A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 2.—Makers of Paints, Oils (not Mineral), etc.

159.—Other Workers

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alley girl (soap)
inspects and passes (or rejects) tablets of soap as they leave stamping machines; places on one side those with defective imprints or coarse surface; cf. stamper (158).
barreller, oil barreller
in charge of barrelling of by-products or of finished oil in oil refinery; runs in oil from storage tanks into barrel, closes barrel and seals it, stencils details of contents on outside.
barreller, fish oil
as for barreller.
bean man
a band conveyor attendant q.v. who attends castor oil seed conveyor.
bleacher, beeswax ; wax bleacher
(i) bleaches beeswax by exposing it to sunlight
(ii) melts beeswax and stirs it up, in a steam-jacketted vessel with mechanical stirring apparatus, with chromic acid or with hydrogen peroxide, or runs a stream of ozonised air through it; allows bleached wax to cool and solidify, runs off liquid and stirs up wax with hot water to remove last traces of chemicals, and allows it to cool and solidify.
blocker (candles) ; moulder (candles)
runs purified molten paraffin wax into small moulds in candle moulding machine and places over moulds, metal covers which become attached to cooled wax blocks; removes solid blocks of paraffin wax from machine and places in power press which forces wax into containers and separates from metal covers.
blood collector
places tin pans below slaughtered animals to catch blood; empties pans into barrels which he carts when full to albumen maker (158) q.v. in blood shed.
blue mill labourer
weighs out correct proportions of ingredients of laundry blue according to formula; mixes them roughly by means of turning over with scoop, and feeds mixture to hopper of grinding mill by means of scoop or shovel; removes powdered and mixed product.
bogey lad
wheels small trucks of material to man engaged in weighing out ingredients of compound (cattle) cake.
bogie man
see stower, cake.
boiler, beeswax ; wax boiler
places beeswax (honeycombs) into steam-heated tanks; runs in water and turns a valve admitting steam to jacket of tank, thus melting beeswax; starts mechanical stirrer to agitate liquor to dissolve out any soluble impurities in water, allows liquids to settle and separate, then runs off wax straining it by running it out through fine muslin frame to extract solid impurities; runs it into moulds ready for beeswax bleacher q.v.
boiler, bone
see cleanser, bone.
boiler, grease; lubricating grease boiler
(i) iron and steel rolling , collects waste lubricating grease, remelts it in steam-jacketed pans, and casts it into blocks for greasing necks of rolls in rolling mill;
(ii) see cleanser, bone.
boiler, hard soap ; hard soap maker
a pan man (soap) q.v. who boils hard soaps, i.e. , soaps made by saponification of oils with caustic soda.
boiler, pan
see pan man (soap).
boiler, scum ; grease melter (glue, size)
shovels meat scraps, etc., into steam-jacketted tank; admits water, turns on steam and skims scum of grease or fat from top of liquor for use in manufacture of glue.
boiler, size (carpet and rug)
prepares mixed size for starching yarn, or carpet weaving, by boiling it in closed pans, temperature of which he regulates.
boiler, soap
see pan man (soap).
boiler, soft soap
see soft soap maker.
boiler, toilet soap
as for pan man (soap).
boiler, wax
see boiler, beeswax.
boiler, wax (electric cables)
melts resin, pitch and wax in heated pots, to form a waxy liquid for use in armouring cables, and in tape and braiding machines.
boiling hand, soap
see pan man (soap).
boiling house man (candles) ; tub man
shovels into steam heated tanks, solid fatty acids; runs in oils, and adds colouring matter when candles are to be of coloured wax; tends valves of heating coils and controls automatic stirrers; runs mixed candle wax into small tanks or tubs ready for candle moulder (158) q.v.
bottler, ink ; ink filler
fills bottles with ink, either by pouring from a can, or from a larger receptacle fitted with a tap, or by means of a syphon filling machine; may also cork and seal bottles with sealing wax and seal; cf. ink bottle corker, ink bottle sealer.
boy labourer (soap)
wheels small trucks of soap to drying room to be stacked; takes soap to presses to be made into tablets; helps in wrapping and packing, keeps packers supplied with wrapping material, and does other light unskilled jobs.
brightener, oil brightener
operates valves, which admit oil to heated pan and superheated steam to heating coils; when water in oil i's driven off and oil brightened, runs oil to storage tanks.
cake maker, linseed
as for pressman (compound cake).
cakette maker
see pressman (compound cake).
cakette man
see kettle man.
cart grease maker, cart grease man ; cart grease melter, coach grease maker, coach grease melter
a fat melter q.v. who makes cart grease by mixing together, in hot water or steam-jacketted pan, tallow, palm oil and plumbago; maintains mechanical stirring until mixture is nearly cold.
caulker, boy caulker (soap)
caulks soap frames, i.e. , drives by means of hammer and chisel packing of hemp or oakum into joints between sides of soap frame in which soap, whilst still fluid, is run to cool, to prevent leakage.
caustic and spent lye hand (soap) ; soap lees maker
weighs out caustic soda and shovels it into tank, runs in definite volume of water and stirs to promote solution; runs out solution when required into tank containing melted fats or oils to produce saponification, cf. pan man (soap); also receives spent lye, i.e. , lye after caustic chemical has been used up in saponification, which is run off from soap boiling pan by pan man (soap) q.v. and collects it in storage tanks and runs or pumps it off as required to plant for subsequent extraction of salt and glycerine.
cellar man, oil
in charge of oil storage tanks; operates valves and pumps for charging and discharging; keeps record of stock.
see silo man.
see potman.
checker (soap)
checks and records quantities of raw materials received and of finished products made.
clarifier man
see settler, fat.
cleaner, bone
see scraper, bone.
