A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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ORDER VI.—WORKERS IN CHEMICAL PROCESSES; MAKERS OF PAINTS, OILS, ETC.

Sub-order 1.—Workers in Chemical Processes

148.—Other Skilled Workers



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acid shop worker (celluloid), acid worker (xylonite factory)
general terms covering persons employed on machine for nitrating cotton, or paper made from cotton, in process of making celluloid or xylonite; may mix nitric and sulphuric acids in cooled tank, weigh out cotton, put it in nitrating pan, and run in acids, and at end of operation, run off acids to denitration plant, etc.; cf. acid worker (143).
alum kieve man
see alum maker.
alum maker ; alum kieve man
shovels alum cake into tank into which he runs water, opens valve admitting steam to steam jacket or coil, thus heating contents of tank; starts up mechanical stirring gear; makes up solution of potassium sulphate in similar way and runs it into tank, stirring contents mechanically during addition; evaporates solution by continuing steam-heating, and by further stirring, causes small, and therefore fairly pure, crystals of alum to settle out; runs off residual liquor and washes crystals and stirs, mechanically, in cold water to remove impurities and adherent liquor.
ammunition maker
general term covering all persons engaged in making ammunition, e.g., composition maker (explosives), dipper (gun cotton), filler (149) q.v.; cf. explosive worker.
annatto maker
natural dye worker, vegetable dye extractor-, extracts annatto, a yellow colouring matter, from pulp round seeds of shrub grown in West Indies; shovels seeds into hopper feeding roller mill; pours in alcohol to dissolve out annatto, which drains into storage tank.
anode man (copper refining) ; anode remover
fits, by hand, thick anodes (blocks) of impure copper into a frame and manipulates gantry to lower frame into copper refining tank containing acid copper sulphate solution; similarly, fits in thin cathodes of pure sheet copper on which electrolytically pure copper is to be deposited; switches on current; using gantry, removes cathodes when sufficiently large and removes anodes, when most of copper has dissolved, leaving impurities mainly for anode, and substitutes fresh block of impure copper as anode.
anode man (gold extracting)
as for anode man (copper refining) except that solution in electrolytic refining tank is gold chloride, and anodes and cathodes are inserted by hand.
anode remover
see anode man (copper refining).
beater (guncotton) ; pulper, pulp maker
tends and operates beating and potching machine, which he feeds by opening valve and running in washed nitro-cotton suspended in water; moves lever to start-up paddles -which tear nitro-cotton into loose uniform condition and free it from grit and other foreign substances; opens valve to allow potched guncotton to flow into huge blending tank; cf. blender (guncotton).
beaterman
see bleacher.
bleacher, bleachman (celluloid) ; beaterman
washes, pulps and bleaches nitro-cellulose to whiten it.
blender (guncotton)
mixes all guncotton made in explosives factory in a day or other suitable period in order to obtain perfect uniformity; opens valves so that as soon as made, in form of slurry with water, it flows by force of gravity through enormous blending tanks, mechanically agitated, to render it uniform throughout; when blended, runs slurry to centrifugal dryers for drying by centrifugaller q.v.; starts and stops agitators as necessary.
blender (cordite)
bundles together various sizes of cordite sticks and ties up with tape; rejects faulty sticks.
blender (gunpowder)
places previously weighed ingredients, i.e. , carbon, saltpetre, etc., in a special mechanically driven motor mill, controlled by hand lever; when materials are sufficiently blended or mixed, removes mixture from mill with scoop by band.
boiler, dyewood liquor
see dyewood extract maker.
borax maker ; borax refiner
one of a gang of men, usually four, who prepare commercially pure borax from native boron compounds by feeding them to grinding machine, and shovelling powdered compound into tanks, running in water, opening valve admitting steam to heating coil or jacket; may stir mechanically to aid solution of soluble borax, allow to settle, and run off dear solution to crystallising tanks to cool and crystallise rake out crystals of borax as formed, or scrape them off sides of tank and strips of lead suspended in liquor.
