A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
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Sub-order 1.—Makers of Bricks, Pottery and Earthenware

105.—Potters; Ware-Makers, Casters and Finishers

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art-ware maker
a caster, jollier, presser or thrower (q.v.) who makes ornamental articles.
baker maker, earthenware baker maker
a presser (q.v.) who shapes clay into the form of a deep oval article, called a "baker," by hand pressing.
basin maker
a jollier (q.v.) who makes basins with a jolley.
bath maker
a sanitary ware maker (q.v.) who makes baths usually by pressing, but occasionally by casting, bath maker, earthenware; a sanitary ware maker (q.v.) who makes baths of earthenware; (rarely done, baths usually made of fireclay).
borer ; piercer
bores holes by hand, using steel pointed tool, in soap drainers, fish-dish drainers, at the base of teapot spouts, and in other perforated or hollow articles of clayware.
bowl maker
generally a jollier (q.v.) who makes bowls by jolleying process; may mould by hand or by jiggering process.
bowl maker, hand
a hollow-ware presser (q/v.) who specialises in pressing large bowls for toilet sets, etc.
bowl maker, lavatory
a caster or presser (q.v.) who makes lavatory sanitary ware either by casting or by pressing.
bowl maker, muffin
a jollier or a presser (q.v.) who makes small bowls, e.g. , sugar howls, known in the trade as "muffin" bowls.
box maker
a presser or jollier (q.v.) who makes earthenware boxes for potted meats, tooth pastes, etc.
bust maker
as for figure maker.
capsule maker
a thrower, presser or jollier (q.v.) who makes small fireclay crucibles called capsules.
pours clay or fire-clay "slip," i.e. , clay ground in water, into moulds, which are sometimes revolved on a whirler during pouring; when enough clay has been deposited on inside surface of mould, rest of slip is poured out; and mould, with clay adhering thereto, is taken to drying room; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. , china caster, earthenware caster, hollow-ware caster, parian caster, sanitary caster.
castor maker ; sofa runner maker, stone roller maker
a turner (q.v.) who places a long tube of clay, formed by throwing or by casting, on lathe, and shapes it into small perforated cylinders, known as castors, runners, or rollers, by applying a steel tool thereto as it rotates on lathe.
china dish maker
a flat presser (q.v.) who makes china ware dishes, generally by method of pressing.
china door furniture maker
a pressor or turner (q.v.) who makes finger panels, door knobs, etc., by pressing or by turning; sometimes specifically designated, e.g. , china knob maker.
clay worker
general term for any worker engaged in preparing clay, or shaping articles therefrom, up to first firing (when clay ceases to be plastic), including presser, jollier (q.v.).
closet maker
a caster or a presser (q.v.) who makes pans for closets by casting in a mould or by pressing.
cover maker
a jollier (q.v.) who makes covers for dishes.
cupel maker
a thrower (q.v.) who makes cupels, i.e. , small crucibles used in assaying precious metals, by throwing, on potters' wheel, a paste composed principally of bone ash.
cup maker
a jollier (q.v.) who makes cups on a single or double cup jolley; may sometimes be a thrower, turner or caster (q.v.).
dish maker
a flat presser (q.v.) who makes dishes on a jigger or by pressing.
domestic utensil maker
a jollier (q.v.) who makes domestic utensils usually on a jolley.
a fettler (q.v.) who smoothes edges and joints of clay ware articles with a knife, leather or sponge before firing.
edger, tile edger ; fettler, tile fettler, finisher
trims edges of tiles, and smoothes out slight defects with a palette knife, also removes excess of glaze from tiles after dipping; cf. ware cleaner (118).
electrical fittings maker, electrical ware maker
a die presser, caster or a jollier (q.v.) who makes electrical accessories with a die press, or, more rarely, by casting or by jolleying.
electrical furniture maker
a presser (q.v.) who makes electrical fittings of earthenware, usually in a hand or mechanical press, by compression of powdered clay; in some cases, work may be done by throwing, see thrower.
encaustic ware maker ; encaustic tile maker
a presser (q.v.) who makes tiles and other articles which are to be finished in an unglazed state and which are usually made of clays of different colours, and inlaid to form a pattern. .