cleaner, cotton seed
as for cleaner, seed.
cleaner, drum
cleans out drums in which oils and fats and other liquid chemicals are received in or despatched from soap, candle, oil, etc., works by inverting them over steam and water jets, which may be part of revolving table of washing machine; cf. washer, barrel.
cleaner, gum
see picker, gum.
cleaner, mill
a labourer who assists in cleaning seed crushing mill and machinery; also takes oil cake parings in truck from parer q.v. to cake grinder q.v. to be mixed up with fresh material and treated afresh for expression of oil.
cleaner, pan; press cleaner
see mucker-out.
cleaner, seed
attends a cleaning machine which sieves dirt and other impurities from seed; tips seed out of sacks into hopper of machine and keeps machine oiled; may also act as seed screener q.v.
cleanser, bone ; bone boiler, grease boiler
boils bones, after they have been scraped by bone scraper q.v. in water to remove last traces of fat; skims off fat from top of liquor.
cleanser (soap)
superintends process of cleansing, i.e. , runs off pure settled soap, from soap pan in which it is made, into crutcher (mixing machine) or into cooling frames; this usually forms part of work of pan man (soap) q.v.
coach grease maker
see cart grease maker.
compound cake maker
see pressman (compound cake).
conveyor attendant, band conveyor attendant (seed crushing)
attends to conveyor on which he places sacks of seed or shovels loose seed for conveyance from place to place in seed crushing works; controls conveyor by means of lever, and oils it periodically.
conveyor attendant, salt
controls valve governing flow of brine into soap kettle or pan during process of graining, i.e. , throwing soap out of solution into granular mass, and liberating glycerine, by action of salt or brine; runs off glycerine and shovels soap from tank.
see kettle man.
cooker lad
attends cooking machine in compound cake making; opens valve admitting steam to jacket of cooker, and tends bucket conveyor which fills cooker with crushed seed ready for expressing of oil after heating; rakes, or scoops out heated seeds and places them in press for next operation.
cooler (candle)
opens valve admitting cold water to outer jacket of candle moulding machine to cool wax in moulds; usually done by moulder (158) q.v.
cooler (soap)
(i) operates and controls cooling apparatus in which soap is cooled by circulation of cold water; regulates flow of water, and working of machine which forces out soap mechanically as it solidifies;
(ii) see filler, frame.
see pan man (soap).
corker, ink bottle
corks filled bottles of ink, either by hand or machine.
cotton oil man
assists cotton oil refiner (158) q.v. and performs genera] unskilled work in connection with manufacture of cotton seed oil.
cracker, bone
see crusher, bone.
cracker (lino)
shovels gums and resins into a breaking or grinding machine in preparation for making of linoleum compound.
cracker (oil)
see kibbler.
crusher, bone ; bone cracker
shovels or puts bones into hopper of crushing machine or cracker, and controls machine, which crushes them up ready for extraction of fats in tallow factory; cf. bone crusher (manure) (149).
crusher (oil seed), crusher (seed crushing) ; anglo rollerman, grinder (seed crushing), rollerman
feeds by shovelling seed into hopper, or by means of a conveyor, and tends machine, composed of heavy rollers, in which seeds or nuts are crushed to extract oil and for making cattle food; sometimes specially designated according to nature of seed crushed, e.g. , cotton seed crusher, linseed crusher.
attends to crutcher, a large steel pan in a steam jacket, and provided with a mechanical stirrer; runs in ingredients of soap, i.e. , cleansed soap from soap pan (cf. cleanser, soap) scent, colouring material, carbolic acid, or filling material (where this is to be added), and tends stirring of mixture till whole is homogeneous; leaves soap to stand for some hours (usually overnight) and runs it into soap frames to cool, cf. frame filler.
cuber, cuber man
attends hydraulic press, by which crushed and cooked oil seeds are compressed into cubes of cattle (or compound) cake; opens chute of hopper to charge press and controls hydraulic press to compress cake by means of levers; removes cake from press.
cutter (candles)
cuts wicks, and removes candles, which have been forced up, after moulding, into clamps which he has previously placed on top of candle moulding machine; cuts, by hand, candles into lengths according to standard or specified measurements.
cutter, cotton
cuts with scissors and prepares lengths of cotton wick for candles of unusual dimensions, or for beeswax candles, which are not moulded.
cutter, court plaster
feeds sheets of court plaster between rollers of a cutting and/or perforating machine, to be cut up into small pieces.
cutter, fat ; hasher man, tallow cutter
shovels, etc., beef, mutton, or other animal fat, received from bone scraper q.v. , into automatic cutting machine, to cut it up ready for operation of boiling out- tallow.
cutter, gelatine
cuts out gelatine, while still in jelly state, from moulds in which it is poured by gelatine moulder q.v.; cuts large moulds into small blocks with knife by hand; sometimes also does work of gelatine slabber q.v.
cutter, glue
see cutter-out, glue.
cutter, isinglass
puts damped and rolled fish swimming bladders, cf. isinglass roller, in a machine which cuts them into narrow strips or shavings.
cutter, soap
(i) cuts large blocks of soap received from stock stripper q.v. by drawing a wire through it at previously marked intervals;
(ii) cuts slabs produced by machines, cf. slabbing machine man, in similar way.
cutter, tallow
see cutter, fat.
cutter, wax taper
cuts wax tapers into lengths, with a guillotine knife, as they leave machine, cutter-out, blacking; cuts solidified blacking to size and shape required, usually by machine, which both cuts and wraps up blacking.
cutter-out, glue ; glue cutter
cuts out glue whilst in jelly state, by hand or machine, from moulds oi troughs into which it is run from glue boiling vat; cuts glue, by hand operated wire frame, into blocks or slabs.