carmine maker ; cochineal dresser
makes carmine (a colouring matter); shovels cochineal insects into steam jacketted kettle, turns on steam, maintains boiling point temperature for a time, and opens valve to strain off liquid into a vat; runs in water and shovels in lump alum, or runs in alum solution to precipitate colour; opens valve to drain off liquor and washes precipitated colour by running water through vat; dries precipitate by placing it on blotting paper on shelves of drying room.
casein worker
general term applied to workers employed interchangeably in different processes making casein compositions, such as galilith, erinoid, engalith, casoid, etc.
cell room assistant
assists cell room man q.v. in shovelling salt, running in water, starting up stirrer, etc.
cell room man
shovels salt into tank, runs in water and sets mechanical stirring gear in motion, causing salt to go into solution; pumps solution into storage tanks, and pumps it thence to electrolytic cells in which chlorine and sodium hydrate are made; controls flow of solution by means of valves; cf. e.c. worker (143).
centrifugaller
in charge of centrifugal drying machines into which he pumps nitro-cotton, i.e. , guncotton, in suspension in water from blending tanks; starts centrifugal machine which drives out, by centrifugal force, through fine cylindrical sieves, most of water from nitro-cotton; takes dried product out of pan of machine; starts and stops pump and centrifugal machine by means of levers.
chamber man (white lead)
makes white lead by chamber process; hangs strips of metallic lead in a chamber in which he places earthenware pots containing acetic acid; has chamber sealed by hand bricking up doorway land caulking of crevasses with rag, opens valve admitting steam to steam coil, thus heating chamber and by opening another valve fills chamber with carbon dioxide; leaves chamber till lead is corroded by formation of basic lead carbonate or white lead; unseals chamber at conclusion of process and removes corroded lead as lead carbonate to plant where uncorroded lead is extracted by grinding and washing, cf. white lead grinder (149), and beck man (149).
charge man (explosives)
is in charge of process or processes in a workshop in which explosives, or materials for making explosives are prepared or assembled, including shells, cartridges, fuses, primers, detonators; supervises certain skilled workers, e.g. , blenders, incorporators, or himself performs skilled work without supervision.
chemical worker
carries through various processes under direction of process worker (143) q.v. and with assistance of chemical labourers (149) q.v.; duties consist in performing any single process operation in which he is usually skilled, for types of which, see process worker (143).
cobalt dissolver
a chemical worker q.v. who works at a series of pans or tubs in which calcined oxides of cobalt and nickel are dissolved in hydrochloric acid.
cobalt divider
a chemical worker q.v. who works at tubs or vats in which cobalt and nickel arc separated by precipitation.
cochineal dresser
see carmine maker.
composition attendant
assists composition maker (matches) q.v. in weighing and mixing materials for composition in which match sticks are dipped to form heads.
composition maker (detonators, etc.) ; composition mixer, mixer (explosives)
weighs out and mixes, by hand, fulminate of mercury, antimony sulphide, magnesium, aluminium and other compositions for percussion caps, detonators, rockets, lights, flares, star shells, etc.; for machine mixing, cf. composition maker (149).
composition maker (matches)
(i) paraffin, or "strike anywhere" matches , weighs out prescribed amounts of ingredients, i.e. powdered potassium chlorate, phosphorus, glue, and powdered glass or sand, of match composition, and mixes them by hand' stirring, adding a little water to form mixture into a paste;
(ii) safety matches , weighs out ingredients and mixes up composition in two parts, one, in which match sticks are to be dipped, consisting of potassium chlorate and glue, etc., the other, for coating match box, consisting of. phosphorus and glue.
compounder ; ointment maker
weighs out, measures, and mixes in small grinding machine, or with hand pestle and mortar , chemicals, dry or in solution, in making up patent medicines, ointments, perfumes; etc., according to formulae; sometimes specifically designated according to product compounded, e.g. drug compounder, ointment compounder, perfume compounder.
compressor, carbonic acid gas
operates, by hand, gas pump which pumps pure carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide) under pressure through cooled pipes into strong cooled chamber, where gas liquefies at a certain pressure; opens taps in chamber bottom and fills, with liquid, steel cylinders placed thereunder; operates, oils, etc., apparatus pumping brine through cooling pipes.
