A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 8.—Other Workers

241.—Japanners, Enamellers and Stovers

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see sprayer, air.
a japanner q.v. who paints iron hollow-ware, parts of stoves, grates, ranges, etc., with black japan with a brush or air spray; or, applies black japan by dipping articles in bath of that liquid; puts articles aside to dry ready for stoving may also perform duties of stover q.v.; (scientific instruments) a lacquerer q.v. who applies coat of black lacquer by painting, spraying or dipping. to iron parts of scientific instruments.
bronzer, metal bronzer
(i) dipper (bronzing); colours steel and polished brass articles to resemble bronze by dipping them, by hand, in prepared acid or other metal-staining solution with, or without, subsequent heating on heated metal plate: places articles in revolving cylinder with fluff and pieces of grease-impregnated felt to dry them;
(ii) plater: bronzes metal articles. e.g. stamped and pressed metal ware, umbrella furniture, etc., by means of electro deposition, suspending them by wire from bar connected with negative pole of electro bath, and switching current on and off to start and stop process: removes bronzed articles from bath and allows to dry:
(iii) (steel pens) colourer; places steel pens in bulk with beech dust in hollow steel cylinder which is made to revolve over lighted gas jets; adjusts temperature by regulating gas valve and removes pens when oxidation is complete.
(i) layer; applies enamel in liquid form to wrought iron articles, steel plates, etc., by hand with paint brush:
(ii) brusher-off; brushes off ground enamel colour from steel plates, using a hand brush and stencil to remove only that colour which is subsequently to be covered over, see (iii) below; works on special table provided with holes and efficient exhaust to remove enamel dust brushed off;
(iii) applies, with brush, coloured enamel to steel plates, already covered by ground coat of white or other enamel, using stencil to form designs, letters, etc.;
(iv) may combine all operations performed in (i), (ii) and (iii) above; places prepared plates aside to dry ready for firing or fusing of enamel.
see brasher.
brusher, paint ; painter (bedsteads)
paints, by hand with brush, metal bedsteads with japan paint ready for stoving.
see muffle hand.
see bronzer.
decorates surface of enamelled goods by hand, painting with brush, designs or lines in gilt or colour.
dipper, dip hand
dips, by hand, small articles to be enamelled, japanned, or lacquered, into tub bosh, or vat of suitable fluid, and sets them aside to drain and dry ready for stoving (blacked or japanned articles) or fusing (enamelled articles).
dipper (bronzing)
see bronzer.
dryer (cycles)
puts freshly enamelled, japanned or lacquered parts of cycles in a stove to dry ; opens doors of stove, runs in trays of enamelled, etc., parts on small trolley, or places trays on shelves in stove.
applies a coat of enamel to articles by (i) hand painting wrought iron articles with ordinary brush, see brasher;
(ii) spraying with an aerograph, see sprayer, air;
(iii) dipping wrought iron articles by hand in vat of enamel, see dip hand;
(iv) dusting powdered enamel on to cast iron articles which have been previously placed in a stove to heat; withdraws heated article from furnace and sprinkles powdered enamel over it as evenly as possible, by hand, using a long-handled sifter or dredger; returns articles as soon as "dusted" to fuser q.v. to have enamel fused on in muffle furnace; sometimes specifically designated according to articles enamelled, e.g. advertisement sign enameller, cycle enameller, hollow-ware enameller.
enameller, black
coats steel and iron work with non-vitreous black enamel, by hand, with brush, or dips steel and iron work or other articles, e.g. electrical armatures, in a vat of black enamel; in small works, does own stoving. see stover.
finisher, parasol rib; umbrella rib finisher
a dip hand q.v. who puts coat of japan on parasol or umbrella ribs, and bakes them in stove to harden japan.
see polisher.
see muffle band.
hot room attendant
see stover.
applies coat of black japan to articles by brushing, dinning or spraying (see brasher, dip band, and sprayer, air); places articles aside to drain and dry, ready for stoving; in small works, may do own stoving, see stover; usually applies two successive coatings of japan (and sometimes more) to each article, hardening each coat as applied, to give better "finish"; (screws) places screws through holes of perforated plate, applies japan to heads of screws by band with a brush, and takes plate and screws to stove for hardening; frequently specifically designated according to nature of articles japanned, e.g. edge tool japanner, furniture japanner, harness japanner, plate lock japanner. stock lock japanner.
lacquerer, hot lacquerer ; varnisher, varnish woman
applies coat of lacquer to metallic surfaces (usually brass), by dipping articles in bath of specially prepared lacquer, or by means of a brush, or for large articles, by spraying lacquer on by air-spray, see sprayer, air; usually beats articles in stove before lacquering and applies lacquer to them whilst still hot; cf. cold lacquerer.
see brasher.
paints lines of colour in enamel, by band, on enamelled or japanner metal articles, i.e. parts of cycles, sewing machines, etc., to serve as decoration; passes articles on for stoving to harden colour, or to fuse enamel; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. colour liner, cycle liner, gold liner.
see swiller.
muffle hand ; burner, fuser
tends muffle furnace in which are heated metal goods with coating of unfused enamel, so that enamel is fused on; regulates temperature by adjusting gas valves or flue dampers if coal heated: runs enamelled articles to be fused into furnace on grids or trays supported on small trolleys; watches progress of fusing through aperture; withdraws goods from furnace when operation is complete, and sets aside to cool, ready for further coat of enamel or for despatch to warehouse.
ornamenter, japanned; japanner's ornamenter
does coloured ornamental work on japanned ware, by hand, with a brush, including lining, see liner; puts decorated ware aside to dry ready for hardening-on in stove.
see stover.
painter (bedsteads)
see brasher, paint.
painter, cycle
a brasher q.v. or an air sprayer; q.v. who applies coloured coat of japan or enamel to cycle parte; repeats process giving as many coats of colour as are required, allowing each coat to be stoved (see stover) before applying next.
see bronzer.
polisher ; flatter, rubber
rubs down, after stoving, surfaces of metal ware, that have been japanned or enamelled, by hand with pumice stone or powder to render them smooth and remove all excess of japan or enamel; passes ware on for further coat of enamel, etc., until sufficient coats have been applied, stoved and polished; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. black polisher, enameller's polisher, japan polisher.
see polisher.
sprayer, air; paint sprayer ; aeroqrapher
controls valves of aerograph, or spraying machine, by which a coating of enamel (or japan) in liquid form is blown on to metal articles in process of enamelling (or japanning); may use stencils to reproduce designs or lettering; sets articles aside to drain and dry ready for stoving, see stover.
stover, stove attendant, stove man ; hot room attendant, ovenman
places metal goods that have been coated with enamel or japan on trays or grids and places these in an oven (japanned ware); regulates heat of oven which is usually gas fired; watches ware to ensure complete hardening of japan; withdraws ware when process is complete and sets it aside to cool ready for polisher q.v.; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. black stover, colour stover, enameller's stover.
swiller ; liquidiser
(i) a dip hand q.v. who dips "flat" ware, e.g. plates for advertisement signs, in tub of liquid enamel;
(ii) (hollowware) pours a small quantity of liquid enamel into hollow-ware, e.g. bowls, saucepans, and swills it round to distribute enamel over surface-and pours surplus back into vat; sets article to drain ready for fusing.
a liner q.v. who puts a beading of colour by applying liquid enamel round top of enamelled metal hollow-ware.
varnisher, varnish woman
see lacquerer.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.