganister with water in an edge runner mill (adding fireclay or lime, if necessary) to make "ganister pug," a plastic material for use in building furnaces or retorts.
gas fuel maker
pours by hand, from a can, a slurry of asbestos composition into iron mould; clamps the top of the mould into position by hand and places in a hot air drying chamber until the composition hardens; removes hardened composition from mould by hand.
general man
see labourer.
getter, slag
see filler, slag.
grab labourer
attends on grab of crane, guiding it into position; signals to engineman when load is ready to move.
greases bearings of machinery, working parts of rotary kilns, shafting, wagon wheels, etc.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. , kiln greaser, wagon greaser.
grinder, grinder attendant ; grinding machine attendant, grinding mill attendant, grinding miller, mill attendant, miller, mill man, milner, mill worker, pulveriser (patent fuel)
shovels or throws material into hopper of grinding machine, or controls, by means of levers, automatic feed apparatus, if machine is fitted therewith; sometimes breaks, with a hand cracker-hammer, before grinding, lumps that are too large to go into grinding machine; regulates, by moans of levers, starting, stopping, and speed of running, of machine; oils bearings of machine; decides when process of grinding is complete, unless, as is now usual, machine is fitted with screens which automatically sift material after grinding; fixes into position, by hand, screens used for sifting material; directs work of any labourers assisting; often further designated according to material ground, e.g. , black lead grinder, coal grinder, china clay grinder, emery grinder; cf. breaker.
grinder, cement; clinker grinder (cement) ; cement miller
a grinder q.v. who operates a grinding mill in which "clinker" (cement in large masses, after calcination) is reduced to powder; sometimes also opens steam throttle, admitting steam into mill together with about 1 per cent, of gypsum, to improve setting qualities of cement.
grinder, ganister ; ganister roller
a grinder q.v. who turns over materials, e.g. , broken ganister, lime, etc., to mix them; shovels materials after mixing into grinding machine, (if not provided with automatic feed apparatus); adds water to mixture in machine.
grinder, ganister pug
see ganister maker.
grinder, gypsum ; gypsum miller, gypsum millman
(i) shovels unburnt gypsum, previously broken by gypsum breaker q.v. into feed-hopper of a machine, in which it is finely ground (unless machine is equipped with automatic conveyor and elevator);
(ii) operates a mill provided with stones, or with edge runners or rollers, which reduces gypsum, after calcination, to fine powder.
grinder (patent fuel) ; pitch-mill man
(i) a grinder q.v. who breaks up largest pieces of dumped pitch with a hammer and shovels the whole, by hand, into mill;
(ii) a grinder q.v. who tips trammed pitch into mill.
grinder (salt) ; salt mill man)
is responsible for feeding and discharge of crushing machine (mill) in which salt is ground and sifted, after which it is automatically passed into a hopper and run into bags; controls mill by means of levers, and directs operations of labourers who wheel salt to elevators, which carry it to top of mill, and of those who remove it when bagged..
grinder, silica cement
see silica cement maker.
grinder, soapstone
a grinder q.v. who grinds offal soapstone (talc) to powder, between burr stones, for use in manufacture of French chalk.
grinding machine attendant, grinding mill attendant, grinding miller
see grinder.
gypsum boiler
spreads finely powdered raw gypsum, with a shovel and rake, in a layer two or three inches deep, upon metal plate or shallow dish placed over a fire; heats it gradually, and stirs it occasionally until boiling ceases; cf. gypsum kiln man (092).
handy man
see labourer.
hearthstone maker
(i) squares rough lumps of natural hearth stone, by hand, with a small axe or chopper, into small blocks of convenient size;
(ii) stands before bench fitted with two sunk boxes, or moulds, and with a hand press, fills boxes with a mixture of crushed hearth stone and a little cement, which is supplied to him ready mixed; screws down press, and after a few moments unscrews it; pushes moulded hearth stone up, by pressing on a foot lever; removes it by hand, and puts it on a tray; takes tray, when full, to drying room, where it is left to harden.
heaterman (patent fuel)
is responsible for heating of powdered and mixed coal and pitch in a heated chamber (whereby coal dust is coated with pitch, and thus conglomerates more readily when pressed); tests consistency of mixture by pressing it in his hands from time to time; controls heating by opening or closing valve through which superheated steam is admitted to chamber.
helper (salt!
assists salt fireman (098) q.v. , usually on fine salt pan, during night shift.
hopper man (cement)
attends to hoppers which keep kilns or mills supplied with material (chalk, limestone, clay, etc.); opens and closes throat of hopper by operating slide with a lever.