cooker (gunpowder)
places trays of black powder in stoves, controls, by means of valve, hot water, or air, drying apparatus; shakes trays periodically to present fresh surfaces of powder for drying, and removes trays when powder is dry.
cordite maker
an incorporator q.v. who also adds acetone to assist incorporation of cordite.
cordite paste worker
see moulder, (explosive).
cosmetic maker
a compounder q.v. who weighs out, measures and mixes by hand, or mechanically, ingredients of cosmetics according to formulae.
detonator maker, electric
an explosive worker q.v. who places, by hand, number of metal detonator tubes in a perforated metal holder; inserts holder in machine which automatically fills tubes with high explosive; sometimes inserts, by hand, strip of platinum wire in each tube; withdraws filled cases ready for fuse filler (149) q.v.; cf. detonator filler (149).
digester, digester man (white lead), white lead digester man
pumps acetic acid into wooden tubs or vats containing granulated lead, and pumps out lead acetate solution, when it is sufficiently strong, to carbonators, cf. carbonating man (143), for conversion into white lead; operates pumps by hand lever, oils and cleans them.
dipper (gun cotton)
receives dried cakes of guncotton from nitro-cotton dryer q.v. and dips them, by hand, in bath of incited paraffin wax to obtain protective coating; withdraws and puts aside to cool and solidify wax; regulates valve admitting steam to jacket or bath of paraffin wax, and adds fresh wax as required.
dipper (matches)
(hand dipping ) receives from frame filler (149) q.v. dipping frame containing about 4; 000 match splints, and heats tops, i.e. , heads, of splints by holding frame over heated iron plates; immerses splints, head down, in bath of paraffin, and then in shallow tray of warmed match composition; sets frame aside, in heated room, to dry; fills steam-heated tray with match composition at suitable intervals, and regulates flow of steam to jacket of tray to ensure match composition being kept suitably fluid; (machine dipping ) machinist, machine girl; empties boxes of splints into hopper of machine which conveys match splints automatically, head downwards, in perforated endless belt, over hot metal plate, then into bath of paraffin, and thence over roller which revolves in bath of heated match composition; belt then passes with matches over series of rollers in a heated atmosphere to dry and machine finally ejects finished matches into containers.
displacement man (celluloid) ; spirit dryer
attends apparatus in which water in nitrated cellulose is displaced by alcohol.
display hand (fireworks) ; pyrotechnist
assists at firework display, lighting fuses to fire rockets, set pieces, roman candles, etc., after fixing fireworks on suitable framework, and attaching fuse for purpose of lighting; travels to any part of country as required; when not so engaged, works in factory as a filler (firework) q.v.
dryer, fulminate
pours from container quantities of fulminating powder on to muslin discs placed on table of drying room; switches on electric fan to create air current to dry powder; shakes disc periodically to present fresh surfaces for drying; pours dried powder into vessels for use in detonator mixing.
dryer (gunpowder)
see stoveman (gunpowder).
dryer, nitro-cotton
drives water out of wet guncotton by spreading it on trays in warm air drying stove, removes it from stove when dry; regulates heat of stove by opening or closing valve admitting steam to steam coils; or, by feeding it into a hydraulic press which compresses it into a cake; while cake is still in press, forces alcohol through it, thus driving out residual moisture; removes cakes of guncotton and places them on shelves in current of dry air to remove alcohol.
dryer, spirit
see displacement man (celluloid).
dyewood extract maker ; dyewood liquor boiler
shovels chips of dye wood into tank, runs in water, opens valve admitting steam to steam jacket, and, using a pole, stirs to promote extraction of dye; when most of dye is extracted, opening a valve, runs off liquor and evaporates to small bulk in steam-jacketted tank.
embrocation maker
a compounder q.v. who measures out, weighs, and mixes together various ingredients of embrocation according to formulae.
emulsion maker (photographic)
measures and weighs ingredients of emulsion intended for coating photographic plates, films, or paper; mixes, by hand, in tanks or earthenware bowls, or, more usually, puts ingredients in bins and swatches on power causing bins to revolve; when ingredients are mixed stops and empties bins.