fettler, fettler of clay ware ; trimmer
assists jollier, caster or presser (q.v.) by smoothing rough edges of articles before they are fired, and my removing irregularities with a knife, leather or sponge.
fettler, sanitary pipe fettler ; finisher
fettles or trims drain pipes; mounts pipes on a vertical or horizontal cylinder turned slowly by mechanical power; applies small rubber or sponge to surface to smooth it and remove defects; removes cracks with a knife, makes grooves in socket and on spigot.
fettler, tile fettler
see edger, tile.
figure maker
a caster (q.v.) who makes statuettes by casting; or, more rarely, a presser (q.v.) who makes them by pressing.
moulds relief figures for plastic decoration of pottery; as for flowerer.
(i) see fettler, sanitary pipe;
(ii) see edger, tile.
finisher, terra cotta
a fettler (q.v.) who finishes, or makes perfect, defective pieces of terra cotta ware, by hand, with steel and wooden tools, after they have been taken from mould and before they are fired in kiln.
finisher, terra cotta ornamental; ornamental finisher (terra cotta)
applies hand-modelled ornament to terra cotta ware requiring highly ornate figures or floral decoration, after article lias been removed from mould by moistening the clay and pressing on to the article.
flat ware maker
a jiggerer or a flat presser (q.v.) who makes flat ware, e.g. , plates, etc., either by jiggering or pressing.
makes relief flowers for plastic decoration of pottery by pressing clay into a mould with the hands.
flower pot maker, garden pot maker
a thrower (q.v.) who makes flower pots.
gulley maker
a drain-pipe maker (q.v.) who makes gulleys for sewers.
handle maker, handle man, handler
makes handles for cups, jugs, teapots, etc., by pressing clay into a mould with the hands, and fixes them on to ware by moistening both ware and handle and pressing them together.
hollow-ware maker
general term for any worker engaged in making pottery hollow-ware, including hollow-ware caster, hollow-ware jollier, hollow-ware presser (q.v.).
hollow-ware squeezer
see presser, hollow-ware.
insulator maker
a presser (q.v.) who makes electrical porcelain insulators.
jigger, jiggerer
makes flat-ware such as plates, saucers; presses hat of clay on top of mould, already revolving on vertical spindle; smooths top surface with hand; brings down profile tool on to clay, thus shaping outside of flat ware, the mould shaping inside; cf. jollier.
jiggerer, sanitary
a jiggerer (q.v.) who makes sanitary appliances on jigger machine; work usually done by sanitary presser (q.v.).
jigger turner
turns jigger by hand, where mechanical power is not available, for jiggerer or jollier (q.v.) by means of a wheel which drives a belt connected with the jigger.
makes hollow-ware by pressing bat or slab of clay into a plaster of Paris mould, which revolves on a vertical spindle; starts spindle and mould revolving and regulates speed; fixes profile tool in clamp and forms inner surface of article by pulling down profile tool into mould as clay revolves (outside being formed by mould): mould and article are then removed to stove by runner (119) (q.v.); cf. jigger.
junction maker
a pipe maker (q.v.) who specialises in making junctions for drain pipes.
majolica maker
makes, by casting, by pressing, or other process, tiles or other articles to he glazed with majolica glazes.
see presser ; (term used in London and elsewhere, but not in N. Staffs).
muffin maker ; muffin turner
a presser or jiggerer (q.v.) who makes small dates, technically called "muffins," by pressing or by jiggering.
ornamental basket maker (earthenware)
a pressor or a caster (q.v.) who makes baskets of earthenware by pressing or, for cheaper baskets, by casting.
decorates high-class ware by applying relief designs to ware in clay state.
pan maker
a presser or a jollier (q.v.) who makes kitchen pans by pressing or by casting.
parian maker, parian marble maker
a caster (q.v.) who casts parian ware, a ceramic ware resembling unglazed biscuit, used for statuettes, etc.
see borer.
pimlico maker
a presser (q.v.) who makes small pottery rings, used for thread to run through in textile machinery, usually in a hand press by compression of powdered clay.
pipe maker, drain pipe maker, earthenware pipe maker, sanitary pipe maker, sewerage pipe maker
makes drain pipes by operating pipe making machine; pulls lever to drive plunger; directs workers filling cylinder with clay and removing pipes when made; oils working parts of machine and watches proper working.