kiln attendant (cement)
charges lime kiln with alternate layers of chalk, limestone and coal by hand, using a shovel, in preparation for burning; may also do work of coke drawer q.v.; cf. kiln burner (092).
kiln packer (abrasive wheels, emery wheels)
packs kiln with moulded wheels (vitrified wheels), ready for firing.
knocker-out, patent slab
taps slabs of artificial stone smartly when they are firmly set in mould, to loosen them, lifts them from mould and stacks to dry in open air.
labourer ; general man, handy man
does any unskilled manual work, such as shovelling, carrying, loading or unloading, pushing trucks, etc.; often specifically designated according to department in which labour is done, e.g. basic slag labourer, cement labourer, coal washery labourer, kiln labourer, plaster mill labourer, sack store labourer, yard labourer.
ladder man (patent fuel)
a pugman q.v. who operates coal or pitch elevators by hand, by means of levers, allowing pugs to be fed with either pitch or coal dust.
lead layer (pencils)
lays strips of prepared graphite (black lead) from press on boards; cuts them into lengths, and places them in drying room.
loads material from dump into railway wagons; wheels sacks or casks from warehouse, and loads them into lorry, or takes them to quay for loading barges; sometimes further designated, e.g., cement loader, lump loader, rough slag loader, whiting loader.
loader, salt ; salt filler
shovels salt into a cart, whence it is tipped or shovelled into a barge or wagon.
loader, wagon (tar macadam)
see mixer (tar macadam).
machine hand (lead pencil)
shovels lead, i.e., a compound of graphite, which has been ground by mill attendant, into hopper of automatic machine which presses lead into shape for pencils.
marker, cask
marks casks with stencil showing brand, weight, etc.
mastic maker
see asphalt maker.
mike, slurry mike (slang)
see slurry man (cement).
mill attendant, mill hand (lead pencil)
(i) shovels lead, i.e., a compound of graphite into hopper of grinding machine; removes full bins of ground lead;
(ii) see grinder.
miller,see grinder
often further designated according to material milled, e.g., basic slag miller, cement miller, coal miller, gypsum miller, lime miller, blue lias lime miller, hydraulic lime miller, stone lime miller, whiting powder miller.
miller, dry
a grinder q.v. who grinds material in dry state as distinguished from wet miller, or wash mill attendant q.v.
miller (wash mill), wet miller
see washmill attendant.
miller's mate
assists miller or grinder q.v. with less skilled work of shovelling, trimming, etc.
mill hand, black lead
see black lead labourer.
mill hand (cement)
general term for any person employed, in any capacity, at a mill in which coal or other material for use in cement manufacture, or clinker, i.e. cement after calcining, in large unbroken masses, is ground.
mill hand (paste lead)
by means of a small hand shovel or trowel, feeds top roll of power-driven roller mill with paste lead, i.e., graphite clay and water, from wooden tub in which it has been mixed by lead mixer q.v.
mill man
see grinder ; sometimes further designated, e.g., fuller's earth millman, gypsum millman, salt millman.
mill man, lead
see black load labourer.
mill man, whiting
breaks up, with shovel, largest pieces of chalk, and picks out therefrom, by band, flints or other foreign substances; shovels chalk into wash mill, where it is ground with water to form a thin cream or slurry, which empties itself from machine into pits; switches power of machine on or off, as inquired.
mill worker
see grinder ; sometimes further designated, e.g., barytes mill worker.
see grinder ; sometimes further designated, e.g., lime milner.
mixer, cement; mixer attendant (cement) ; slip mixer, slurry mixer (cement), temperer
(i) feeds and operates a trough mixer, in which powdered limestone is mixed with powdered clay, etc.;
(ii) controls flow of "slurry" (mixed ingredients in semi-fluid, paste form) into tanks, called mixers, to which he adds chalk or clay (also in form of "slurry"), as directed by analyst, to obtain correct proportions of these ingredients; controls mechanical stirring device which mixes contents of tanks, mixer, lead (pencils); prepares and mixes, under supervision, graphite ("black lead"), clay, and water, ready for grinding; mixes materials by hand, in a tub.
mixer, paste lead ; paste lead labourer
under direction, tips weighed quantities of ingredients for paste "black lead" into mixing machine; controls machine by levers; sometimes also operates filling machines.
mixer (patent fuel)
feeds, by means of conveyor belt, and operates a mechanically driven mill in which small coal and pitch are powdered and mixed in correct proportions, under instructions of charge man (091) q.v. , for making briquettes; discharges the ground mixture by opening a door underneath the mill and removes either in a barrel or by conveyor belt.
mixer, slip (cement); slurry mixer
see mixer, cement.