delinter (seed crushing) ; linter
attends and feeds machine which removes short fibres adhering to cotton seeds, after long fibres have been detached in ginning process; shovels seeds into machine, attaches sacks beneath delivery chute and trucks cleaned seeds to warehouse; removes fibre from machine.
deodoriser's assistant
assists deodoriser (158) q.v. tending tank in which expressed oil is deodorised by bubbling steam through it; controls steam, and oil inlet and outlet valves, under direction of deodoriser; cleans out tanks between successive charges.
dextrine maker
attends revolving cylinders into which he charges material, usually potatoes, potato starch, wheat or maize, after dressing or sieving; closes cylinders and attends to furnaces which convert contents by calcination into dextrine; discharges cylinders at end of action.
digester man
feeds digester with bones and fatty refuse and meat offal; bolts on cover, controls temperature of digester by means of steam valve, which causes fat to melt and flow out when drawn off; empties digester of residual offal, i.e. greaves, at end of operation.
dips compound cake, compressed crushed oil seeds, into water, to obtain shiny surface on cake, and places it in racks to dry.
drawer-off ; mealer (seed crushing)
(i) see filler (seed crushing);
(ii) draws off ground material (oil cake) from chutes and fills into sacks, ready for despatch; ties sacks up and removes to store.
dresser, gum
empties from sacks broken glue into hopper feeding a sieve; brushes glue against sieve with hand brush, to dress or sift dirt from glue; cleans sieve periodically.
dripping maker
(i) melts suet, adds preservative and strains off product, into moulds;
(ii) dripping melter, dripping refiner; tends steam-jacketted pans in which meat and fat scraps are boiled .in water, till fat rises as liquid to surface; skims off fat and pours into receptacles to solidify.
dryer, continuous (soap)
operates and controls continuous soap drying apparatus, which receives fluid soap into a hopper from which it runs out in thin smooth sheet on outside of revolving water-cooled cylinders where it solidifies, and from which it is detached by a fixed knife-edge, as cylinder revolves; soap drops off from cylinder in thin strips, passes through heated chambers on endless belt, and emerges, finally, dry; sometimes combines this with work of drying machine hand q.v.
dryer, gelatine ; puller-on, spreader
lay strips or slabs of gelatine on trays of nets, and places trays in a rack in a current of air, to dry gelatine; removes trays w/hen gelatine is dry.
dryer, glue
(i) glue layer-out, layer-out, putter-on; places slabs of glue, of consistency of jelly, to dry on nets in open-air, or on nets in frames, in a current of dry air, caused by electric fan in tunnel drying chamber;
(ii) tends and feeds machine, composed of heated rollers, over which glue is allowed to pass slowly and is thus dried; places glue on rollers; regulates gas burners heating rollers.
dryer, size
as for dryer, glue.
drying machine hand (soap)
operates a machine which sends a current of warm air into drying room to dry soap; sometimes combines this with work of continuous dryer q.v.
dry soap maker
see soap powder maker.
envelope maker
see wrapper man.
fat maker
see melter, fat.
feeder, feederman (seed crushing)
(i) weighs compound cake ingredients and shovels, pours, etc., down chute, supplying mixer (seed crushing) q.v.
(ii) shovels seeds, kernels, etc., into crushing or other machine, when not done by mixer;
(iii) in charge of conveyor apparatus, which conveys seeds to cleaning, crushing, or pressing machines; oils conveyor as required and may place sacks of seed on conveyor, or remove them.
feeder (soap)
see pan man (soap).
filler, enamel paint ; enamel paint packer
a paint packer q.v. who pours or runs enamel paint made by enamel mixer (152) q.v. into tubs, drums, or kegs and closes same ready for despatch.
filler, frame ; cooler (soap), frame man
runs warm liquid soap, after crutching, cf. crutcher, into large rectangular boxes or frames on wheels, fitted with detachable sides and ends; leaves soap in frame for two or three days to cool and solidify; when soap is quite solid, passes frames to stock stripper q.v. to be taken to pieces.
filler, ink
see bottler, ink.
filler, oil
see packer, oil.
filler, paint
see packer paint.
filler (seed crushing, etc.) ; drawer-off, mealer
fills drums or barrels with oil, molasses or by-products, and seals barrels by driving in bung, and drums by means of screw cap.
filler, varnish
see putter-up, varnish.
filter man
operates pump valve to control flow of oil to oil filtering plant; removes and cleans sieves, by hand, when required.
flood man (seed crushing)
see valra man.
frame man
see filler, frame.
furniture polish maker
general term for any person engaged in making polishing wax or cream; processes similar to those in manufacture of hoot polishes, and similar machinery used, i.e. weighing of components, mixing in steam-jacketted pan, and pouring into tins, bottles, jars, or drums; includes mixer (158), filler (949) q.v.
gelatine maker ; gelatine melter
digests cleaned and bleached bones or animal skins in water, in pans heated by steam coil, keeping temperature below 85° C.; when liquor is sufficiently strong, runs it off, bleaches it by opening valve to blow sulphur dioxide gas through it; hydrogen peroxide is used if gelatine is to be edible; runs liquor out on sheets of glass cooled with water, or into wooden troughs to solidify.
gold size maker
boils a mixture of various gums with turpentine in hooded pans, to produce a varnish and paint drier called gold size; weighs and shovels gum into pans; opening valve, runs-in measured quantity of turpentine; turns on steam to heat pans; runs off boiling liquid to cool.
grease maker
see melter, fat.
grease maker, railway ; railway grease melter
mixes tallow, mineral oil, and soda solution in a steam-jacketted pan, to make grease used for lubricating wheels of railway vehicles; runs mixture out into barrels for despatch.