emulsion melter (photographic)
melts sensitive emulsion used for coating plates, films or papers; places silver-lined vessels, containing cooled (jelly) emulsion, in tanks of hot water; opening valve, bubbles steam through water to maintain boiling point; removes vessels when emulsion liquefied.
emulsion washer (photographic)
washes solidified photographic emulsion to remove by-products; places blocks of emulsion in tank, turns on cold water; turns over blocks repeatedly to remove salts in emulsion; after specific period, opening a valve, runs off water and removes blocks from tank for emulsion melter (photographic) q.v.
examiner (cartridges)
see viewer (cartridges).
examiner, fuse
examines fuses to ensure that they are correctly assembled and filled; tests each fuse with gauge and by hand to ensure that fusing pin is properly inserted; usually is in charge of number of detonator fillers (149) q.v.
examiner (perfumery)
(i) (bottling department) inspects filled, uncorked bottles of scent and rejects when foreign bodies present therein; passes forward clear bottles for sealing;
(ii) (packing department) inspects sealed bottles and rejects when unfit for packing.
examiner, semi fuse
examines safety fuses in first stages of manufacture (semi fuse) and rejects faulty work.
explosive worker
general term for any person handling explosives, in manufacture of cartridges or other ammunition, or of rockets, fuses, etc., e.g. , lyddite worker, atlas mixer, filler (fireworks), filler (149) q.v.; cf. ammunition maker.
extractor, indigo ; indigo maker, natural dye worker
extracts indigo from leaves of certain tropical plants; tips leaves into steam-jacketted vats, runs in water, turns on steam to heat water and brings mechanical beating apparatus into action; allows liquor to settle and, opening a valve, runs off clear liquid to waste; removes sediment of indigo and places on floor to dry.
extractor, vegetable dye
see annatto maker.
filler (firework)
fills paper tubes or container with specified quantities of various chemicals as required for different fireworks, ramming home with ramming tool, ready for dubber (149) q.v.
filler, shell ; shell packer
an explosive worker q.v. who (i) opens valve, drawing off into vessel measured quantity of liquid T.N.T.; pours measured quantity into each shell, usually of large calibre;
(ii) places eight small calibre shell cases on holder of Jackson's horizontal extruding machine; adjusts a special screw feed which loads each shell with known weight of explosive; operates machine by lever; removes filled shell cases as they are automatically released by machine.
finisher (cartridges)
is engaged on one of a number of processes for inspection of finished cartridges; uses gauges, etc., to test size and workmanship; may also himself do repetition work, e.g. , inserting cartridges in machine which crimps cartridge case against bullet.
fish guano maker
passes cooked bones, offal, or fish scraps, received from digester man (149) q.v. through a hydraulic press, to squeeze out any condensed steam or grease, and then through a rotary or other drier to dry them ready for use as manure; feeds and empties press and drier, by means of a shovel.
fogsignal maker
as for detonator maker.
fulminating powder maker
makes fulminating powder by pouring a measured quantity of alcohol into a solution of mercury in nitric acid; opening valve in tank, filters off liquor, scoops-out precipitate, places it on muslin frames and allows to dry by leaving in current of cold dry air.
fusee maker
dips, by hand, frame containing wooden match splints into slow burning composition; removes to drying room and, when heads are set, tips them with match composition' by another dipping operation.
gauger (erinoid)
using a gauge, measures thickness of sheets and blocks of casein; marks and sorts them in readiness for further processes in manufacture of erinoid, e.g. dyeing, mottling; may also test, with gauge, moulded articles of erinoid.
gelatine man (explosives)
see incorporator (cordite).
granulator
(i) see pill and tablet maker;
(ii) (gunpowder); feeds a machine with cakes of compressed gunpowder, in order to crush them into granules; operates machine by hand lever and conveys delivery hopper containing crushed gunpowder to stoveman (gunpowder) q.v.;
(iii) (T.N.T.); granulates trinitroluene by causing large water cooled metal cylinders to revolve in a tray of melted explosive; the machine scrapes off solidified T.N.T. on cylinder in flakes by means of an adjustable knife; flakes fall down hopper into packing room below; replenishes supply of explosive at intervals, runs cold water into cylinders, starts-up cylinders and admits steam or hot water to jacket which keeps explosive melted.