mixer (tar macadam) ; pickler, screen attendant, wagon loader (tar macadam)
supervises screens in which crushed stone or slag is sifted; operates hopper which conveys screened slag to mixer; operates tar mixing gear, and dumps tarred material into wagon below.
mixing machine attendant (abrasive wheels)
receives raw materials (emery or other abrasive material, and bonding material) which have been weighed out by foreman or mixer in prescribed proportions, and shovels them into mixing machine, sometimes adding water thereto; stops machine when mixing is complete; sometimes clears away mixed material from machine with a shovel; sometimes also wheels or carries mixed materials to moulding shop.
mop dresser, mop and bob dresser
as for belt coverer; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. , calico mop dresser.
see ash and muck man.
nut coal man (patent fuel)
is in charge of screens (sifting apparatus) on which coal is silted and classified; regulates, by turning a tap on or off supply of water in which coal is rinsed after washing (see washer, coal); keeps screen clear by removing with a rod or spade handle, matter released in rinsing coal; lubricates screen and generally maintains efficiency; watches smooth running of water launder feed, etc.
oiler and tipper (patent fuel)
a coal tipper q.v. who, in small works, also does work of oiler q.v.
oils and greases machinery, gear, sheaves, drums, etc., used for grinding or conveying materials, or for pulling coal wagons on to tipping platform and tipping into bins; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. , miller's oiler (cement).
packer, cement
see filler, cement.
packer, lime
see filler, lime.
packer, whiting
see filler, whiting.
paste lead labourer
see mixer, paste lead.
patent fuel maker, patent fuel processman
general terms for any person employed in manufacture of briquettes, fire blocks, or other kinds of patent fuel; includes sampler (098), belt man, binman, briquette maker, grinder heaterman, mixer, nut coal man, piler pitch man, pitch valve man, pressman, screenman, slurry man, superheater, well man q.v.
pat maker, pat man (cement)
weighs and measures out specified proportions of cement and water (or cement, sand and water), mixes and pours into moulds to make pats or small cubes or bricks for use in standard tests; assists cement tester (098) generally.
paving slab labourer, concrete
stacks artificial flags, blocks, or stones; loads and unloads stones, etc., or materials; pours composition into moulds and presses it by hand or by machine; knocks slabs out of moulds when they have set hard enough, and does other labouring work.
picker, clinker (cement)
examines clinker after it has been drawn from kilns by clinker drawer q.v. and sets aside, for further burning, any parts not properly calcined.
picker, lime ; lime sorter, lime trimmer
picks lime free from ashes, coke, clinker, etc., at kilns with a hand fork; sometimes further designated, e.g. , blue lias lime picker, hydraulic lime picker.
picker, pan (salt)
removes scale from bottom of boiling pan, when pan is empty, with chipping tool, hammer and scraper; usually done by salt drawer (098).
pickler (tar macadam)
see mixer (tar macadam).
piler (patent fuel)
receives pressed blocks from the pressman and loads them on to trollies for conveyance to stores.
pitch man (patent fuel) ; pitch digger
a labourer q.v. who digs out pitch from stock heaps and shovels it into trams or barrows; usually also acts as pitch discharger q.v.
pitch-mill man
see grinder (patent fuel).
pitch valve man (patent fuel)
attends to pumps and apparatus, which convey melted pitch to mixers or mills; regulates flow by means of hand operated valves.
plaster mill labourer (cement)
a plaster works labourer q.v. who assists in crushing or grinding plaster cements, i.e. , cements having gypsum as their basis.
plaster works labourer
does general labouring work, such as shovelling or wheeling material, in works where plaster of Paris or plaster cement is manufactured from gypsum.
preparer, china clay
controls by means of sluices flow of thin china clay slurry first down long channels, called "sand drags," in which sand is deposited; then more slowly through other channels, called "micas" or "mica runs," in which fine meshed gauzes and traps are fixed to retain micas and other impurities; and finally into settling tanks, where clay settles out and water is pumped off.
presser, artificial stone
press man (artificial stone); slides stone under press, by hand; brings down press upon stone, and releases it again, by moving a lever; takes stone out of press, by hand; sometimes also fills moulds, by hand, with ingredients of artificial stone.
pressman (patent fuel) ; fire block maker
feeds and operates a heavy hydraulic or other press or set of rollers, which compresses a mixture of powdered coal dust and pitch into briquettes, ovoids or other forms of patent fuel; regulates feed by opening and closing door of pug mill by means of a lever or, in some instances, a screw.
press room man (patent fuel)
a labourer q.v. who sweeps up floors in the mill, removes rubbish, etc.