grease maker (varnish)
opening valves, runs into a mixing tank oil and milk of lime; starts-up mechanical stirrer or stirs by hand until a "doughy" mass of grease formed; shovels grease from tank into drums or casks.
grease maker (wool combing)
see seak maker.
grinder, grinder feeder
feeds material to hopper, or direct to grinding machine, to be ground to powder for further handling or sale as powder; tends machine generally; sometimes specifically designated according to name of material ground, e.g. cake grinder (oil cake, or compound cake), dry soap grinder, glue grinder, soap powder grinder, stearic acid (or stearine) grinder.
grinder, gelatine
shovels dried glue or gelatine into grinding mill; when sufficiently ground, brings automatic sifting apparatus into play by means of lever; fixes empty sacks under chutes and removes full sacks to truck.
grinder (seed crushing)
see crusher (oil seed).
gum chopper
breaks up gum in a small chopping machine; shovels gum into machine; affixes sacks beneath machine delivery chute and trucks filled sacks to store.
gum maker, gum runner
makes gum by melting imported gums in covered gum pot, adding sufficient water to dissolve gum, and thus preserve its liquid form when cold; stirs continuously during heating process; strains off clear gum from sediment, and fills barrels, jars, bottles, etc., with finished gum; cf. gum runner (varnish) (158).
hard soap maker
see boiler, hard soap.
see cutter, fat.
heater man, cakette
see kettleman.
heelball maker
melts and mixes together mineral wax and lampblack in heated pans; runs mixture into moulds to cool.
isinglass maker
general term to cover all semi-skilled workers in manufacture of isinglass, includes cutter, roller q.v.
kettleman ; cakette heater man, cakette man, cooker
attends steam-heated pans, or kettles, in which cleaned and crushed seeds, in form of meal, are cooked ready for pressman (compound cake) q.v.; controls steam valves and charges pans.
kibbler, kibblerman ; cracker (oil), nutterman
attends and feeds machine in which he breaks up oil cake into nodular pieces before grinding into meal; places cake in feed hopper; shovels broken cake from delivery hopper into sacks for despatch or into harrows which he trucks to machine man (seed crushing) q.v.
kitchen stuff maker
see melter, rat.
layer-out, glue layer-out
see dryer, glue.
layer-out (gelatine)
see slabber, gelatine.
see delinter (seed crushing).
linter lad
assists delinter q.v. generally.
machine attendant, machine hand (seed crushing)
general term for any person minding and feeding any machine, but more especially used for attendant of cakette or nutting machine, cf. pressman (compound cake).
machineman, barring (soap)
places slab of soap on bar-cutting machine, and forces soap, by operating a lever, through frame of wires, to cut it into bars.
machineman, plodding
tends and operates plodding machine which he feeds with milled soap; machine forces soap by means of a spiral screw through perforated plate, causing soap to emerge as a number of threads of soap, which are then squeezed in machine into form of continuous bar.
machineman (seed crushing)
attends disintegrators, which grind up nodules of oil cake, after kibbling, into meal, prior to mixing ingredients for compound cake; shovels nodules into machine; engages driving pulley; opens trap door periodically to deliver meal into containers beneath machine.
machineman, slabbing (soap)
attends machine which forces solid block of soap on wheeled base, cf. stock stripper, through a frame of wires which cut soap into slabs ready for barring machineman q.v.; pushes soap on to machine feed platform; removes cut slabs.
mealer (seed crushing)
see drawer-off.
meatman (cattle cake)
see mill hand (cattle cake).
melter (candles) ; melting house man (candles)
(i) melts crude paraffin wax in large tanks, by means of an open steam pipe, in readiness for refiner q.v.;
(ii) see melter, stearine;
(iii) receives pressed cakes of fatty acid and wax from pressman (candles) q.v. , and melts and clarifies them ready for candle moulder (158) q.v. or for dipper q.v.
melter, cart grease
see cart grease maker.
melter, coach grease
see cart grease maker.
melter, dripping
see dripping maker.
melter, fat
(i) extracts fat from residue after animal skin, hair, hide, etc., (excluding bones) have been limed, and boiled for extraction of glue; runs in sulphuric and hydrochloric acids to break down insoluble lime soap and release fatty acids;
(ii) fat maker, fat purifier, grease maker, grease melter (fat extraction), grease refiner, kitchen stuff maker, kitchen stuff melter, kitchen stuff refiner, tallow melter, tallow refiner; tends steam heated tank or digester in which he melts out fat from beef, mutton, etc., scraps, and bones; tends mechanical stirring apparatus which ensures thorough heating of material, and runs off fat at intervals from top of liquor; extracts fat from tissue with sulphuric acid and steam in open pans; generally also refines fat by stirring it in warm water, sometimes adding caustic soda, allowing it to settle and solidify and running off washing liquor;
(iii) empties out fats or oils into tanks from barrels or drums in which they are received and melts them; cf. melter, oil.
melter, gelatine
see gelatine maker.
melter, grease (fat extraction)
see melter, fat.
melter, grease (glue, size)
see boiler, scum.
melter, kitchen stuff
see melter, fat.
melter, night light
attends copper vessel in which mixture of paraffin wax and stearine, used for making night lights, is kept hot and liquid for use of night light moulder (158) q.v.; stokes fire, regulates gas burners or steam valve to control heating; opening a valve replenishes vessel with mixed molten wax and stearine (fat) at intervals as required.
melter, oil
(i) melts oil in barrels or drums, by injecting steam or by placing in a heated chamber;
(ii) collects solid residues containing fat, such as butcher's waste; spreads on heated plates and runs oil which exudes into tanks or other suitable vessels;
(iii) heats solid oils in covered pans, usually by means of steam coil, which he regulates, and runs off liquid oil into mixing tanks as required.
