A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Persons Employed in Entertainments and Sport

899.—Other Occupations

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acrobat ; tumbler
entertains audience at music hall, circus, etc., by performing acrobatic feats.
a trapeze artist (q.v.) who performs hazardous feats on trapeze, involving the projection of the body through the air at some distance from ground.
animal trainer
trains animals to perform tricks and exhibits them before public; grooms and feeds animals; keeps cages, kennels, etc., clean.
teaches pupils how to use bow and arrow.
assistant groundsman (cricket)
helps groundsman (q.v.) in mowing and rolling turf, marking out pitch, preparing wickets, watering ground, etc.
athletic artist
entertains at music hall, circus, etc., by display of physical strength and skill in some form of athletics; keeps in training by physical exercises and practice in his particular sport.
(i) is usually employed only at provincial theatres or music halls, etc., where different companies appear each week; meets members of company at railway station; arranges transport of properties and scenery to theatre or music hall; delivers personal luggage at lodgings, and at end of week, arranges transport of luggage, scenery and property back to railway station; is occasionally also employed as theatre or music hall attendant (889) (q.v.);
(ii) in touring or theatrical company, is responsible for the safe-keeping and transport of all professional properties, scenery, etc.
ball boy (tennis courts)
attends upon players, retrieving balls and returning them to play; whitens balls and assists groundsman (q.v.) to mark out court, erects nets, etc.
billiard marker
keeps account of scores made by players and indicates them on scoring board; in public billiard hall, allocates tables to players and provides them with balls, cues, chalk and sometimes with refreshment; coaches learners, plays with patrons, and collects fees fer use of tables.
a professional cricketer (q.v.) employed by cricket club to bowl at nets to give batting practice to members; also plays in matches when required.
boxer, professional boxer ; pugilist
earns living by boxing in public contests or competitions for prize money; keeps fit and in training by physical exercises, shadow boxing, punching ball, sparring with assistants, etc.; also often acts as instructor.
caddie, caddy, golf caddie
carries clubs for golfer who hires him for the round; assists golfer (q.v.) to mark down ball as it falls or to retrieve ball that is lost; often cleans clubs.
caddie master
takes charge of caddies (q.v.) and, as hiring master, arranges rota; is sometimes in charge of workshop where clubs are repaired and generally works under club's professional golfer (q.v.) as assistant professional.
executes "lightning" sketches, usually with charcoal pencil on large sheet of paper, at music hall or other entertainment, or before cinematograph camera.
see fortune teller.
provides humorous interludes during and between performances at a circus; is usually an acrobat or tumbler (q.v.); takes clown's part in harlequinade or pantomime.
teaches members of a sports club, school, etc., the rudiments of a game, e.g., cricket, football, golf, and by helpful criticisms assists them to acquire proficiency; may also teach individuals for a fee; is usually a professional player, sometimes retired; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., cricket coach, football coach, rowing coach.
conjuror ; prestidigitateur, professor of legerdemain
performs sleight of hand and conjuring tricks at music hall, or other entertainment; is very often also a juggler and an illusionist (q.v.); sometimes also a ventriloquist (885) (q.v.).
performs feats requiring abnormal bodily contortions, at music hall, circus, etc.
coursing slipper
holds dogs in patent leash called a "slip" at dog coursing contests and slips, i.e. releases, leash, by pulling a cord, when signal to start is given; is sometimes a dog trainer or a kennelman (q.v.).
dancing partner (professional)
an expert dancer engaged by proprietor or manager of dancing hall or by individual dancer, to act as partner when required and to teach ball-room dancing for a fee.
dog breaker, dog trainer
trains young dogs to run in coursing races, to perform tricks, to track, chase, etc.; may also break young sporting dogs to gun, teaching them to "point" and retrieve; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. greyhound trainer.
see kennelman.
equestrian, equestrian artist
performs spectacular feats of horsemanship in circus, tournament, etc.; in private, practices new feats, trains horses; may also groom and care for horses.
performs balancing feats, walking on tight rope, etc., at music hall, circus, etc.; in private, practices new feats, performs exercises to maintain physical fitness.
fortune teller ; clairvoyant, seer
professes to foretell the future by means of cards, a crystal, sand, etc.
golf course man
under the direction of green keeper (q.v.), rolls greens daily for removal of worm casts, mows and sweeps them; mows fairway periodically; cuts rough from time to time; relays teeing greens when necessary; keeps sand bins filled; rakes bunkers, etc.
golfer, professional golfer
plays golf in matches for gain; often combines this occupation with superintendence of golf course and gives lessons to members of club for fee; usually makes clubs for sale to members or others.
groundsman, ground attendant
keeps turf of cricket or football field or sports ground in playing condition; supervises mowing and rolling of ground; supervises work of assistant groundsman (q.v.) and labourers, in attending to tracks, fencing, terraces and stands, marking of playing fields with white lime, whitewashing of goal posts, etc., repairing broken nets, clearing up litter from ground, etc.; often specifically designated, e.g. football groundsman, cricket groundsman, etc.
gymnasium instructor, gymnastic instructor
trains squad or class in performance of physical exercise and gymnastics with or without apparatus; visits schools.
performs, at music hall or other entertainment, a variety of gymnastic feats on horizontal bar, parallel bars, vaulting horse, etc.
directs hunt in conjunction with or under orders of master of hunt; assembles hounds at meet; signals commencement of chase and directs followers by the blowing of a horn; prevents hounds from being ridden down; cuts mask and brush from fox or disposes of stag or other quarry at "kill"; maintains general control of hunt throughout and is in charge of whippers in and hunt servants (q.v.).