pug grinder, pugger-up, pug man, pug mill man
attends automatic feed apparatus, causing materials, (e.g. , chalk or limestone and clay, in case of cement, or coal dust and pitch, in case of patent fuel) to be discharged into a pug mill, where they are worked up by revolving knives into a paste with water, and issue therefrom as a plastic bar; controls pug mill by means of levers; examines plastic mass or bar being discharged for faulty work; cleans and oils working parts.
pulveriser (patent fuel)
see grinder.
purification man (salt)
regulates purification of crude brine; filters off sediment and grit; operates pumps for pumping brine to vacuum plant.
quartz worker (electric lamps)
cleans and sorts quartz to be made into continuous conductors for lamps and heaters.
rammer (artificial stone)
see tamper.
rammer, salt ; tube cleaner
cleans steel tubes in salt works, by ramming a bar of steel, with cutter attached, through them to remove coating of hard salt deposited during evaporation of brine.
roadman (patent fuel)
keeps in repair, roads on which trucks and trolleys run.
roller, ganister
see grinder, ganister.
roller, silica
as for grinder, ganister.
roofman (patent fuel)
sweeps dust from pug mills or mixers, which has settled on roof of factory, down chutes, to be collected and used in manufacture of briquettes for factory boilers.
see wheeler; sometimes further designated, e.g. lime runner.
is in charge of sack store, and directs sack sorters and labourers q.v. employed therein.
sample boy (cement)
see calcimeter boy.
saturator (cement)
shovels gypsum, after it has been calcined, into tanks containing a chemical solution, and shovels it out when saturated; works under direction of a foreman who decides when saturation io complete.
scraper (cement)
scrapes cement from used bags with a piece of iron.
screen attendant (tar macadam)
see mixer (tar macadam).
screenman (patent fuel)
attends conveyor fed machine, screens for sifting and classifying different qualities of coal; watches delivery from screen and clears away with use of metal rod or shovel any pieces which may have become lodged in screen perforations during sifting; lubricates mechanism.
screw attendant ; screw conveyor, worm boy (patent fuel)
a conveyor man q.v. in charge or conveyor of screw, or spiral, typo which conveys pitch or coal dust from bins by elevator to the mill, cf. ladder man; sweeps round the presses and keeps everything clean around the elevator.
shipper (patent fuel)
loads briquettes into carts or railway wagons, or stows them in holds of ship.
sieve man (salt)
puts fine dry salt into bags, and wheels it to storeroom.
silica cement maker ; silica cement grinder
a grinder q.v. engaged in grinding materials for cement containing a proportion of silica.
silica works labourer
breaks up, with sledge hammer, large pieces of silica rock or ganister; wheels it in barrows or tubs to breaker or cracker q.v. and attends to elevators and chutes; loads carts with ganister pug, and packs silica cement in bags; wheels and unloads coal at kilns, and does other unskilled work in yard of silica works.
slideman (patent fuel)
attends to slides below coal hoppers, and regulates amount of coal passing through openings on to conveyors.
slurry man, slurry pond man, slurry pond navvy (cement) ; mike, slurry mike (slang)
pumps out slurry (mixture of chalk or limestone and clay with water) from wash mill or slurry pond, and regulates supply to kiln chamber.
slurry man (patent fuel)
opens valves periodically in bottom of settling tank of washing box, through which slurry is discharged in compressed form.
sorter, bag ; sack sorter
sorts and keeps account of bags or sacks.
sorter, lime
see picker, lime.
sorter, mica
sorts lumps of mica-bearing rock into sizes ready for mica splitter (098) q.v.
sorter, pumice stone
sorts pumice stone (imported in bulk) according to grain of stone, and according to quality, as indicated by sound made when stone is hit against a piece of wood.
sorter, sack
see sorter, bag.
spare man
works odd shifts at various operations, in absence of a regular man through illness, etc.
spout man (cement)
a cement filler q.v. who controls trap of chute from which hags are filled.
spreader, slurry
spreads slurry (mixture of chalk or limestone and clay, with water), after water has been partially drained off, and after slurry has been treated in mixer, on a floor, to be dried by gas from kiln.
stacker, artificial flag
stacks artificial flagstones in warehouse or yard.
stove polish maker
see black lead maker.
superheater (patent fuel)
a stoker who attends to apparatus for superheating steam which heats mixture of coal and pitch.
talc worker
general term for workers engaged in production, i.e. mining, crushing, pulverising, screening, etc., of talc.
tamper (artificial stone) ; rammer
presses into moulds, by hand, "aggregate" i.e. mixed ingredients used in compounding artificial stones.