graphiter (explosives)
coats granular explosives, usually gunpowder, with graphite, by putting granules into a revolving cylinder and adding finely powdered graphite; scoops coated granules from cylinder and passes through sieve by hand.
grinder ; miller
feeds and attends to grinding mill to reduce chemicals or raw materials to powder form, to prepare them for sale or for further chemical action; shovels materials into hopper; adjusts and oils machine; sometimes specifically designated according to product ground, e.g. drag grinder, dry grinder (vitreous enamel), dyewood grinder, indigo grinder, logwood grinder, madder grinder, ware grinder.
hydrogen bench attendant (airship station)
in charge of bench where hydrogen is extracted from water gas by cooling and compression of carbon monoxide; attends to refrigerating and compressing pump and removal of liquid carbon monoxide; attends to valves supplying water gas and controls flow of residual hydrogen from plant to gas holder.
incorporator ; gelatine man (explosives), gelatine mixer, paste maker (explosives), paste mixer (cordite)
feeds measured or weighed quantities ef constituent parts of various explosives into incorporating machine, a type of dough-making machine, starts-up machine and attends to it during incorporation which he continues for set period, usually six hours, when dough formed is homogeneous throughout, ready for moulder q.v.; cordite, guncotton, gunpowder, and nitro glycerine powder are usual explosives to be incorporated, and, in case of cordite, incorporator adds acetone to assist incorporation.
incorporator, detonator; incorporator (electric detonator)
as for composition maker.
indigo maker
see extractor, indigo.
inspector
see viewer (cartridges).
inspector, cylinder (oxygen, etc.)
examines valves, jets, etc., of gas cylinders] taps cylinders with hammer to ensure not cracked and supervises gas cylinder fillers (149) q.v. in factory making oxygen, hydrogen or gases other than coal gas.
jet man (artificial silk)
attends to jets through which he forces liquid viscose which emerges as a fine thread, prior to spinning artificial silk therefrom; cf. spinner (143).
leading hand (explosives)
a leading chemical worker q.v. on one of the processes in explosives manufacture, levigator; shovels weighed quantities of finely ground naturally occurring pigments, native earths, into tank; opening a valve, runs in water, and starts-up mechanical stirrer thus causing finer particles to float in suspension in water; runs off water containing these finer particles, again runs in pure water and repeats operation three or four times; allows liquor containing fine particles to stand in tank till particles settle out, runs off liquid and shovels fine mud into trucks to be dried; with hose pipe, washes hard sediment left in first tank into waste pipe.
lozenge cutter, medicated
see pill and tablet maker.
machine girl (matches)
see dipper (matches).
machine hand (gunpowder)
general term covering chemical workers in charge of a machine, e.g. beater (guncotton), washer q.v.
machine man (fertiliser)
attends and operates disintegrators, elevators, and other machines used in manufacture of fertilisers, e.g. shovels constituents into conveyor buckets; shovels bones, offal into disintegrator; starts, stops and regulates speed of machines.
machinist (matches)
see dipper (matches).
miller
see grinder ; sometimes specifically designated according to product milled, e.g. dyewood miller, logwood miller, madder miller.
mixer (celluloid)
(i) puts nitro-cellulose, camphor and spirit into kneading machines which knead them together into a dough; controls machines by means of hand levers and removes kneaded dough;
(ii) puts scrap celluloid with camphor and measured quantity of spirit into kneading machines, and works it up again into a dough; cf. pot shop man.
mixer, composition (detonators, etc.)
see composition maker.
mixer, dry (pills)
(i) a mixer (chemicals) (149) q.v. who mixes paste in machine, and coats pills as they issue from hardening machine, in a revolving pan; meanwhile controls work of operatives attending piping machine, cutting machine, and hardening machine; may be responsible for ensuring that correct proportions of prescribed substances are used or may work on written instructions from, or, under direct supervision of chemist;
(ii) a mixer (chemicals) (149) q.v. who prepares sugar base of pills in mixing machine; impregnates pill base with tincture by pouring tincture into bottle in which be previously puts pills, bottle Is agitated mechanically in special bottle-shaking apparatus; subsequently hardens and coats pills by placing them in revolving copper cylinders adding sweet tasting powder to form coat of pill.