hunt servant
assists at hunt generally, waits upon master of hunt, carries terrier; helps to dig out, with pick and spade, quarry that goes to earth; collects subscriptions from strangers and guests; attends to exhausted or injured hounds handed over by whips (q.v.); is usually employed in or about kennels or in coverts, earth stopping, etc., between meets; cf. earth stopper (910).
gives an entertainment in which apparently supernatural or miraculous effects are produced by skill in deceiving the senses; is often aided by special mechanical contrivances; invents new illusions and apparatus.
entertains by performing feats of deft catching, throwing and balancing.
keeper, athletic ground, cricket ground, football ground, etc.
a groundsman (q.v.) attached to sports ground.
keeper, bowling alley
is in charge of bowling alley; looks after skittles, bowling cheeses, etc., and supplies them to players; collects fees for use of alley, etc.
keeper, bowling green
keeps in order turf of bowling green by mowing, rolling, watering and repairing or re-sowing; applies liquid manure from time to time; looks after bowls, shoes, etc. and supplies them to players as required; looks after club premises (at which he sometimes lives); instructs beginners.
keeper, golf green
supervises golf course men (q.v.) engaged in daily rolling off worm casts, mowing and sweeping greens, mowing fairway periodically and cutting the rough once or twice a year; makes up own dressings for greens; directs relaying of tee greens from time to time; may, in consultation with professional golfer (q.v.) carry out alterations in course, including relaying of putting and teeing greens.
kennelman ; dogman
feeds and grooms dogs for racing, coursing or hunting; cleans and limewashes kennels; prepares dogs' food and attends to their health, administering medicine when necessary; usually "slips" coursing dogs at coursing races, see coursing slipper.
kennel manager
is in sole charge of kennels; supervises kennel men (q.v.) and is responsible for preparing of food for dogs; medically examines dogs; arranges entry of dogs for shows and for coursing meetings; is an expert in matters of breeding.
lion tamer
an animal trainer (q.v.) who trains lions, feeds and grooms them, and cleans their cages.
see wizard.
marker (rifle butts)
observes and signals effect or score of shots fired by marksmen; usually also maintains butts in good condition, renewing targets, etc.
medium, spirit medium
acts as alleged medium of communication with spirits of departed or other persons.
undertakes to delineate character and foretell the future by examining palm of hand.
professes to describe degree of development of a person's mental faculties and traits of character by observing and measuring shape of skull; on this basis often advises as to vocation.
prestidigitateur, professor of legerdemain
see conjurer.
professional player
for purposes of gain, takes part in public exhibitions or competitions of a game or sport; keeps in physical fitness by exercises and practice under direction of a trainer (q.v.) or coach; sometimes acts as coach, trainer or instructor to members of a club; usually specifically designated, e.g. professional athlete, billard [sic] player, cricketer, footballer, golfer, boxer, racquets player, tennis player, walker, wrestler.
professes to exercise abnormal psychical powers; often acts as medium (q.v.).
see boxer.
Punch and Judy showman
owns and operates Punch and Judy show, a traditional melodrama, performed by puppets, mainly intended for children; operates puppets by hand; is generally a ventriloquist (885) (q.v.).
is sole judge of fair and unfair play or actions, in games of football, boxing matches, etc.; gives decisions in accordance with the laws of the game; has usually been a player of the sport in question, receives a fee for services and usually follows some other occupation when not engaged as referee.
rifle range assistant
keeps rifles clean, affixes and removes targets and issues ammunition at rifle range; attends generally to users of range.
ring master (circus)
is in charge of ring at circus, and controls whole of acts and turns.
scorer, cricket scorer
records scores made by players in cricket match and keeps bowling analysis; notifies score to spectators by adjusting scoring board.
see fortune teller.
showman's assistant
helps proprietor of fair (888) (q.v.), etc., to fix up or take down stalls, booths, roundabouts, etc., and does odd jobs.
signalman (yacht club)
assists judge in controlling yacht racing; starts competitors by signal or firing a pistol; signals breach of racing conditions, etc., and passing of home-buoy by each boat.
skate boy
fastens skates on patron's boots at skating or roller-skating rink, with screw clamps.
skate storeman, skate mechanic
stores skates in racks; cleans skates, and repairs them, when necessary, by inserting new ball bearings, putting on new wheels, etc.; issues skates to patrons at skating or roller-skating rink.
tennis marker (professional)
is usually a professional tennis player (q.v.), employed by tennis club to record points scored by players.
trainer (football)
makes arrangements to ensure that players are kept fit; arranges practice matches, ball practice, walking and other physical exercise; attends matches at which his team is playing, and renders first aid to injured members; is usually a masseur.
trapeze artist
performs difficult feats on the trapeze, i.e., a system of bars suspended horizontally by ropes in mid-air.
see acrobat.
umpire (cricket)
gives decisions according to the laws of the game on points of play when asked; inspects ground to decide whether it is suitable to play on; cf. referee.
whip, whipper-in (to hunt)
assists huntsman (q.v.) in controlling hounds; rides parallel to general course of chase urging on dogs and driving in strays; gathers in injured or exhausted animals, walking them home if necessary; is usually employed in or about kennels between meets.
wizard ; magician
an entertainer (885) (q.v.) who exercises the skill of an illusionist and a conjurer (q.v.) to produce unexpected and illusory stage effects, e.g., materialisations and transpositions.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.