melter, railway grease
see grease maker, railway.
melter (soap)
as for melter, oil.
melter, stearic acid
tends pan in which solid stearic acid, from which oleic acid has been pressed out from inedible tallow by stearine pressman (candles) q.v. , is melted by means of steam jacket or coil; operates valves controlling supply of steam to pan.
melter, stearine ; melter (candles)
takes animal and vegetable fats from casks in which they are received, empties casks either by inserting open steam pipe in bung hole, turning oil steam, and so running melted fats into a tank or by shovelling fats from cask into tank; turns on steam to clarify them by removing fibrous matter, which settles out; runs off melted stearine through a filter to settling vats and from thence to cooling tank or into trays to solidify.
melter, tallow
see melter, fat.
melting house man (candles)
see melter (candles).
miller, oil
a crusher (oil seed) q.v. who crushes oil seeds or nut kernels to express oil contained therein.
miller (soap) ; millman (soap)
(i) operates and controls a soap mill which grinds dried soap chips or shavings, into long transparent ribbons of soap, which may either be converted into flake soap ready for sale, or passed on to plodding machineman q.v. for conversion into toilet soap;
(ii) see grinder; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. dry soap miller, soap powder miller.
mill hand (cattle cake) ; mealman (cattle cake)
passes grain through mill, consisting either of grinding stones or steel rollers, to crush it into meal; feeds mill with grain; adjusts stones or rollers according to required fineness of meal, and supervises working of machinery.
milling hand (soap)
a miller (soap) q.v. or a labourer in soap mill assisting miller (soap).
millman (soap)
see miller (soap).
mixer (fat)
shovels paraffin wax from casks, drums, etc., into steam jacketted tank, -turns-on steam and, opening valve, runs liquid wax to moulding machine ; cf. blocker (candles).
mixer (seed crushing)
shovels crushed seeds and other ingredients of compound cake in mixing machine, engages driving pulley, and when ingredients are sufficiently mixed stops machine and shovels ingredients therefrom.
moulder (candles)
see blocker (candles).
moulder, cake moulder (compound cake) ; steam moulder
from steam kettle, heat of which he regulates, draws-off quantity of crushed and heated meal into a tray; fills therefrom a mould which, by operating a lever, he superimposes upon a cloth wrapper; withdraws mould and wraps meal in cloth; puts aside wrapped meal for pressman (compound cake) q.v.
moulder, gelatine
runs clarified pure gelatine, while hot, out of purifying tanks into wooden troughs or moulds; regulates steam valve of tank.
moulder, glue ; glue runner-off, runner-off (glue, size)
shovels dried glue into steam-jacketted pan; turns on steam and runs melted glue, whilst still warm, into wooden troughs or moulds.
moulder, steam
see moulder (compound cake).
mountant maker
see paste maker.
pan cleaner, pan washer, press cleaner, raker-out; cleans up pans, tanks, presses, wells at foot of presses, conveyors, kibbling machines, etc., cleans floors, etc., in a seed crushing or oil cake mill.
see kibbler.
oil house man (seed crushing)
a general labourer in extractor house in which oil is extracted from crushed seeds by chemical solvent, cf. oil extractor (seed crushing) (158).
oil mill nipper
carries oil cake or compound cake away from press; or fetches and carries for foreman.
packer, enamel paint
see filler, enamel paint.
packer, oil (vegetable oil refining) ; oil filler
draws off oil into drums or barrels from storage tanks; closes and seals containers ready for despatch, with cork, screw cap, and wire.
packer, paint ; paint filler
fills, by drawing from storage tank, drums, kegs, and tins with prepared paints, i.e. pigments that have been partly or fully made up with oils and turpentine ready for use; weighs them, makes-up deficiency by pouring from small vessel and corks, by hand.
packer, varnish
see putter-up, varnish.
pan man (seed crushing)
see potman.
pan man (soap)
coppersidesman, feeder (soap), pan boiler, pansideman, soap boiler, soap boiling hand: runs oils and fats into a large pan, heated by steam coils which he controls; runs in caustic alkali, and boils mixture until saponification is well under way; runs in brine or shovels in salt, boils again and allows to stand till layer of soap paste forms at top, and one of spent lye, i.e., liquor containing weak caustic alkali, brine, and glycerol, at bottom; runs off spent lye to be sent to glycerine extraction plant; runs in more caustic alkali, boils again to ensure complete saponification, and finally runs off, by means of pipe on swivel joint, layer of soap into crutcher (cf. crutcher); may also perform duties of soap waste recoverer q.v.
see pan man (soap).
parer, cake parer ; cake trimmer, scratter
feeds and operates machine which automatically cuts off rough edges of oil cake formed during oil expression, to be returned to pressing machine for further expressing of oil; places trimmed cakes in iron frame to be wheeled to cake weigher q.v.
parer (soap)
feeds bars of dried soap to rotary soap-chipping machine, which cuts them into small thin chips, soap flakes; catches chips as they fall from machine into suitable box ready for packing in cartons, etc.
paste maker ; mountant maker
mixes up powdered starch and water, or flour and water and a preservative, into an adhesive semi-fluid mass, usually by warming in steam jacketted tanks; pours fluid off while still warm into containers in which it is to be sold.
perfumer (soap)
adds essential oils or other perfuming material to soap during process of manufacture, usually during crutching operation, cf. crutcher.
picker, gum ; gum cleaner, gum sorter
sorts out various qualities of gums as imported from Egypt, India, etc., and removes dirt therefrom; process mainly carried on abroad.
piler (soap)
piles bars of warm, newly-made soap loosely across each other, to allow free circulation of air in pile, heated drying rooms, through which an air current is driven by an electric fan.
