A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
ORDER VIII.—WORKERS IN PRECIOUS METALS AND ELECTRO PLATE
Sub-order 1.—Workers in Precious Metals and Electro Plate
283.—Engravers and Chasers
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- carver, gold and silver
- (i) carves or sculptures statuettes and similar articles in gold and silver;
- (ii) carves designs on articles of precious metal, e.g., rings, etc., with hand tools called "gravers" and small chisels, from designs or models; sometimes also originates designs.
- case turner (watches)
- turns, on power lathe, rough edges of cases of watches or clocks which have been stamped, pressed or cast, fitting lathe [ with various cutters, as required; turns snap fastening or enlarges interior of case to suit movement.
- chaser, cast work chaser, plate work chaser
- sketches original design, or sketches from designs supplied to him, with pencil, on front of article (either cast work or solid plate of precious metal) to be chased; outlines design with hand scriber tool, and further develops it with small punch and chaser's hammer; then, using various small punches and hammer, works on front and/or back of article as required by design, thereby obtaining an intaglio effect; if necessary, fills hollow work temporarily with molten pitch, which, when solidified, forms solid base for punching operations.
- sketches, in pencil, original design, or sketches from working drawing or design supplied to him, on front of article to be embossed; outlines design with hand scriber tool; fixes one end of a snarling iron, i.e., S-shaped piece of iron, in a bench vice, and puts article to be embossed in contact with other end, which is hooked; taps vice end smartly with a hammer, causing snarling iron to vibrate and thus knock out protuberances in article, by repeated blows from free end, thus obtaining embossed or repousse effect; finishes article with small chisels, files and sometimes gravers; sometimes does work of damascener (298) q.v., i.e., inlays work with gold or silver; fills hollow work temporarily with molten pitch which, when solidified, forms solid base for finishing operations.
- engine turner, rose engine turner
- operates, by hand, a machine consisting principally of a lathe, in chuck of which work is held, and a wheel attachment containing a cutter or cutters, so constructed as to cut either straight lines or dots, or conventional rose designs; fits cutters into machine, manipulates lathe with one hand and wheel attachment containing cutters with other; sometimes also originates designs.
- engine turner, case
- an engine turner q.v. decorating watch cases.
- cuts patterns, heraldic designs, monograms, etc., on gold, silver or britannia ware, by hand, using hand tools called gravers, or for cheaper work by machine of pantograph type, by electric cutter, or on a lathe; sometimes specifically designated according to kind of work or material, e.g., case engraver, cutlery engraver, dial engraver, gold and silver engraver, plate engraver.
- engraver, machine
- an engraver q.v. operating a power-driven engraving machine, usually fitted with an attachment for holding copy from which he works (commonly a deeply engraved plate) and a pantograph; guides pantograph, by hand, over copy, and at same time brings to bear a revolving cutter over work to be engraved, varying pressure, as required, with a foot treadle; clamps various cutters into machine as required; sometimes also does small hand engraving work, see engraver.
- etcher, engraver etcher
- an engraver q.v. who inscribes maker's name, trade mark, etc., on metal articles by "biting" metal with nitric acid; cleans work, by hand, with carbon block, using turpentine or paraffin oil as lubricant, which he afterwards rubs off with cloth; warms work over gas burner, and applies small quantity of white wax; uses scriber to outline, in wax, design or lettering, which may be original or supplied to him; when work cools, pours small quantity of dilute nitric acid over it; after specified time, during which acid bites into exposed metal, warms wax, and cleans it off by rubbing.
- ring maker, carved
- carves designs on plain gold rings with hand gravers or, for cheaper work, with an electric tool.
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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016. This text is in the Public Domain.