A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 2.—Printers, Bookbinders, and Photographers


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album maker
cuts out cardboard, leaves and covers, by hand, with sharp knife; makes them up into albums for stamps, photographs, etc., and passes to sewer (hand or machine) q.v.
all-round hand ; general hand
is skilled in all branches of bookbinding; see flush binder, stationer's binder, forwarder, case maker, blocker (537), etc.; usually employed in small binding establishment.
see forwarder.
back liner
fixes piece of mull or cotton to back of book, by hand, and also strip of paper, to strengthen binding, after book is rounded and backed.
see bookbinder.
binder, account book
see binder, stationer's.
binder (cheque book)
see wrapperer.
binder (cloth)
binds books in cloth; may be either publisher's binder or stationer's binder q.v.
binder, flush
glues up books and affixes boards; presses book, puts on cloth or leather back and pastes down end papers; cuts book flush with edge of cover at top, bottom and fore-edge, by hand or power-operated guillotine.
binder, leather
a bookbinder q.v. binding books in leather, by hand, may be either publisher's binder, stationer's binder, or miscellaneous letterpress binder q.v.
binder, publisher's; letterpress binder
combines work of forwarder, case maker, blocker (537) q.v.; puts book into case either by hand or by machine; presses book.
binder, stationer's ; account book binder, vellum binder
as for forwarder, except that (i) work is done by hand,
(ii) operation of backing is usually omitted,
(iii) covers are not made apart from book; fixes split boards to tapes; covers them with leather, buckram or cloth and impresses design or lettering on cover with hand tools.
binder, vellum
see binder, stationer's.
bookbinder ; binder
general term for any skilled worker engaged in bookbinding; includes forwarder, case maker, and all classes of binders q.v.
book clasper
fixes brass clasps on edge of covers, to clasp and keep book tightly closed.
book cover maker
see case maker.
case maker (hand process) ; book cover maker
receives cloth, strawboards and thick papers for covers ready cut; glues cloth; places strawboards in position on cloth with help of gauge; sticks "back paper" between the two boards to stiffen back of case; cuts off corners of cloth with shears, and turns edges inwards; rubs cloth side with folder, to prevent blisters, and hangs up ease to dry before passing it to blocker (537) q.v.
case-making machine operator
feeds cloth to guides, which direct it into case-making machine, which glues cloth, places boards and stiff back paper in position and completes case.
puts cover on book and places it in press; in letterpress binding, pastes together cover and book which have been completed separately; in account and miscellaneous book binding, covers boards, already affixed to book, with leather, cloth, etc., and passes book to finisher q.v. for lettering.
Crawley operator
puts books in position in a power-driven machine, known as Crawley machine, which automatically performs operations of rounding and backing.
cutter, cloth ; cutter-out, material cutter
cuts up rolls of cloth in a cutting machine; adjusts gauge to width required; moves lever to start machine; passes cloth into machine, and removes it when cut.
cutter, machine ; trimmer
operates, with a treadle, guillotine cutter which holds book firmly while knives come down and trim off three paper edges of book, i.e., head, fore-edge, and tail.
cutter, material
see cutter, cloth.
cutter-out, machine
cuts edges or cloth.
cutter-out, machine
cuts edges or sections of paper to shape and size for books, by hand or press operated cutting machine.
inspects book after binding is complete to rectify faults.
finishes covers of books with heated hand tools and/or in a hand-manipulated hot press; gilds, tools, and/or inlays designs or lettering in colour, and completes binding generally after covering.
folio maker
a bookbinder q.v. who specialises in making folio books, i.e., large books in which the printed sheet is folded once and thus makes only two sheets on four pages.
forwarder (cloth, leather) ; backer, roller
does actual binding of book after it has been sewn; nips or presses book in nipping machine to make it solid; cuts edges on guillotine machine; glues up and attaches first lining of mull by hand; rounds and backs hook on machine, or by hand, and attaches second lining of paper by hand; affixes hoards and covers hooks wholly or partly in. leather, cloth, etc.
general hand
see all-round hand.
head bander
affixes ready-made band, by hand, with adhesive, to head and tail of book to give a better finish; in high-class work , also makes band, by hand, by weaving coloured silks.
joint maker
before binding, sticks strips of cloth to end papers of book by hand, with adhesive, to strengthen it and to serve as a hinge.
leather case maker, leather case book maker
a case maker q.v. making cases, or book covers, of leather, generally by hand.
leather embosser
embosses designs on leather cover of book, either by hand-manipulated hot press or by hand tools.
liner, straw board liner ; mounter
glues or pastes sheets of paper to straw boards by machine or hand.
see liner.
mounter, book
fixes, by hand, brass or other metal edging on corners and edges of book covers to save wear and tear; cf. book clasper.
portfolio maker
a case maker q.v. specialising in making, by hand, of portfolios.
see forwarder.
taps back of glued up book with hammer to make it round; sometimes done by forwarder q.v.
sewer (hand or machine), sewer (stationery book), sewer (vellum)
joins together sections of book by machine or hand sewing; in best class of work, stitches by hand, on to tapes or cords, which are afterwards fixed to cover of book.
sews together sheets of pamphlets either by hand or machine; in the latter case, usually makes "three hole" stitch in fold of pamphlet or J-inch from back.
see cutter, machine.
vellum header
cuts backs of ledgers out of straw-board or cloth-board and fixes them on book; work sometimes done by vellum binder or stationer's binder q.v.
wrapperer ; binder (cheque book)
glues back of unbound book, the sheets of which are fastened together either by wire or thread, and fastens round it paper cover called a wrapper; may perform the work either by hand or by machine.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.