A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Workers in Precious Metals and Electro Plate

284.—Goldsmiths and Gem Setters

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bangle maker
see bracelet maker, stiff.
bar maker (gold and silver chains)
makes bars for watch chains, etc., and belchers and rings for attachment thereto, from gold or silver wire; draws wire himself or receives supplies of ready-drawn wire; if the former, uses a draw bench and draw plate, having a number of holes of diminishing size, similar to those used for ordinary wire drawing, cf. wire drawer (268), but worked by hand winch; winds wire on a steel rod, called a spit, either by hand or on a lathe; cuts wire, so wound, with a hand saw or with a small power-driven circular saw, thus making a number of links; cuts bar with hand pliers or other cutters; assembles bar, belcher and ring, using, for better class work, a gas blow pipe, solder, and borax for flux, or, for cheap work, merely closes parts together with pliers.
bead maker (gold and silver)
makes beads from gold or silver wire rod by (i) beating it with a hammer into steel dies placed on an anvil,
(ii) passing gold or silver wire rod between rollers of a hand-operated roller machine, producing strips of beaded wire; drills strips in a machine drill and cuts them with pliers, piercing saw or other cutters into individual beads,
(iii) passing wire rod into automatic stamping machine, adjusted to shape and cut beads to required size.
belt clasp and chatelaine maker
makes belt clasps and chatelaines by (i) passing metal into automatic stamping machine, for repetition work;
(ii) cutting sheet metal with a hand piercing saw, and shaping it, by hand, with punches, hammer, etc., usually on a lead cake, i.e., a dome-shaped or other block of lead; sometimes also shapes wire with pliers and other small hand tools and assembles parts into complete article, using blow pipe and solder.
bijoutier, gold and silver
see jeweller.
bracelet maker, band
see bracelet maker, stiff.
bracelet maker, chain; curb bracelet maker
winds wire, by hand or on a lathe, on a steel rod, called a spit, and cuts wire, so wound, with a saw to make links; builds up chains of links by hand; solders joints of links, using blow-pipe and solder; obtains curb or twisted link effect by fastening one end of chain in vice, gripping other end with hand grips, and pulling and twisting chain to shape required.
bracelet maker, expanding; flexible bracelet maker, spring bracelet maker
(i) assembles, rivets and fits parts and springs of gold or silver bracelets, previously made or cut in a press by press worker (286) q.v., using blow-pipe and solder and various small tools;
(ii) cuts out parts by hand, using shears and piercing saw; shapes bracelet by hammering circular piece of metal thus obtained on a triblet; i.e., tapered steel mould; assembles and fits in springs, using blow-pipe, solder and riveting tools.
bracelet maker, stiff ; band bracelet maker, bangle maker
(i) hammers a strip of gold or silver into semi-circular shape on a steel die placed on an anvil, and inserts a core of base metal into half-formed tube; forms one end into a complete tube with pliers, and draws it through draw plate, cf. wire drawer (268), into a complete tube with an open seam; solders seam with a blow pipe and solder; draws tube again through draw plate, to produce perfectly even surface; shapes tube so formed on a triblet into a circle of required shape; adds ornamentation, joints, snaps, etc., with blow pipe and solder;
(ii) draws gold or silver wire through draw plates, and then proceeds as in
(iii) (in repetition work) assembles parts already prepared by drawer (298), stamper (286) or bracelet spinner q.v. .;
(iv.) see bracelet spinner.
bracelet maker, tube
a stiff bracelet maker q.v. making stiff bracelets of tubular section.
bracelet spinner ; band bracelet maker, bangle maker, stiff bracelet maker
places strip of gold or silver on a mould or die in chuck of power-driven or treadle-operated lathe, and presses it into shape of bracelet as it spins on lathe, using a long-handled steel pressing tool.
brooch maker
bends, shapes and cuts gold or silver wire, by hand, using various small tools; solders component parts together with blow pipe and solder; sometimes also polishes or finishes brooches on a mop or dolly.
brooch tongue maker
(in repetition work) cuts gold or silver wire, by hand, with cutting tools into pins and other attachments for backs of brooches; sharpens points of pins by grinding them on circular stone or machine lathe; attaches parts to backs of brooches with blow pipe and solder.
chain linker (mesh bag making)
joins links together, to form mesh, with pliers, blow pipe and solder; sometimes also cuts gold or silver wire into links with piercing saw or machine saw, and fastens mesh to frame, with wire, by hand.