pipe machinist, sanitary
see pipe maker.
plaque maker
a presser (q.v.) who makes plaques usually by flat pressing.
a presser or a jollier (q.v.) who makes plates either by flat pressing or by jolleying.
potter, clay potter
(i) general terms for a worker shaping articles of pottery in the clay state;
(ii) sometimes used in an even more general sense, as applying to any person employed in any occupation in a pottery.
pottery furniture maker
makes finger plates, door knobs, castors, and similar articles, usually in a mechanical press by compression of powdered clay.
presser ; moulder
makes articles by pressing clay into mould; when two or more moulds are needed for one article, fills one mould, straps on another and fills it, and so on, to make complete article; rubs joints in clay smooth with a sponge.
presser, die presser
makes tiles and other articles by placing finely disintegrated clay dust, which is slightly moistened, in a screw-driven press; releases wheel which presses die into box containing the clay dust and compresses it; occasionally, for certain types of tiles, uses plaster clay.
presser, flat
makes plates and other flat articles by pressing on a mould, to form inside of article, clay which has previously been made into a "bat" by batter (119) (q.v.).
presser, hollow-ware ; hollow-ware squeezer
a presser (q.v.) who makes bowls, jugs, vases, pots, and other similar articles by pressing clay into moulds.
presser, plastic
a presser (q.v.) who works plastic clay with the hands into a mould rotating on a whirler, until mould is full.
presser, sanitary
makes certain classes of sanitary goods by pressing j prepared fire-clay paste into a mould, usually of plaster of Paris, with his hands, using simple pads and other j tools; examines partially dried article, touches up defects and smooths out roughness or small cracks.
presser, terra cotta
a presser (q.v.) who makes articles of terra cotta by pressing plastic terra cotta clay, i.e., a brown clay of special consistency, with the hands, using simple pads and other tools, in a mouldy which contains shape and decoration of article.
presser, tile
tile maker, dust tile maker: a die presser (q.v.) engaged in making tiles. .
red ware maker
makes, by throwing, pressing or other process, articles such as breadpans, etc. out of red clays round in various districts.
rum and vinegar jar maker
a thrower (q.v.) who makes jars for bottling rum or vinegar
saddle maker
a die presser (q.v.) who makes saddles, or strips of clay with sharp edges, on which ware rests while in sagger, i.e.. fireclay box in which ware is placed for firing.
sanitary tube maker
as for sanitary ware maker
sanitary ware maker, sanitary appliance maker, sanitary vessel maker
(i) general terms for workers engaged in making articles of sanitary ware by any process, including sanitary caster, sanitary presser (q.v.);
(ii) makes large articles, baths, tanks, by gradually building them up, with lumps of clay by hand, with or without the use of moulds.
saucer maker
a jiggerer (q.v.) making saucers.
a fettler (q.v.) who trims, by hand with a knife, each piece of scolloped ware, in "green" or clay state, before it is passed to sponger or clay-ware (q.v.).
shuttle eye maker
a die presser (q.v.) who makes small earthenware or porcelain rings, or "eves," for shuttles of weaving looms, by pressing damn clay dust, i.e., finely disintegrated clay, in a die.
silica ware maker
a potter (q.v.) making silica ware, i.e., high class earthenware pottery of silica.
sink maker, kitchen sink and trough maker
a presser or caster (q.v.'! who makes sinks and troughs usually by pressing till sometimes by casting.
slip decorator
applies a pattern to pottery in the green state by blowing on coloured clay slips, e.g., by tube lining (cf. tube liner), or by "pate-sur-pate" method, i.e., by squeezing on a design in clay on surface of article.