polish maker
general term for any worker engaged in making, mixing, etc., polishes of all kinds; includes mixer (158), filler (949) q.v.
potman ; chargeman, pan man (seed crushing)
assists oil extractor (158) q.v. by shovelling seeds into or out of extraction vessels or pans and under his direction opens valve, e.g. to run in spirit solvent.
press attendant
shovels moist colour sludge into frames; puts frames in presses and operates valves to control presses; removes frames, unscrews them and removes colour block; washes frames with brush or hose pipe.
presser, cake
(i) see pressman (seed crushing);
(ii) see pressman (compound cake).
presser, metal polish
feeds and attends a press in which he presses mixed ingredients of solid metal polish into blocks ready for sale.
presser (seed crushing)
see pressman (seed crushing) ; sometimes specifically designated according to kind of seed pressed or product made, e.g. cotton seed presser, linseed presser, oil presser, seed presser, etc.
presser, shoddy (oil extraction)
operates valves of filter press through which shoddy or dirty oil is forced to free it from carbon and foreign matter; changes filter gauzes periodically.
presser, sperm
places lumps of refined spermaceti in a steam-heated press, which shapes it into blocks ready for export; controls press by levers; removes blocks when pressed.
pressman, anglo
see pressman (seed crushing).
pressman, cage
a pressman (seed crushing) q.v. who operates cage presses, usually four, in which he crushes castor oil seeds to extract oil in cold-drawn process, in which seeds are pressed, without any cooking, by kettleman q.v.; fills cages with seeds, inserts in press and proceeds as for pressman (seed crushing); cf. crusher (seed crushing).
pressman (compound cake) ; cake presser, cakette maker, compound cake maker
(i) places moulds of meal, received from moulder on wooden slide, in spaces in hydraulic press which presses cooked and crushed seeds (or meal) into cake form; operates valve applying pressure; removes cakes by hand when pressed and passes to stripper;
(ii) shovels meal into a roller machine which presses meal into cakettes or nuts, small pieces of compound cake which are ready for use without breaking; watches automatic ejection of small cakes for smooth working; controls pressure by lever or valve.
pressman (seed crushing)
(i) charges hydraulic press with crushed palm kernels, nuts, etc., from hopper, and then operates levers to express oil into storage tank; removes cake of seeds from press ready to be taken to parer q.v.;
(ii) cake presser, presser (seed crushing), anglo pressman; places moulded cakes of crushed and steamed oil seed, which have been wrapped in press cloths by wrapper man q.v. between plates of a heavy hydraulic press; operates press thus squeezing out oil; also attends kettle when there is no separate kettle man.
pressman, stearine; wax pressman (candles) ; stearine recoverer
places crystalline stearine or crude paraffin wax into press cloths or canvas bags, and places in hydraulic or filter press; moves lever which applies pressure to bags and contents thus squeezing out all non-solid oils, i.e. oleine attaching to crystals or lubricant grease; releases pressure, takes out bags and empties pure stearine from bags or yellow cakes of wax from press cloths, into trucks.
see dryer, gelatine.
removes pressed oil cakes from press, and takes them to paring machine; cf. parer.
purifier (candles)
see refiner (candles).
purifier, fat
see melter, fat.
purifier, fat (soap); oil purifier (soap) ; fat or oil refiner
runs fats or oils, as received in factory, into tank and purifies them by boiling them with dilute sulphuric acid in lead-lined or wooden tank heated by a steam coil; draws off purified fats when they have settled into another tank for saponification.
pusher-in ; shover-in
puts wrapped, crushed, and cooked seed into press for pressman (compound cake) q.v.; sometimes also acts as wrapper man q.v.
see dryer, glue.
putter-up, varnish ; varnish filler, varnish packer
fills and labels cans, jars, bottles, kegs, barrels, etc., with varnish from a tank in which it has been stored for at least a year to mature.
(i) see mucker-out;
(ii) (seed crushing) rakes out material left by stirrers in extraction vessel after steaming, cf. oil extractor (158).
recoverer. soap waste
(i) runs off from soap boiling pans nigre, i.e., a layer of dark liquid which forms under soap layer, and which contains an inferior soap; mixes this liquor with fat and oil, and boils up afresh with soda lye to make pure soap;
(ii) bleaches nigre by adding stannous chloride solution, or hydrogen peroxide, and then works it up into a coarse cheap soap; usually done by pan man (soap) q.v.
recoverer, stearine (candle)
see pressman, stearine.
refiner, beeswax ; wax refiner
strains melted beeswax through a fabric to extract impurities; usually combines this with work of beeswax bleacher q.v.
refiner (candles) ; purifier (candles), refining house man
refines paraffin wax used in making candles, night lights, and tapers, by melting it in large tanks heated by steam coal; then admits steam which he bubbles through the wax, pumps or runs molten wax and water into settling tanks, runs off water and draws wax off into trays placed in ovens, where, oil is sweated away, by passing in open steam; further purifies wax by melting it in large pans provided with agitators, which stir it up with charcoal to remove all traces of colour; allows wax to settle and runs it off into moulds to solidify.
refiner, dripping
see dripping maker.
refiner, fat or oil
see purifier, fat (soap).
refiner, grease
(i) see melter, fat;
(ii) passes cart, etc., grease whilst still liquid and hot through steam jacketted felt filter to extract lumps and impurities; runs grease thence into casks for despatch; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. cart grease refiner, coach grease refiner, railway grease refiner.
refiner, kitchen stuff
see melter, fat.
refiner, stearine
places blocks of stearine, received from stearine pressman q.v., in tank, runs in water and heats whole by opening valve allowing steam to pass through the water; agitates liquor mechanically, allows stearine and water to settle out, and runs off purified stearine.