chain maker (gold and silver)
twists gold or silver wire round a steel rod, i.e., a spit, either by hand or on a lathe, cuts wire, so wound, with a piercing saw, forming separate links; solders links together, or passes them to chain linker q.v. for soldering; twists links of chain to required shape by pulling and working them at free end, other end of chain being held in a vice; attaches swivel and bar, using small hand tools, bench vice, etc.
chain maker, watch (gold and silver)
a preparer q.v. or a linker, q.v. engaged in making watch chains of gold or silver.
chain mesh machine operator (gold and silver)
fixes spool of gold or silver wire to spindle on automatic power machine; guides end of wire to small tools and cutters with which machine is fitted; attaches end of mesh to adjustable holder suspended above machine; controls machine, making necessary adjustments whilst running, using various band tools; watches running of machine for breakages, and repairs mesh, if required; passes mesh, which is produced in tubular form, to mesh bag maker q.v.
cigar, and cigarette, case maker
smooths rough edges of stamped parts of case by hand filing; files bearing at back of case for attachment of hinges; solders on small pieces of tubing, with blow pipe and solder, to form hinges; threads hinges with fine wire; inserts springs, if required; solders on clasp or other fittings with blow pipe and solder; hand files inequalities on case preparatory to polishing and finishing.
gold and silver cutter
(i) cuts gold and silver sheet and wire, with shears and hand saw, or with a power-driven circular saw;
(ii) passes sheet metal between revolving wheels of a machine cutter.
gold bolt maker
see ring maker, bolt.
makes to design, by hand, gold brooches, lockets, bracelets, plate, caskets, etc., by cutting out, hammering, filing, shaping, etc., using piercing saw and other hand tools, moulds, bench vice, blow pipe, and solder, etc.
hat pin maker (gold or silver)
screws or solders steel pin (made by needle manufacturers) with or without a collet, i.e., collar used for strengthening, into head; sometimes makes threads of screws with hand screw plate; sometimes also gives reeding or fluting effect to hat pin head, by cutting gold or silver sheet or wire with piercing saw, filing, hammering, and bending it into shape with hand tools.
insignia maker
a goldsmith q.v. who specialises on making of freemasons', etc., insignia.
jeweller (not dealer) ; gold and silver bijoutier
makes to design, by band, metal framework of brooches, pendants, etc., by cutting, hammering, filing and shaping, using piercing saw and other hand tools, bench vice, blow pipe and solder, etc.; attaches ornamentation by soldering and cheneering, i.e., a system of tubing, and mounts precious stones, if required.
jobber (jewellery), jobbing man, jobbing jeweller, jobber and repairer
is employed on premises of manufacturing, wholesale, or retail jewellers, to repair broken or defective jewellery returned by customers; sometimes also helps to make up or mount new articles of gold or silver; operations as for jeweller.
jobber and mounter
an outworker who makes mounts for use of jewellers in setting stones cf. jeweller, mounter.
linker, chain linker
builds up, by hand, links of gold or silver chain, each link being closed or mitred and then soldered, using small hand tools, blow pipe and solder; sometimes also attaches swivels and bars ready for polisher (285) q.v.
locket maker (gold and silver)
assembles component parts of lockets, by hand; solders on hinges and snap fasteners, and prepares them for polisher (285) or for gem setter q.v. .; uses small hand tools, blow pipe and solder.
masonic jeweller
a jeweller q.v. who specialises in making jewellery used in dress decoration for masonic ritual.
matchbox maker (gold and silver)
(i)beats out gold and silver sheet into matchboxes, by hand, using small hand tools, moulds, and anvil, if required; solders on hinges and snap fasteners, using blow pipe and solder;
(ii)passes sheet metal into machine which stamps out parts of gold or silver match-boxes.
mesh bag maker (gold and silver)
(i) draws gold or silver wire through draw-plates to reduce it to required thickness; winds it on a steel rod, i.e., a "spit"; sometimes cuts wire, so wound, into individual links with a saw, but this is more usually done by chain linker q.v., who makes mesh; cuts gold or silver sheet with a piercing saw to form frame or mount in which mesh is fastened; drills holes in frame (for wiring in mesh) with a hand drill; joints, rivets, and solders frame, with small hand tools, blow pipe and solder; sometimes also attaches mesh to frame with wire;
(ii) (in machine mesh bag making) repairs any defects in machine-made mesh, by hand, with pliers and blow pipe; cuts length of mesh to size required with pliers, and closes bottom of bag with links, using pliers; attaches bag to frame, made by goldsmith or by silversmith (287) q.v.