mixer (erinoid)
mixes, by hand or machine, specific proportions of casein and dye for manufacture of erinoid.
mixer (explosives)
(i) see composition maker;
(ii) weighs ingredients for explosive, places them into mixing bag, mixes them thoroughly and removes mixture from bag for conveyance to incorporating mill; during mixing, leaves building and operates mixing bag by means of control levers outside building;
(iii) cf. hand mixer (explosives) (143).
mixer, gelatine (explosives)
see incorporator.
mixer, non-chlorate composition (matches) ; non-chlorate composition maker, painter (matches)
a composition maker q.v. who weighs constituents for composition, sometimes called friction paint, to be applied to sides of safety match boxes, mixes with hand trowel, completes mixing in small ball grinding machine, and renders fluid by hand treatment in shallow tray.
mixer, spirit
is in charge of spirit shop in celluloid or xylonite factory; measures out and dissolves camphor in spirit or toluol, and prepares solvents and solutions for use in manufacture of celluloid, xylonite, etc.; keeps record of spirit issued and stock in hand; usually assisted by spirit shop worker (119) q.v.
mixer, wet (liquid medicines)
a mixer (chemicals) (149) q.v. who assembles ingredients and mixes prescribed constituents of liquid medicines, under supervision of qualified chemist.
moulder, charge moulder (explosive) ; cordite paste worker, press chargeman
feeds and attends a machine which expresses cordite paste, from incorporating house, through holes in a cylindrical die, forming a cord, tape or stick, which is wound on reels as made; inserts die and operates plunger.
natural dye worker
(i) see annatto maker;
(ii) see extractor, indigo.
non-chlorate composition maker
see mixer, non-chlorate composition.
ointment maker
see compounder.
packer, shell
see filler, shell.
painter (matches)
see mixer, non-chlorate composition.
paste maker (explosives)
see incorporator.
paste mixer (cordite)
see incorporator.
perfumer, perfumery maker
(i) a compounder q.v. who makes perfumes from imported aromatic bases, by mixing these so that desired odour is obtained, and diluting resulting liquor with spirits; runs scent into drums for removal to store where scent is aged;
(ii) a distiller (142).q.v. making artificial perfumery by distillation of chemicals.
pill and tablet maker ; granulator, medicated lozenge cutter
weighs, mixes and grinds, with pestle and mortar, drug or chemical with its base (French chalk, etc.), moistens it with pure gum arabic, mixes and sifts it until mixture becomes sufficiently granulated to pass through pill or tablet-making machine and adhesive enough to bind under pressure; dries granulated powder on sheets of blotting paper in hot chamber; feeds into automatic pill or tablet-making machine; sometimes coats with powdered sugar in small revolving barrel, and polishes in similar barrel.
pot shop man, pot shop worker, potter ; re-worker (celluloid, scrap shop worker (celluloid)
places scrap or waste celluloid after it has been cut up, in steam-jacketted heating pans, and works up material into a lower grade- celluloid; cf. mixer (celluloid).
press chargeman
see moulder, charge.
presser, pressman (guncotton)
controls valve which runs guncotton slurry, i.e. guncotton suspended in water, from blending tanks into powerful hydraulic press; operates press when full of slurry, squeezes out water and makes cakes of wet guncotton.
presser, pressman (gunpowder)
an explosive worker q.v. who shovels or pours milled gunpowder into a hydraulic press box and moves levers which charge and operate press forming cakes of gunpowder, ready for granulator (gunpowder) q.v.; removes cakes of gunpowder.
pressman (naphthalene)
feeds, operates and attends powerful hydraulic press in which naphthalene is compressed to drive out residual oils which adhere, after naphthalene has crystallised out from middle oils, i.e., second fraction obtained from coal tar distillation; removes cakes of naphthalene from press.