(i) see sponger of clay ware;
(ii) see sponger, flat; cf. smoother (118).
sofa runner maker
see castor maker.
sponger of clay ware ; smoother
removes, with a damp sponge, any unevenness from ware in clay state, i.e., before firing.
sponger, flat ; smoother
a sponger of clay ware (q.v.) who rubs smooth any joins or inequalities in ware made by flat presser, plate maker or saucer maker (q.v.), in preparation for drying and firing.
spout maker
a caster or presser (q.v.) who makes snouts of teapots, jugs, etc., and fixes them on to article with damp clay.
spur maker
a die presser (q.v.) who makes little earthenware "spurs" used to support articles which have boon dipped or enamelled, and to keep them separate during subsequent firing
(i) fastens handles and spouts on to teapots, cups, jugs, etc., usually done by handle maker or spout maker (q.v.);
(ii) puts together large ornamental articles made in two or more nieces, by moistening each nice# and pressing together;
(iii) fastens relief flowers, which have been moulded, on to ornaments.
stilt maker
a die presser (q.v.) who; makes "stilts" used to support dipped ware during glost firing, to prevent articles sticking together when glaze melts; cf. spur maker.
stone bottle maker
a thrower or a presser (q.v.) who makes stoneware bottles, e.g., ginger beer bottles, hot water bottles, ink bottles, etc.
stone roller maker
see castor maker.
stoneware maker
a jollier, a thrower, a caster or a presser (q.v.) who makes jam jars, insulators, beer bottles and other similar articles of "stoneware," i.e.. ware made from clays having a large proportion of free silica, and usually requiring only a single firing; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., brown stoneware maker.
table maker (sanitary ware)
a sanitary caster (q.v.) or a sanitary caster (q.v.) who makes lavatory basins, known in the trade as "tables."
tap and bend maker
a presser or a caster (q.v.) who makes taps, bent pipes, etc., of china, porcelain, or earthenware, used as fittings for vessels for holding acids.
teapot maker
a caster or a jollier (q.v.) who makes teapots by casting or by jolleying.
terminal maker
a presser or a caster (q.v.) who makes porcelain terminals for electrical work.
terra cotta doctor
doctors, or makes good, faulty pieces of terra cotta ware after they have been fired in kiln, by filling in or "stopping" holes or other imperfections with a mixture of plaster of Paris and clay slip, coloured or stained to match body of ware, using a knife or small stick of wood.
thimble maker
a die presser (q.v.) who makes "thimbles" of clay, which fit into one another, and are used to support, and to keep separated, dipped ware while it is being fired; cf. saddle maker, spur maker, stilt maker.
thrower, throwster
works on a ball of clay rotating on a small revolving table or "thrower's wheel," and fashions therewith all kinds of artistic shapes with his hands, generally without using any tools, tile maker,see presser, tile; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., decorated tile maker, faience tile maker, fancy tile maker, glazed tile maker, tesselated tile maker, vitreous tile maker.
tile maker, bisque
a tile presser (q.v.) who makes porcelain tiles which are not to be glazed.
tile maker, dust
see presser, tile.
tile maker, enamel
a tile presser (q.v.) who makes tiles which are afterwards decorated with enamel, i.e., "on glaze" decoration.
tile maker, encaustic
see encaustic ware maker.
smoothes clay ware articles, after they have been made, by pressing a piece of tow against them while they revolve on a small round table upon which is fixed a mould covered with canvas to hold the articles in position; manipulates revolving table by means of pulley gear worked with the knee.
trap maker
a sanitary caster or a sanitary presser (q.v.) who makes drain traps and pans for water closets either by casting or by pressing.
see fettler.
trough maker
a sanitary caster or a sanitary presser (q.v.) who makes troughs, either by casting or by pressing.
tube liner
a slip decorator (q.v.) who blows coloured slip through a tube on to ware while it is on lathe; sometimes done by turner (q.v.).
turner ; twirler
smooths jolleyed, pressed or thrown ware by pressing a steel tool against it as it revolves on a lathe; often also does work of slip decorator (q.v.); sometimes specifically designated, e.g., china turner, china knob turner.
turner, insulator
a turner (q.v.) who turns electrical porcelain insulators on a lathe, after they have been thrown or pressed by insulator maker (q.v.). to complete shaping process and to produce a smooth finish before they are fired.
turner, muffin
see muffin maker.
see turner.
urinal maker
a caster or a presser (q.v.) who makes urinals by casting or by pressing.
vessel maker
a presser (q,v.) who makes large vessels to hold acids, generally by pressing.
ware maker
general term for any operative engaged in making pottery from clay in plastic state; includes plate maker , saucer maker, ewer maker, basin maker, bowl maker, dish maker, muffin maker; does not include those who make articles from liquid clay, or slip, by moulding process.

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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921,
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016.   This text is in the Public Domain.