refiner, tallow
see melter, fat.
refiner, wax
(i) see refiner, beeswax;
(ii) (candles) collects wax left in candle moulding house as residue after candle making; puts wax, so collected in wooden tub, melts it by means of admitting steam to coil in tub, adds acid and stirs up liquor by hand; allows to settle, runs off acid, washes wax with water and allows to cool and solidify; adds clean wax to that in tanks of candle moulding house; cf. wax refiner (143).
refiner's assistant, refiner's labourer (vegetable oils)
assists oil refiner (158) q.v. on process work generally, such as oil filtering, neutralising, boiling with purifying agents, settling of liquids and running off products different specific gravities separately, etc.
refinery floor man, oil
sweeps up and keeps clean floors of oil refinery.
refining house man
see refiner (candles).
refrigerating plant attendant
i attends to refrigerating plant, in ' which heavy oil or soft paraffin, residue from wax refining process, and useless for candle making, is converted into blue oil, to be mixed with lubricant oils and greases; controls intake of heavy oil and drawing-off of blue oil and unconverted thin oil by means of valves.
roller, isinglass
passes damped fish sounds, or air bladders into a rolling machine, which rolls them out flat, ready for isinglass cutter q.v.
roller lad
assists crusher (oil seed) q.v.
rollerman, anglo rollerman
see crusher (seed crushing).
trims edges of compound cake after pressing; as for parer, cake.
runner-off (glue, size)
see moulder, glue.
sampler, tallow
takes samples of tallow from refineries, etc., for test and examination; usually employed by a broker.
scalesman (soap)
weighs raw materials for use in soap, etc., manufacture.
scraper, bone (tallow extraction) ; ; bone cleaner
scrapes or cuts off from bones, using special band tool, fat and meat to be used for tallow extraction.
see parer.
screener, seed ; screenman
feeds, by shovelling or tipping seed into hopper or by means of a conveyor, and attends to screens which sort seeds from any impurities, such as other types of seed, dirt, etc.; operates levers starting and stopping screen as required; cf. cleaner, seed.
seak (or sceak) breaker
receives hard cakes of wool grease from which oil has been squeezed out by seak (or sceak) maker q.v. and breaks them.up for hop garden manure, or, for use as fuel, by feeding into hopper of cracking or breaking machine.
seak (or sceak) maker (woollen mills) ; grease maker (wool combing)
(i) runs sulphuric acid into soapy liquor (containing wool grease) that has been used to wash out fate from raw wool; mixes liquid by mechanical stirring, allows fats to settle out from liquor, which he runs off; puts fat, from which all liquor has been drained, into canvas bags, and squeezes out oil from bags in steam-jacketted hydraulic press; collects oil in barrels, and removes bard cake from bag ready for seak breaker q.v.;
(ii) purifies effluent from silk-cleaning cloth laundry, where silk-cleaning cloths for machinery are washed, by running it into tank and treating it as in (i) above.
sealer, ink bottle
seals filled bottles of ink with sealing wax or with paper seals; sometimes also impresses firm's name, etc., on sealing wax, using hand stamp.
sealing wax maker
tends to pot in which he melts together and mixes by stirring measured quantities of shellac, resin, turpentine, and colouring matter (vermillion, lamp-black, red ochre, ultramarine, etc.), and casts product into sticks; warms up sticks of sealing wax to fuse surface and so gives wax polished appearance.
seed man (seed crushing)
see silo man.
separator, metal and oil (engineering works)
pours used oil from drums into steam-jacketted pans, where it is warmed; opens valve or drives pump passing oil through filter press, to storage tanks for re-use.
settler, fat ; clarifier man
runs off melted fat from digesters into tanks, and settles or clarifies it by shovelling in salt; drains off fat, as it separates, into containers, where it is left for about three days before being dealt with by stearine pressman q.v.
shover-in (seed crushing)
(i) shovels seeds or nuts into hoppers of machines for cleaning, crushing, steaming, or pressing, where automatic feed is not installed;
(ii) see pusher-in.
siever (paint)
shovels or tips powdered colour into hopper of sifting (or sieving) machine, which eliminates insufficiently ground particles; removes powdered colours from machine after they have been sifted, returns large particles to paint millman (152) q.v. for regrinding.
silo man
chamber man, seed man, seed trimmer, trimmer (seed crushing); receives seed from wharf; attends elevators, conveyors and screens; performs general work in silos; shovels seed in silos, etc., so that bucket conveyors are able to pick it up.
size maker (carpet and rug)
prepares size for boiling by combining starch or flour with a softening substance and mixing them in water.
slabber, gelatine ; layer-out (gelatine)
cuts blocks of gelatine, as received from gelatine cutter q.v., into slabs; places gelatine in a frame and cuts by pulling two-handled knife, attached to frame; work sometimes done by gelatine cutter q.v.
soap lees maker
see caustic and spent lye hand (soap).
soap powder maker ; dry soap maker, washing powder maker
general term for any man employed in manufacture of soap powder, including pan man, crutcher and soap powder grinder q.v.
soft soap maker
soft soap boiler: a pan man q.v. who mixes and boils fats and alkalies [sic]; caustic potash must he used and not caustic soda, to produce a soap which at ordinary temperatures is a soft paste.
sorter, bone
sorts hones, before they are boiled, setting aside those which are suitable for brush, making, cutlery handles, etc., and placing rest into a bin for bone crusher q.v.; cf. sorter (manure works) (149).
sorter, gelatine
sorts out into categories, according to quality gelatine required, hones, skins and scraps of hides to be boiled together to make gelatine.
sorter, gum
see picker, gum.