tarred macadam maker, tarmac worker
loads and unloads stone and other materials; passes broken stone through crusher, preparatory to sorting it with a cylindrical screen, and mixes screened stone with tar, by hand or machine, to form tarmac, for road paving; cleans yard, and does other labouring work in connection with manufacture of tarmac; see mixer (tar macadam).
temperer (cement)
see mixer, cement.
test boy (cement)
see calcimeter boy.
thrower-out., kiln thrower-out
see drawer, clinker.
tipper, coal
works apparatus which draws railway wagon on to a cradle, and tips out coal into bins.
tongsman (patent fuel) ; trolley man
attaches to and detaches from endless rope by means of clip or tongs, trolleys used to convey finished products from store sheds to point required for shipment.
trimmer (cement)
trims, i.e. , disposes with a shovel, convenient for sacking, heaps of cement formed at bottom of spouts of cement grinding machine; and shovels back on to heap, cement which has been spilt from sacks or which has encroached on gangways.
trimmer, lime
see picker, lime.
trimmer (patent fuel)
trims, i.e. , shovels, coal in bins to make it flow more evenly on to elevators and conveyors; cf. binman.
trimmer, salt
(i) trims, i.e. , shovels, coarse salt, which has been loaded into ships or barges in bulk, so that the cargo is evenly disposed in hold;
(ii) trims bulk salt in warehouse.
trolley boy
assists trolley man q.v.
trolley man (patent fuel)
(i) pushes up trolleys loaded by belt man q.v. from presses to yard or to side of ship;
(ii) see tongsman.
see carrier.
tube cleaner
see rammer, salt.
valve man (salt)
operates valves for dropping salt out of pans ready for drawer.
washer (cement)
see washmill attendant (cement).
washer, coal ; washing box man (patent fuel)
operates machine in which shale and other coal impurities are removed from coal by mechanical agitation of water; controls, by levers, flow of water up through perforated tray and of coal into washing box, and opens and closes shutter through which shale is expelled.
washer, emery ; emery grader and washer
shovels emery into a rotating drum, where it is washed in water.
washer, whiting
feeds and operates a wash mill into which chalk is shovelled, or delivered by mechanical means; pumps in water, and operates levers controlling "barrows" or "limes" (breaking knives) which powder chalk; runs off fluid into channels in which impurities settle, leaving pure chalk in suspension.
washing box man (patent fuel)
see washer, coal.
wash mill attendant (artificial stone)
shovels gravel or other ingredients of artificial stone into wash mill, where it is washed with water, to remove dirt; controls water supply by means of cocks.
washmill attendant (cement), washmill hand, wash miller, washmill man ; miller (wash mill), washer (cement), wet miller (cement)
controls, by means of levers, wash mill machine, and sees that it is working properly; if machine has no automatic feed apparatus, feeds machine with materials (chalk or limestone, clay, etc.), which are then mixed with water and converted into a slurry, from which cement is made.
weigher, coal truck (patent fuel)
weighs coal or coke dust in truck or wagon before it is placed in storage bins, and keeps a record of coal stored.
weigher, fuel (patent fuel)
weighs briquettes, when loaded, into wagons ready to leave works; runs wagon on to machine or weighbridge, and deducts tare of wagon from gross weight.
weigher, pitch (patent fuel)
as for weigher, coal truck.
weighman, weighman-to-mill (cement)
weighs raw materials received at cement works; sometimes also weighs finished product.
well man (patent fuel)
clears out wells into which fine dust from briquettes is carried by water from surface of tables and moulds.
wharf man (cement)
(i) wheels or carries cement casks or sacks and lowers them into barges through chutes, or by hoisting them with cranes;
(ii) unloads onto wharf, loads of clay, coal, chalk, etc.
wheeler ; runner
wheels materials or finished products from place to place in works, in trucks or barrows; sometimes further designated, e.g. chalk wheeler, clay wheeler, coal wheeler, nut coal wheeler, pitch wheeler.
whiting ball maker, whiting block maker ; whiting moulder
receives thick paste whiting from becks (settling tanks) or filter press and roughly shapes it into balls or blocks, which are then dried, either by placing balls first on slabs, then on racks, for air currents to play round them, or by placing them on a hot plate with fire underneath.
whiting dabber
scoops out whiting from becks or settling tanks, into a barrow, and wheels it to drying floor: sometimes also does work of whiting ball maker q.v.
whiting maker, whiting worker
general terms for any person employed in making whiting, including whiting ball maker, whiting moulder q.v.
whiting moulder
whiting ball maker
worm boy (patent fuel)
see screw attendant.

Back to List of Occupational Codes

From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.