A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
ORDER II.—AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS
Sub-order 1.—Agricultural Occupations
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- general term for any person engaged in, or skilled in, agriculture, either in theory or practice; term seldom applied to manual workers.
- Scottish term, rents dairy stock of farm, with, pasture and fodder, paying rent out of its produce; or gives labour as his share and divides profits with proprietor of stock.
- breeder, horse
- see farmer, stud.
- breeder, pheasant
- see farmer, game.
- breeder, pig
- breeds and rears pigs on a farm or small holding; usually works himself and directs one or more labourers in grinding cereals, pulping roots and otherwise preparing foodstuffs, cleaning pig sties, putting pigs out to graze, tending sows in farrow; attends market for buying or selling of foodstuffs and stock; may cultivate on farm roots and cereals for foodstuffs.
- a dairy farmer (q.v.) who keeps cows for the production of cheese; supervises cheesemakers in dairy (022).
- cottager (own account)
- a skilled independent agricultural worker, who takes work by contract.
- Scottish Highlands and Islands; "tenant of a holding, being arable or pasture land, from year to year, who resides on his holding, the annual rent of which does not exceed £30 in money, and which is situated in a crofting parish" (vide Crofters' Holding Acts); in many coastal districts and on some islands is partly dependent upon fishing.
- cultivates cereal and other crops and/or raises animals or birds for food on a tract of land, owned or leased for the purpose; usually, according to climate, produces annual crops of wheat, oats and other cereals, turnips, beet and other roots, clover, grasses and other green cattle foods, hard and soft fruits; also raises herds of cattle, flocks of sheeps [sic], etc., on grazing land, and breeds and maintains horses for work on the farm; breeds poultry of various kinds for eggs and table birds; directs workers engaged on various farming operations, e.g. ploughing, harrowing, sowing, planting, manuring, hoeing, weeding, reaping, carting, stacking, threshing, lifting and storing of root crops, pruning and spraying of fruit trees, feeding and care of cattle, sheep, poultry; attends at various markets for purchase or sale of produce, animals, seed and equipment; frequently assisted by farm bailiff or foreman (015) (q.v.); often specifically designated according to branch of agriculture, e.g., cattle farmer, chicken farmer, dairy farmer, fruit farmer, poultry farmer, sheep farmer, stock farmer.
- farmer, dairy
- a farmer (q.v.) who keeps cows for production of milk for market; may also make butter and cheese.
- farmer, game
; pheasant breeder
- breeds pheasants and other game birds for sporting purposes; sells eggs and young chicks to estate owners; is interested in improvement of strain and production of new types; shows birds at poultry shows.
- farmer, horse
- see farmer, stud.
- farmer, poultry
; poultry breeder, poultry rearer
- rears and keeps poultry, i.e., chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys, etc.; sells eggs and birds to dealers; may also kill birds before selling and pluck and dress the bodies.
- farmer, stud
; horse breeder, horse farmer;
- a farmer (q.v.) who breeds thoroughbreds or hackneys in conjunction with carrying on ordinary farm work; usually grows and stacks hay and oats for consumption on farm.
- puts cattle to graze on pasture land but does not breed nor (as a rule) fatten them.
- hop grower
- a farmer (q.v.) who specialises in growing hops; directs work of hop ground labourers (024) (q.v.) and superintends drying of hops in oast house.
- little holder
- see small holder.
- potato grower
- a farmer (q.v.) who specialises in growing potatoes for market.
- poultry breeder, poultry rearer
- see farmer, poultry; sometimes specifically designated, e.g., duck breeder, turkey breeder.
- see stock breeder.
- seed grower
- cultivates plants, cereals, etc., on a farm; collects seed and sells to seed dealers; ploughs, harrows, rolls, drills and hoes; cf. seed grower (013).
- small holder
; little holder
- a farmer (q.v.) who farms a holding or small piece of land not exceeding an annual rental value of £50, and usually not exceeding fifty acres in extent.
- statesman, stater
- Cumberland and part of Northumberland, see yeoman; obsolescent.
- stock breeder, stock raiser
- a cattle farmer (q.v.) engaged wholly or mainly in raising cattle.
- strawberry grower
- a farmer (q.v.) who grows strawberries for market; propagates plants by layering runners; lays straw round plants before fruiting to protect berries.
- a grazier (q.v.) who takes cattle or sheep in agistment, i.e. receives cattle and sheep for grazing in return for fee.
- teazle grower
- a small farmer (q.v.) who cultivates teazles, the prickly flower heads of which are used to raise nap on cloth; sows seeds in spring, transplanting seedlings when large enough; when flower heads of two year old matured plants are ready, cuts off the stalks bearing teazles to a length of 9 inches; ties them roughly into bundles, i.e. rough gleanings, and puts them on poles to dry in the fields or in open sheds, until seeds fall readily from flower heads; supervises bundling of gleanings by teazle maker-up (039) (q.v.)
; stater, statesman;
- (Cumberland and part of Northumberland) a farmer (q.v.) who owns and cultivates small farm.
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From: A Dictionary of Occupational Terms Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921
Ministry of Labour, 1927. Digitised by Peter Christian, August, 2016. This text is in the Public Domain.