splitter, soap (oil refining)
opening a valve, adds acid to soap emulsion in a soap collecting tank, starts up mechanical stirrer and turns on steam to heat mixture; runs off liquid to settling vats, causing fatty acids to separate out; runs off separating acid and scoops fatty acid from tank.
see dryer, gelatine.
spreader (candles)
spreads candles received from stringer q.v., suspended by their wicks, along rods for cooling and hardening and places in cold air drying chamber.
stamper, sealing wax
presses a steel die into a stick of sealing wax, which has been warmed up to acquire polish, leaving an impression of manufacturer's name, etc., thereon.
stauncher, glue
seals hung holes of tubs or firkins, used for holding glue, soaks tubs in large vat with hot water, removes to drain them, and scrapes up glue drained therefrom for re-use.
stearic acid maker, stearine maker (candle)
general terms for any man engaged in any process necessary for production, refining, and solidifying of stearine or stearic acid, including acidifier (158), autoclave man (158), stearic acid melter, stearine pressman, stearine refiner, etc., q.v.
storage tank man
watches oil tanks to see that conveyor pipes thereto are working properly.
attends stove or drying chamber in which surface of soap is dried by a current of warm air; wheels to and from drying room frames received from stock stripper q.v.; tends fan which blows dry warm air into chamber or exhausts damp air.
stower, cake, bogie man
conveys oil cake or compound cake to warehouse on a truck and stacks it there;
strings together, by their wicks, dip candles, candles of beeswax, or of unusual dimensions, for spreader (candles) q.v.
stripper (candles)
removes cakes of distilled fatty acids from canvas bags in which they have been pressed by stearine pressman q.v.; shakes cakes into trucks ready for transport to vat in which it is to be melted and mixed with wax.
stripper, frame
see stripper, stock.
stripper (seed crushing)
takes oil cake out of presscloth or wrapper, after oil has been expressed by pressman (seed crushing) q.v.; operation frequently performed by puller-out or by parer q.v.
stripper, soap frame
see stripper, stock.
stripper, stock ; frame stripper, soap frame stripper
removes, by unscrewing fasteners, sides and ends of frame, which has been filled with liquid soap by frame filler .v. and allowed to cool and solidify, thus leaving a solid block of soap on a wheeled base.
secures and opens, respectively, before and after compound cake meal cooking, lids of steam jacketted cookers, by screwing and unscrewing.
tank man
attends conveyors and storage tanks in compound cake works; empties sacks, etc., of seeds into tanks or other containers; o-pens valve to pump oil to automatic oil filters from tank containing expressed oil from presses.
taper girl (wax matches)
attends machine in which threads are passed through steam-heated tanks of wax and gum, and through steel dies to remove excess or uneven deposition of wax; machine then passes coated threads slowly backwards and forwards through tank of wax over large revolving drums, and taper girl lowers temperature of tank of wax each time, until enough wax has adhered to threads; replenishes bath of wax at intervals as required.
taper maker (candles)
as for taper girl (wax matches).
teaser assistant
assists teaser attendant q.v. and cleans up teasing machine room.
teaser attendant
feeds teasing machines, which tear up old press bags, used in seed crushing, to make flock for sale to mungo merchants; starts or stops machine by engaging pulley lever; removes flock from machine by hand.
toilet soap maker
a miller (soap) q.v. who makes toilet soap.
trimmer, cake
see parer.
trimmer (seed crushing), seed trimmer
(i) shovels seeds or nuts into machines for cleaning, crushing, steaming, or pressing where automatic feed is not installed;
(ii) shovels seeds so that buckets of bucket conveyor can pick them up;
(iii) see silo man.
trimmer (soap)
using special hand tool, removes any excess of soap from tablets of toilet soap, etc., after they leave stamper (158) q.v. and, using greased pad, polishes tablets if necessary, by hand.
trucker, blue
moves trucks of materials from place to place as required in plant where laundry blue is made.
tub man (candles)
see boiling house man (candles).
valve man ; flood man (seed crushing)
assists oil extractor (158) q.v. attending to valves.
wafer seal maker
shovels powdered gelatine into a steam-jacketted pan, runs in water and turns on steam; adds glycerine, by hand, and stirs mixture with long paddle; when heat reduces liquid to paste, runs or scoops it into glass moulds; starts up electric fan to dry mixture, cuts, when dried, from moulds and feeds to machine which cuts it into wafers.
washer, barrel washer
attends machine in which barrels are washed; places barrel over steam and water jets on revolving table of washing machine; removes washed barrels.
washer, glue
dips slabs of dried glue in water to polish surface.
washer, ink can
washes out mixing cans in which solid ink is mixed with water, or filler cans from which filler (ink) q.v. fills bottles, jars of ink.
washer man
assists gelatine flesher (158) q.v. by washing scraps of leather, skin, hide, etc., after liming and acidifying, to remove traces of acid, by stirring them up in water.
washer, oil washer
operates valves running oil into tank, admitting acid solution under direction of chemist to wash out impurities, and running oil to oil brightening plant.
washer, pan; oil pan washer
washes out pans in oil house by inverting over steam and water jets; cf. mucker-out.
washer (size)
tends boiling vats in which fleshings from tannery are boiled and washed.
washing powder maker
see soap powder maker.
wax taper maker
as for taper girl (wax matches).
weigher, cake
(i) weighs oil cake in each frame as received from parer q.v. and records in weigh book prior to removal to warehouse;
(ii) weighs and records quantities of oil cake leaving warehouse for despatch.
wheeler (vegetable oils)
wheels oil cake into warehouse.
wrapper man (vegetable oils) ; envelope maker
wraps press cloths or wrappers round charge of crushed and steamed seeds before it is placed in hydraulic press.

Back to List of Occupational Codes

From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.