pressman in acid shop (celluloid)
operates press through which nitrated cellulose is passed in acid shop or nitrating department.
prussian blue maker
shovels known weight of yellow prussiate of potash into tank, runs in water and stirs mechanically, runs in solution of ferric (iron) compound, and stirs again to ensure mixing of two liquids, allows liquor to stand and thus causes brilliant blue precipitate to .settle out, runs off liquor and stirs precipitate with water to purify it, runs off washing water, and shovels out precipitate Prussian blue, to drain and dry; feeds dried blue to grinding mill to reduce it to powder.
pulper, pulp maker
see beater (guncotton).
pyretic saline maker
a compounder q.v. who prepares pyretic saline by weighing out and mixing suitable chemicals according to formula and sometimes granulating or crystallising product.
pyridine man
a chemical worker q.v. who assists pyridine maker (143) q.v. .
pyrotechnist
(i) see display hand (fireworks); cf. pyrotechnist (149).
rasper (dyewoods)
rubs dyewoods with a metal rasp by hand to break them up into dust; cf. logwood grinder.
refiner, borax
see borax maker.
refiner, camphor
shovels known weight of camphor into tank, opens valve admitting known volume of alcohol and starts up mechanical stirrer; runs solution into crystallising tank to drive-off alcohol from crystals in steam-heated vessel; removes crystals, on a shovel, from tank; turns on steam to vapourise alcohol which passes over into coil of condenser and is ready for use again; is assisted by camphor shop worker (149) q.v.
refiner, ochre
a levigator q.v. who, refines ochre, a natural pigment occurring as a yellowish or reddish; earth, by levigation.
re-worker (celluloid)
see pot shop man.
sampler
samples all raw materials, collects samples of half finished products, during process, and of finished products, and takes them to laboratory for analysis; is sometimes an unqualified laboratory worker who does elementary tests in bleach, vitriol, soda ash process, etc.
scrap shop worker (celluloid)
see pot shop man.
stoveman, stover (gunpowder) ; dryer (gunpowder)
an explosive worker q.v. who, using a scoop, fills trays with granulated gunpowder; places trays on drying room shelves, regulates hot air switch, valves of pipes supplying hot air to stoves, etc., and shakes trays periodically to present fresh surface of gunpowder for drying; cf. granulator (gunpowder).
sulphur man (powder mill)
a grinder q.v. who feeds and attends mill grinding brimstone in gunpowder manufacture; may also grind saltpetre and charcoal.
temperature man (explosives)
controls temperature at which an action takes place in explosive factory, by opening or shutting valve which regulates supply of steam, cold water, brine, etc., through coils in, or jackets round vessel in which process is taking place; carefully watches thermometer which registers temperature of contents of vessel.
tester, gas cylinder
tests gas cylinders by attaching them to powerful hydraulic pump with pressure gauge attached, opens valve which slowly increases pressure in cylinder until certain standard is reached; strikes cylinder smartly with sledge hammer to ensure that it will not break when jolted; lowers cylinder into a water-filled brick testing chamber and applies still higher pressure.
tooth powder maker
a compounder q.v. who, working from formula, mixes by grinding, weighed amounts of china clay, antiseptic powder and aromatic compounds; feeds and empties grinding machine, by shovelling; operates machine by hand lever.
treatment maker (glycerine recovery)
mixes chemicals used for treating lye, i.e., by-product of soap making, in preparation for recovery of glycerine therefrom.
tub room man, cobalt tub room man
general terms for any worker employed at or about dissolving and precipitating tubs and tanks, including cobalt dissolver, cobalt divider q.v.
turner, logwood
turns logwood chips over with a shovel to assist oxidation, prior to use of chips for extraction or dyes.
viewer (cartridges), cartridge viewer ; examiner, inspector
overlooks work in progress to discover defects; sometimes also gauges cartridges, using ring or rule gauge, to detect incorrectness of machine work; cf. gauger (279).
white lead maker
general term for any person engaged in making white lead hy any process.
wringer (guncotton)
removes excess of acid or water from guncotton in a centrifugal machine; places guncotton in machine, switches on power, stops machine and removes dried guncotton.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.