mounter, gem mounter, gold mounter (gems), jeweller's mounter ; gold mount maker
makes mounts of gold, platinum, etc., for setting precious stones, using piercing saw, files and other hand tools, blow pipe and solder; generally specifically designated according to kind of mount made, e.g., gold mounter, platinum mounter, diamond mounter, ruby mounter; cf. mounter (288).
mount maker, gold
see mounter.
pencil case maker (gold and silver)
passes gold or silver sheet between rollers of hand-operated roiling machine; operates stamping press by band levers, and fashions gold or silver blanks, so produced, into pencil cases, holders and containers, using files and other band tools, blow pipe and solder, etc.
preparer (gold and silver chains)
makes links for gold or silver watch chains by drawing gold or silver (sheet or wire) through draw-plates, to reduce them to proper thickness; winds them on spits, and cuts them, by hand or machine saw, into individual links; sometimes also1 solders links together, but this is more usually done by linker q.v.; also examines chains, after they liave been linked by linker q.v., to detect faulty workmanship.
raiser (gold)
places a fiat piece of gold on a wooden block or lead cake, and by hammering raises parts of surface above remainder, according to design.
ring maker (gold and silver)
(i) makes a rough circle of gold or silver wire, brazing ends together with blowpipe and solder; places ring so made on a triblet, i.e., a conical steel rod, and hammers it to shape; files ring, after beating, inside and out; sometimes finishes it by further hand hammering;
(ii) casts ring in a cuttlefish mould; makes impression of a ring with a base metal mould, places two halves of cuttle-fish together, and pours molten gold or silver through hole in centre; files cast so made, smooth;
(iii) rams fine damp sand tight into a frame, and makes an impression of a ring therein with base metal mould; fills impression with molten gold or silver and files cast, so made, smooth.
ring maker, bolt ; gold bolt maker
(i) makes small slip bolt rings by hand, using small hand tools, blow pipe and solder;
(ii) passes gold wire into one or more of machines, where it is shaped into bolt rings automatically.
ring maker, gem
a ringmaker q.v. who makes rings in which gems are afterwards set by gem setter q.v. ring maker, jump; makes" jump" rings for attachment to chains, bracelets, etc., to facilitate fastening on of swivels, ornaments, etc.; draws gold or silver wire or sheet through draw-plates, to required thickness; winds wire or sheet on" spits," by hand or in a lathe to correct shape; cuts wound metal by hand or with machine saw, into individual "jump" rings which are then ready for polishing; sometimes done by chain maker q.v.
set maker (gold or silver)
assembles gold or silver component parts, which have been cut and shaped in hand press by pressworkers (286) q.v., to form complete set, e.g., tea set, coffee set; solders parts together, by hand, using blow pipe and solder or makes set entirely by hand, using hand tools.
setter, gem; jewel setter
makes setting, on mount received from gem mounter q.v., by cutting, filing, drilling, etc., with hand tools, ready for reception of gem; prepares bearing, i.e., raises a small portion of metal in mount with hand tools, and places gem in position; raises "grains," i.e., small portion of metal from mount, to fix gem in position; type of setting, e.g., claw, miilegrain, flush, cup varies according to requirements; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., diamond setter, emerald setter, pearl setter.
setter, jobbing
a gem setter q.v. employed as an outworker by large firms or factors.
sleeve link maker ; solitaire maker
(i) makes sleeve links throughout by hand; stamps parts out in a press, or hammers them to shape and size required with a hand hammer; draws gold, silver, or other wire (cf. drawer) and winds it on a steel rod, called a spit; cuts wire so wound, forming a number of separate links, and solders parts together with blow-pipe and solder;
(ii) takes component parts made by press workers (286), stampers (286) q.v. or other workers, and solders them together, with blow-pipe and solder, to make complete sleeve links.
snap maker
see swivel maker (gold and silver).
solitaire maker
see sleeve link maker.
sovereign purse maker
assembles gold or silver parts, which have boon cut out and shaped by gold and silver stampers (286) q.v.; solders and rivets them with blow pipe and solder and various small hand tools; fixes snap, catch and spring.
stud maker (gold or silver)
assembles gold or silver component parts, which have been cut and shaped in hand press by pressworkers (286) q.v., to form complete studs, soldering parts together by hand.
swivel maker (gold and silver) ; snap maker
makes swivels or" snap hooks" used as terminals for watch chains and other jewellery, from gold or silver wire, castings, or tubes, on a spindle and lathe.
thimble maker, gold
makes gold thimbles by beating sheet gold into a series of diminishing holes in a steel die; solders on rim and any ornamentation required by hand, using blow pipe and solder.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.